Brain Computing

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Brain Computing

  1. 1. Brain Computer Interface 指導老師:李柏磊 副教授 報告者:電機三 B 葉姿妤 電機二 A 蕭有容 電機二 B 陳迺惠
  2. 2. Outlines <ul><li>What is BCI? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Wave Control </li></ul><ul><li>Simple introduction of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Data Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Apps </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks & Future </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
  3. 4. You can make it with BCI !
  4. 5. <ul><li>What is BCI? </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Brain -Computer Interface </li></ul><ul><li>- Direct Neural Interface or Brain-Machine Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Direct communication pathway between a brain and an external device. </li></ul><ul><li>Research on BCIs began in the </li></ul><ul><li>1970s at the University of </li></ul><ul><li>California Los Angeles </li></ul>
  6. 7. How does it work? <ul><li>Signal Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul>
  7. 8. Brain Wave Control
  8. 9. Brain Wave Control <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α (8 – 12 Hz): relaxed/reflecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>β (12 – 30 Hz): alert/working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Misjudgment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Brain Wave Control <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoked potentials </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Brain Wave Control <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoked potentials </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Brain Wave Control <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoked potentials </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Simple introduction of the brain Focus on cortex
  13. 14. Cerebral cortex 大腦皮質 Cerebellum 小腦 Midbrain 中腦
  14. 16. Structure of the cortex
  15. 17. Cortex( 皮質 )
  16. 18. <ul><li>Primary Somatosensory Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>主要身體感覺區 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Motor Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>主要運動區 </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Association Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>運動聯合區 </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Sensory Association Area </li></ul><ul><li>感覺聯合區 </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Association Area </li></ul><ul><li>視覺聯合區 </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>視覺皮質區 </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke's Area </li></ul><ul><li>威氏區 </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Prefrontal Cortex 前額葉皮質區 </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Center (Broca‘s Area) </li></ul><ul><li>布洛卡氏區 </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>聽覺皮質區 </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Association Area </li></ul><ul><li>聽覺聯合區 </li></ul>
  19. 21. Data Acquisition
  20. 22. Data Acquisition <ul><li>Invasive BCIs </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Invasive BCIs </li></ul><ul><li>Partially-Invasive BCIs </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless BCIs </li></ul>
  21. 23. Invasive BCIs <ul><li>Implanted: grey matter </li></ul><ul><li>Signals: highest quality </li></ul><ul><li>Scar-tissue build-up </li></ul><ul><li>Target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repairing damaged sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing new functionality to persons with paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Vision System </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Electrode Arrays
  23. 25. App.- Artificial Vision 4X4 16 pixels 8X8 64 pixels 12X12 144 pixels 16X16 256 pixels 32X32 1024 pixels 128X128 16384 pixels
  24. 26. Non-Invasive BCIs <ul><li>poor signal resolution </li></ul><ul><li>power muscle implants and restore partial movement </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. MEG <ul><li>Magnetoencephalography </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Field: 10 -15 T ~10 -13 T (Weak!!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S.Q.U.I.D. Sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded Room </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Magnetic Field
  27. 29. Partially-Invasive BCIs <ul><li>Implanted: skull </li></ul><ul><li>lower risk of forming scar-tissue in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Signal quality between invasive BCIs & non-invasive BCIs </li></ul>
  28. 30. Wireless BCIs <ul><li>More practical </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding multiple chips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmission with RF </li></ul><ul><li>key requirement: keep the heat down </li></ul>
  29. 31. Wireless BCIs <ul><li>Size: 2cm in diameter 、 8cm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Receive Distance: 10m ~ 50m </li></ul>
  30. 32. Examples of BCI
  31. 33. Rats implanted with BCIs in Theodore Berger ’ s experiments
  32. 34. Monkey operating a robotic arm with BCIs
  33. 35. Controlling a robotic dog with BCI
  34. 36. A man operates the computer with his EEG
  35. 37. A man operates the computer with his EEG
  36. 38. P300->300ms 頂葉
  37. 39. Disadvantages <ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Exhausting </li></ul><ul><li>Laziness Degenerate </li></ul>
  38. 40. Future <ul><li>Integrate with different territory </li></ul><ul><li>From lab to factory </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing and medical treatment </li></ul>
  39. 41. References <ul><li>http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/the-brainmachine-interface-unplugged/0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.seeingwithsound.com/etumble.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.yct.com.tw/life/98drum/98drum17.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2007/new/may/24/today-life3.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://hi.ctust.edu.tw/mediawiki/index.php/%E8%85%A6%E6%A9%9F%E4%BB%8B%E9%9D%A2%28BCI%29 </li></ul>
  40. 42. Q&A
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