Typically, collaboration can be internal or external; in contemporary extended organizations, however, these firm boundaries are increasingly flexible. For example, economies today rely heavily on outsourcing, and therefore all processes must allow for some degree of external collaboration. This is also true when considering the importance of collaboration in the supply chain and the adoption of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) in general.
1. Improving communication flow and knowledge exchange
2. Making organizational processes more efficient
3. Effectively leveraging and making use of the social capital; that is, the hidden network of resources that is available to any organization via the social networks but that too often is tacit and hidden due to lack of social knowledge and communication
Transcending the boundaries ( ORGANIZATIONAL/INFORMATION)
A Dynamic Theory of Collaboration , Laura Black
C ollaboration, knowledge, and trust are actually part of a wider and complex dynamic model. There they assert that “the domain of IT inherently crosses boundary, therefore requires a high degree of collaboration.”
Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System
(1) system components can change internal states by interacting with other components
(2) the rules of behavior change dynamically following interaction.
The complexity of open, flexible social systems is increased by a higher number of participants, with each participant covering multiple roles, heterogeneous environments, different languages, and cultures. Given a social system formed by an unlimited number of actors, which in turn have unlimited interaction potential, the resulting picture looks somewhat chaotic.
Collaboration is a driver in promoting a shift in thinking where the question is no longer about setting boundaries but rather about transcending them.
This leads to another fact that is becoming obvious across all sciences: the blurring of cognitive boundaries as they have been imposed by “conventional” value systems. It’s becoming accepted that, realistically, nothing simply fits a single category anymore; everything is in a state of flux and changing fast.
INTERDISCIPLINARITY Disciplinary: Epistemologies, assumptions, knowledge, skills, methods within the boundary of a discipline. g. Physics; History; Psychology Multidisciplinary: Using the knowledge/understanding of more than one discipline. eg Physics and History; Biology and Architecture Interdisciplinary: Using the epistemologies/methods of one discipline within another. g. Biochemistry; Ecophilosophy; Astrophysics Transdisciplinary: Focus on an issue such as pollution or hunger both within and beyond discipline boundaries with the possibility of new perspectives www.hent.org/transdisciplinary.htm
Thanks also to increased speed and quantity of information exchanged among individuals — the faster the interaction between members of a community, the faster it transforms — organizations have started recognizing that departments should not necessarily be viewed separately.
T echnological (levels of security and access, efficiency
of retrieval, IT skills)
C ultural (how can company policy be enforced?; what are the legal risks of handling spontaneous content?; how productive really is the use of the new technology?; how are we going to manage all this unstructured information?; what’s the ROI?).
The Seven Pillars of Collaboration, Michael Sampson
1. Shared access to team data
2. Location-independent access to team data, people, and applications
3. Real-time joint editing and review
4. Coordinating schedules with team-aware scheduling software
5. Building social engagement through presence, blogs, and IM
6. Enterprise action management
7. Broadening the network through automatic discovery services
The most prominent contemporary school and best example of
collaborative practice is the open source movement. Open source does not apply just to intellectual property or code development but also — and perhaps more importantly — to a cognitive model where every piece of output, be it physical and/or knowledge, can be used and reused by others to produce additional transformations. In social worlds, intelligence and creativity are incremental; they exist and develop thanks to aggregation. In order to facilitate this, collaboration must be enabled and supported. Exciting new project frameworks like open research, ( OpenCourseWare at MIT, Creative Commons )