• The word bibliographiya was used by Greek writers which mean- “the copying of books by hand.”• In the 12th century, the word started being used for "the intellectual activity of composing books".
• The 17th century then saw the emergence of the modern meaning, that of description of books.• Currently, the field of bibliography has expanded to include studies that consider the book as a material object.
What is Bibliography?Carter and Barker describe bibliography as-“ the organized listing of books and the systematic, detailed description of books as physical objects.”“Bibliography is a list of books in some way pertinent to the research which has been done”
The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically and may be divided in two parts- First part may contain the name of books, and pamphlets, and The second part may contain the name of magazines, newspaper articles.
Importance of Bibliography• A mandatory requirement of copyright laws and academic conventions is that whenever a research report is written, there should be a section at the end of it where you acknowledge the sources used.
• So, bibliography means listing all thesources which you have consulted whilewriting the research article.• The sources may be in the form of printedand online books, websites, web documents,web blogs, newspaper articles, journals,unpublished material, maps etc.
Format of a standard bibliographyBibliography Format for a Book:•A standard bibliography for a book typically consists of thefollowing information:-•Authors name (last name 1st )•Title•Publisher•Date of Publication
• Bibliography Format for a Periodical &Journal Article:• A bibliography entry for a journal or periodical articlecontains the following information:-•Authors•Article Title•Journal Title•Volume Number•Pages•Date of Publication
Types of bibliography 1. Analytical Bibliography:Analytical bibliographies refer to the collection of sources and material for the purpose of critical study and evaluation.2. Enumerative(Systematic) Bibliography:An enumerative bibliography provides a list of the books according to some system, common theme or reference plan and includes information on by author, by subject, or by date.
3. Bibliographies for Non-book Sources: 1. Discography A discography is the study and listing of the details concerning sound recordings, often by specified artists or within identified musical genres. 2. Filmography A filmography provides a list of films, documentaries and movies collected and grouped certain topic or theme. 3. Webography or Internet BibliographyWhich provides a list of websites related to a certain topic or subject. A website bibliography is limited to the listing and citation of online sources.