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  • 1. Submitted To: Akanksha Ms.Submitted By: PankhuriNathani9th “B”
  • 2.  India in world map Location Size India’s Neighbours Geological Devlopment Politcal Geography Physiography Region Mountain Indo-Gangetic Plains Highlands Coast Island Water bodies Wetlands Climate Geology Natural Resources
  • 3. Fig 1
  • 4. The geography of India describes the geographicfeatures of India, a country in South Asia. India lies largelyon the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indiansubcontinent. The country is situated north of the equatorbetween 8°4 and 37°6 north latitude and 68°7 and 97°25east longitude.On the south, India projects into and is bounded bythe Indian Ocean – in particular, by the Arabian Sea on thesouthwest, the Laccadive Sea to the south, and the Bay ofBengal on the southeast. The Palk Strait and Gulf ofMannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its immediatesoutheast, and the Maldives are some 400 kilometres(250 mi) to the southwest. IndiasAndaman and NicobarIslands, some 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) southeast of themainland, share maritimeborders withBurma, Thailand and Indonesia. Kanyakumariat 8°4′41″N and 77°32′28″E is the southernmost tip of theIndian mainland, while the southernmost point in Indiais Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. Indias territorialwaters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nauticalmiles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline.Fig. 2
  • 5. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, witha total area of 3,287,240 square kilometres(1,269,210 sq mi).[3] India measures 3,214 km(1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km(1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontierof 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km(4,671 mi)The Ganges is the longest river originating inIndia. The Ganges-Brahmaputra system occupiesmost of northern, central, and eastern India, whilethe Deccan Plateau occupies most of southernIndia. Kangchenjunga, on the border between Nepaland the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest pointin India at 8,598 m (28,209 ft) and the worlds 3rdhighest peak. Climate across India ranges fromequatorial in the far south, to alpine in the upperreaches of the Himalayas.India: Extant andstandard meridianFig. 3
  • 6. The northern frontiers of India aredefined largely by the Himalayanmountain range, where the countryborders China, Bhutan, and Nepal.Its western border with Pakistan liesin the Punjab Plain and the TharDesert. In the far northeast,the Chin Hillsand Kachin Hills,deeply forested mountainousregions, separate India from Burma.On the east, itsborder with Bangladesh is largelydefined by the KhasiHills and Mizo Hills, and thewatershed region of the Indo-Gangetic PlainIndia’s neighboursFig. 4
  • 7. India is entirely contained on the Indian Plate, amajor tectonic plate that was formed when it split offfrom the ancient continent Gondwanaland (ancientlandmass, consisting of the southern part of thesupercontinent of Pangea). The Indo-Australian issubdivided into the Indian and Australian plates.About 90 million years ago, during thelate Cretaceous Period, the Indian Platebegan moving north at about 15 cm/year (6in/yr).[6] About 50 to 55 million years ago, inthe Eocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era, the platecollided with Asia after covering a distance of 2,000to 3,000 km (1,243 to 1,864 mi), having moved fasterthan any other known plate. In 2007, Germangeologists determined that the Indian Plate was ableto move so quickly because it is only half as thick asthe other plates which formerly constitutedGondwanaland.[7] The collision with the EurasianPlate along the modern border between India andNepal formed the orogenic belt that createdthe Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. As of 2009,the Indian Plate is moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north atonly 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). India is thus referred to asthe "fastest continent".[7] This is causing the EurasianPlate to deform, and the Indian Plate to compress ata rate of 4 mm/yr (0.15 in/yr).The Indian PlateFig.5
  • 8. India is divided into twenty eight states (further subdividedinto districts) and seven union territories.Indias borders run a total length of 15,106.70 km (9,387 mi).[1] Itsborders with Pakistan and Bangladesh were delineated according tothe Radcliffe Line, which was created in 1947 during Partition of India.Its western border with Pakistan extends up to 3,323 km (2,065 mi),dividing the Punjab region and running along the boundaries of the TharDesert and the Rann of Kutch.[1] Both nations delineated a Line ofControl (LoC) to serve as the informal boundary between the Indian andPakistan-administered areas of Kashmir. According to Indias claim, it alsoshares a 106 km (66 mi) border with Afghanistan in northwesternKashmir, which is under Pakistani control.[1]Indias border with Bangladesh runs 4,096.70 km (2,546 mi).[1] Thereare 92 enclaves of Bangladesh on Indian soil and 106 enclaves of India areon Bangladeshi soil.[8] The Teen Bigha Corridor is a strip of land formerlybelonging to India on the West Bengal–Bangladesh border which has beenleased indefinitely to Bangladesh so that it can access its Dehgram–Angalpota enclaves.[citation needed]The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between Indiaand the Peoples Republic of China. It traverses 4,057 km along the Indianstates of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkimand Arunachal Pradesh.[9] Both nations lay claim to the Aksai Chin regionof northeastern Kashmir, which fell into Chinese control during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The border with Burma (Myanmar) extends up to1,643 km (1,021 mi) along the southern borders of Indias northeasternstates. Located amidst the Himalayan range, Indias border with Bhutanruns 699 km (434 mi).[1] The border with Nepal runs 1,751 km (1,088 mi)along the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India.[1] The SiliguriCorridor, narrowed sharply by the borders of Bhutan, Nepal andBangladesh, connects peninsular India with the northeastern states.Indian Kashmir, LoC and LACFig.6
  • 9. India can bedivided intofive physiographicregions. They are The northernmountains Indo Gangetic Plains Thar Desert High lands The Coastal PlainsMap of the hilly regions in India.Fig.7
  • 10. A great arc of mountains, consisting of theHimalayas, Hindu Kush, and Patkai rangesdefine the northern Indian subcontinent.These were formed by the ongoing tectoniccollision of the Indian and Eurasian plates.The mountains in these ranges include someof the worlds tallest mountains which act asa natural barrier to cold polar winds. Theyalso facilitate the monsoon winds which inturn influence the climate in India. Riversoriginating in these mountains, flow throughthe fertile Indo–Gangetic plains. Thesemountains are recognisedby biogeographers as the boundary betweentwo of the Earths great ecozones:the temperate Palearctic that covers most ofEurasia and the tropical andsubtropical Indomalaya ecozone whichincludes the Indian subcontinent, SoutheastAsia and Indonesia.India has eight major mountain rangeshaving peaks of over 1,000 m (3,281 ft)Mt. Kanchenjunga in Sikkim.Fig.8
  • 11. The Indo-Gangetic plains, also known as the GreatPlains are large alluvial plains dominated by threemain rivers, the Indus, Ganges, andBrahmaputra.They run parallel to the Himalayas, from Jammu andKashmir in the west to Assam in the east, and drainmost of northern and eastern India. The plainsencompass an area of 700,000 km2 (270,000 sq mi).The major rivers in this region are the Ganges, Indus,and Brahmaputra along with their main tributaries–Yamuna, Chambal, Gomti, Ghaghara, Kosi, Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab, and Tista—as well as the rivers ofthe Ganges Delta, such as the Meghna.The Indo-Gangetic belt is the worlds mostextensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formedby the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. Theplains are flat making it conducivefor irrigation through canals. The area is also richin ground water sources.The plains are one of the worlds most intenselyfarmed areas. The main crops grownare rice and wheat, which are grown in rotation.Other important crops grown in the regioninclude maize, sugarcane and cotton. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the worlds most denselypopulated areasExtent of the Indo-Gangetic plain acrossSouth Asia.Fig.9
  • 12. The Thar Desert (also known as the deserts) is theworlds seventh largest desert,[20] by others thetenth.[21] It forms a significant portion of western Indiaand covers an area of about 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi)to about 238,700 km2 (92,200 sq mi).[20][22] The desertcontinues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert. Most ofthe Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% ofits geographic area.About 10 percent of this region comprises sanddunes, and the remaining 90 percent consist of craggyrock forms, compacted salt-lake bottoms, and interdunaland fixed dune areas. Annual temperatures can rangefrom 0°C in the winter to over 50°C during the summer.Most of the rainfall received in this region is associatedwith the short July–September southwest monsoon thatbrings around 100–500 mm of precipitation. Water isscarce and occurs at great depths, ranging from 30 to120 m below the ground level.[23] Rainfall is precariousand erratic, ranging from below 120 mm (4.72 inches) inthe extreme west to 375 mm (14.75 inches) eastward.The soils of the arid region are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary as perthe topographical features. The low-lying loams areheavier and may have a hard pan of clay, calciumcarbonate or gypsum.Desert tribes living inthe Thar Desert nearJaisalmer, India.Fig.10
  • 13. The Central Highlands comprise of three main plateaus —the Malwa Plateau in the west, the Deccan Plateau in the south (coveringmost of the Indian peninsula) and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the east.The Malwa Plateau is spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh andGujarat. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 metres, and thelandscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained bythe Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by theupper reaches of the Mahi River.The Deccan Plateau is a large triangular plateau, bounded by theVindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats. TheDeccan covers a total area of 1.9 million km² (735,000 mile²). It is mostlyflat, with elevations ranging from 300 to 600 m (1,000 to 2,000 ft). Theaverage elevation of the plateau is 2,000 feet (600 m) above sea level. Thesurface slopes from 3,000 feet (900 m) in the west to 1,500 feet (450 m) inthe east.[24] It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to severalpeninsular rivers such as theGodavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri andthe Mahanadi which drain into the Bay of Bengal. This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the leeward side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan iscovered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regionsof deciduous broadleaf forest. Climate in the Deccan ranges from hotsummers to mild winters.The Chota Nagpur Plateau is situated in eastern India, covering much ofJharkhand and adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. Its total areais approximately 65,000 km² (25,000 mile²) and is made up of three smallerplateaus — the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchiplateau is the largest, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much ofthe plateau is forested, covered by the Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests.Vast reserves of metal ores and coal have been found in the Chota Nagpurplateau. The Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat is bounded by the Gulfof Kutch and the Gulf of Khambat. The natural vegetation in most of thepeninsula is xeric scrub, part of theNorthwestern thorn scrubforests ecoregion.In western India, the Kutch region in Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtraare classified as a Zone IV region (high risk) for earthquakes. The Kutch cityof Bhuj was the epicentre of the2001 Gujarat earthquake, which claimed thelives of more than 1,337 people and injured 166,836 while destroying ordamaging near a million homes.[25] The 1993 Latur earthquakein Maharashtrakilled 7,928 people and injured 30,000.[26] Other areas have a moderate tolow risk of an earthquake occurring.Fig.11
  • 14. The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land lyingbetween the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretchesfrom Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the east.The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri, and Krishna rivers drain theseplains. The temperature in the coastal regions often exceeds 30°C (86 °F), and is coupled with high levels of humidity. Theregion receives both the northeast monsoon and southwestmonsoon rains. The southwest monsoon splits into twobranches, the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Seabranch. The Bay of Bengal branch moves northwards crossingnortheast India in early June. The Arabian Sea branch movesnorthwards and discharges much of its rain on the windwardside of Western Ghats. Annual rainfall in this region averagesbetween 1,000 and 3,000 mm (39 and 120 in). The width of theplains varies between 100 and 130 km (62 and 81 mi).[28] Theplains are divided into six regions—the Mahanadi delta, thesouthern Andhra Pradesh plain, the Krishna-Godavari deltas,the Kanyakumari coast, theCoromandel Coast, and sandycoastal.[citation needed]The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of landsandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea,ranging from 50 to 100 km (31 to 62 mi) in width. It extendsfrom Gujarat in the north and extends through Maharashtra,Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala. Numerous rivers and backwatersinundate the region. Mostly originating in the Western Ghats,the rivers are fast-flowing, usually perennial, and emptyinto estuaries. Major rivers flowing into the sea are the Tapi,Narmada, Mandovi and Zuari. Vegetation is mostly deciduous,but the Malabar Coast moist forests constitute a uniqueecoregion. The Western Coastal Plain can be divided into twoparts, the Konkan and the Malabar Coast.Varkala beach on Keralas coastFig.12
  • 15. Aerial view of the Andaman IslandsThe Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands areIndias two major island formations and are classified as unionterritories. The Lakshadweep Islands lie 200 to 300 km (120 to 190mi) off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea with an area of32 km2 (12 sq mi). They consist of twelve atolls, three reefs, andfive submerged banks, with a total of about 36 islands and islets.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located between 6° and14° north latitude and 92° and 94° east longitude.[29] They consistof 572 isles, lying in the Bay of Bengal near the Burmese coast.They are located 1,255 km (780 mi) from Kolkata (Calcutta) and193 km (120 mi) from Cape Negrais in Burma.[29] The territoryconsists of two island groups, the Andaman Islands andthe Nicobar Islands. The Andaman Islands consists of 204 smallislands across a total length of 352 km (219 mi). Indias only activevolcano,Barren Island is situated here. It last erupted in May 2005.The Narcondum is a dormant volcano and there is a mudvolcano atBaratang. Indira Point, Indias southernmost land point,is situated in the Nicobar islands at 6°45’10″N and 93°49’36″E,and lies just 189 km (117 mi) from the Indonesian islandof Sumatra, to the southeast. The highest point is MountThullier at 642 m (2,106 ft).Other significant islands in India include Diu daman, aformer Portuguese enclave; Majuli, a river island of theBrahmaputra; Elephanta in Bombay Harbour; and Sriharikota,a barrier island in Andhra Pradesh. Salsette Island is Indias mostpopulous island on which the city of Mumbai (Bombay) is located.Forty-two islands in the Gulf of Kutch constitute theMarineNational Park.Aerial view of the Andaman IslandsFig.13
  • 16. India has around 14,500 km of inland navigable waterways.[30] There are twelve rivers whichare classified as major rivers, with the total catchment area exceeding 2,528,000km2 (976,000 sq mi).[14] All major rivers of India originate from one of the threemain watersheds:[14]The Himalaya and the Karakoram rangesVindhya and Satpura range in central IndiaSahyadri or Western Ghats in western IndiaThe Himalayan river networks are snow-fed and have a perennial supply throughout theyear. The other two river systems are dependent on the monsoons and shrink into rivulets duringthe dry season. The Himalayan rivers that flow westward into Pakistan arethe Indus, Jhelum,Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej.[31]The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghana system has the largest catchment area of about1,600,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi).[32] The Ganges Basinalone has a catchment of about 1,100,000km2 (420,000 sq mi).[14] The Ganges originates from the Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand.[31] Itflows southeast, draining into the Bay of Bengal.[14] The Yamuna and Gomti rivers also arise in thewestern Himalayas and join the Ganges in the plains.[14] The Brahmaputra originatesin Tibet, China, where it is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River (or "Tsangpo"). It enters India inthe far-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, then flows west through Assam. The Brahmaputramerges with the Ganges in Bangladesh, where it is known as the Jamuna River.[14][33].The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distendtheir banks, often flooding surrounding areas. Though they provide rice paddy farmers with alargely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, such floods have killed thousandsof people and tend to cause displacements of people in such areas.Major gulfs include the Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kutch, and the Gulf of Mannar. Straitsinclude the Palk Strait, which separates India from Sri Lanka; the Ten Degree Channel, whichseparates the Andamans from the Nicobar Islands; and the Eight Degree Channel, which separatesthe Laccadive and Amindivi Islands from the Minicoy Island to the south. Important capes includetheKanyakumari (formerly called Cape Comorin), the southern tip of mainland India; Indira Point,the southernmost point in India (onGreat Nicobar Island); Ramas Bridge, and Point Calimere. TheArabian Sea lies to the west of India, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean lie to the east andsouth, respectively. Smaller seas include the Laccadive Sea and the Andaman Sea. There arefour coral reefs in India, located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Gulf of Mannar,Lakshadweep, and the Gulf of Kutch.[27] Important lakes include Sambhar Lake, the countryslargest saltwater lake in Rajasthan, Vembanad Lake in Kerala, Kolleru Lake in AndhraPradesh,Loktak Lake in Manipur, Dal Lake in Kashmir, Chilka Lake(lagoon lake)in Orrisa,and Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala.The Godavari RiverFig.14
  • 17. Indias wetland ecosystem is widely distributed from the coldand arid located in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, andthose with the wet and humid climate of peninsular India. Most ofthe wetlands are directly or indirectly linked to river networks.The Indian government has identified a total of 71 wetlands forconservation and are part of sanctuaries and nationalparks.[34] Mangrove forests are present all along the Indiancoastline in sheltered estuaries, creeks, backwaters, salt marshesand mudflats. The mangrove area covers a total of4,461 km2 (1,722 sq mi),[35] which comprises 7% of the worlds totalmangrove cover. Prominent mangrove covers are located in theAndaman and Nicobar Islands, the Sundarbans delta, the Gulf ofKutch and the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers.Parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala also have largemangrove covers.[27]The Sundarbans delta is home to the largest mangrove forestin the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and spreads acrossareas of Bangladesh and West Bengal. The Sundarbans isa UNESCO World Heritage Site, but is identified separately as theSundarbans (Bangladesh) and the Sundarbans National Park (India).The Sundarbans are intersected by a complex network of tidalwaterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangroveforests. The area is known for its diverse fauna, being home to alarge variety of species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles andsnakes. Its most famous inhabitant is the The Bengal Tiger. It isestimated that there are now 400 Bengal tigers and about 30,000spotted deer in the area.The Rann of Kutch is a marshy region located in northwesternGujarat and the bordering Sindh province of Pakistan. It occupies atotal area of 27 900 km² (10,800 mile²).[36] The region wasoriginally a part of the Arabian Sea. Geologic forces such asearthquakes resulted in the damming up of the region, turning itinto a large saltwater lagoon. This area gradually filled with siltthus turning it into a seasonal salt marsh. During the monsoons, thearea turns into a shallow marsh, often flooding to knee-depth.After the monsoons, the region turns dry and becomes parched.A map of the Indian Sunderbans.Fig.15
  • 18. Based on the Köppen system, India hosts six major climaticsubtypes, ranging from arid desert in the west, alpine tundra andglaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supportingrainforests in the southwest and the island territories. The nationhas four seasons: winter (January–February), summer (March–May), amonsoon (rainy) season (June–September) and a post-monsoonperiod (October–December).[31]The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabaticwinds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India is keptwarm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the samephenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic ofCancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passesthrough the middle of India, the whole country is considered to betropical.[citation needed]Summer lasts between March and June in most parts of India.Temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during the day. The coastalregions exceed 30 °C (86 °F) coupled with high levels of humidity. Inthe Thar desert area temperatures can exceed 45 °C (113 °F). Therain-bearingmonsoon clouds are attracted to the low-pressuresystem created by the Thar Desert. The southwest monsoon splitsinto two arms, the Bay of Bengal arm and the Arabian Sea arm. TheBay of Bengal arm moves northwards crossing northeast India inearly June. The Arabian Sea arm moves northwards and depositsmuch of its rain on the windward side of Western Ghats. Winters inpeninsula India see mild to warm days and cool nights. Further norththe temperature is cooler. Temperatures in some parts of the Indianplains sometimes fall below freezing. Most of northern India isplagued by fog during this season. The highest temperaturerecorded in India was 50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan. Thelowest was −45 °C (−49 °F) in Kashmir.Temperature averages inIndia; units are indegree Celsius.Fig.16
  • 19. Indias geological features are classified based on their era offormation.[37] The Precambrian formations of Cudappah and Vindhyan systemsare spread out over the eastern and southern states. A small part of thisperiod is spread over western and central India.[37] ThePaleozoic formationsfrom the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian system are found in theWestern Himalaya region in Kashmir and HimachalPradesh.[37] The Mesozoic Deccan Traps formation is seen over most of thenorthern Deccan; they are believed to be the result of sub-aerial volcanicactivity.[37] The Trap soil is black in colour and conducive to agriculture. TheCarboniferous system, Permian System and Triassic systems are seen in thewestern Himalayas. The Jurassic system is seen in the western Himalayas andRajasthan.Tertiary imprints are seen in parts of Manipur, Nagaland, ArunachalPradesh and along the Himalayan belt. The Cretaceous system is seen incentral India in the Vindhyas and part of the Indo-Gangetic plains.[37] TheGondowana system is seen in the Narmada River area in the Vindhyas andSatpuras. The Eocene system is seen in the western Himalayas and Assam.Oligocene formations are seen in Kutch and Assam.[37] The Pleistocene systemis found over central India. The Andaman and Nicobar Island are thought tohave been formed in this era by volcanoes.[37] The Himalayas were formed bythe convergence and deformation of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates.Their continued convergence raises the height of the Himalayas by 1 cm eachyear.Soils in India can be classified into 8 categories: alluvial, black, red,laterite, forest, arid & desert, saline & alkaline and peaty & organicsoils.[38][39] Alluvial soil constitute the largest soil group in India, constituting80% of the total land surface.[39] It is derived from the deposition of siltcarried by rivers and are found in the Great Northern plains from Punjab tothe Assam valley.[39] Alluvial soil are generally fertile but they lack nitrogenand tend to be phosphoric.[39]Black soil are well developed in the Deccan lava region of Maharashtra,Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh.[40] These contain high percentage of clay andare moisture retentive.[39] Red soil are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnatakaplateau, Andhra plateau, Chota Nagpur plateau and the Aravallis.[40] Theseare deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.[39][40] Laterite soils areformed in tropical regions with heavy rainfall. Heavy rainfall results inleaching out all soluble material of top layer of soil. These are generallyfound in Western ghats, Eastern ghats and hilly areas of northeastern statesthat receive heavy rainfall. Forest soils occur on the slopes of mountains andhills in Himalayas, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. These generally consistof large amounts of dead leaves and other organic matter called humus.Geological regions of IndiaFig.17
  • 20. Indias total renewable water resources are estimated at1,907.8 km3/year.[41] Its annual supply of usable and replenshablegroundwater amounts to 350 billion cubic metres.[42] Only 35% ofgroundwater resources are being utilised.[42] About 44 milliontonnes of cargo is moved annually through the countrys majorrivers and waterways.[30] Groundwater supplies 40% of water inIndias irrigation canals. 56% of the land is arable and used foragriculture. Black soils are moisture-retentive and are preferredfor dry farming and growing cotton, linseed, etc. Forest soils areused for tea and coffee plantations. Red soil have a wide diffusionof iron content.[40]Most of Indias estimated 5.4 billion barrels (860,000,000 m3)in oil reserves are located in the Mumbai High, upper Assam,Cambay, the Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery basins.[43] Indiapossesses about seventeen trillion cubic feet of natural gas inAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa.[43] Uranium is mined inAndhra Pradesh. India has 400 medium-to-high enthalpythermalsprings for producing geothermal energy in seven "provinces" —the Himalayas, Sohana, Cambay, the Narmada-Tapti delta, theGodavari delta and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (specificallythe volcanic Barren Island.)[44]India is the worlds biggest producer of mica blocks and micasplittings.[45] India ranks second amongst the worlds largestproducers of barites and chromites.[45] The Pleistocene system isrich in minerals. India is the third-largest coal producer in theworld and ranks fourth in the production of iron ore.[43][45] It is thefifth-largest producer of bauxite and crude steel haryanafaridabad app 5000 tones ore, the seventh-largest of manganeseore and the eighth-largest of aluminium.[45] India has significantsources of titanium ore, diamonds and limestone.[46] Indiapossesses 24% of the worlds known and economicallyviable thorium, which is mined along shores of Kerala.[47] Gold hadbeen mined in the now-defunct Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka.[48]Indian coal production isthe 3rd highest in the worldaccording to the 2008Indian Ministry of Minesestimates. Shown above isa coal mine in Jharkhand.Fig.18