OD is about how organizations and people function and how to get them function better
Start Point – when the leader identifies an undesirable situation and seeks to change it.
Focus - Making organizations function better (total system change).
Orientation - Action (achieving results through planned activities).
No unifying theory – just models of practice
OD is an organization improvement strategy
Poor morale Unclear goals Poor quality Poor team performance Intergroup conflict Organization Poorly designed tasks Inappropriate leadership style Interpersonal conflicts Low productivity Poor alignment to organization’s strategy Need of change Inappropriate organization structure Organization Development
When Will It Occur? Benefit of making change Compared to Cost of making change Change is made Change is not made Amount of dissatisfaction with current conditions Availability of a desirable alternative Existence of a plan for achieving a desirable alternative If benefits exceed costs If costs exceed benefits
Force Field Analysis Desired Conditions Current Conditions Before Change After Change During Change Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces
Force field analysis (Lewin, 1951) is a diagnostic technique which has been applied to ways of looking at the variables involved in determining whether organisational change will occur.
It is based on the concept of ‘forces’ , a term which refers to the perceptions of people in the organisation about a particular factor and its influence.
Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation and which are attempting to push it in particular direction. These forces tend to initiate change or keep it going.
Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. A state of equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the
For the model to be of use, the forces need to be identified perceptively, rigorously and objectively, and the means identified of addressing the resisting forces need to be creative.
Many practising managers will be able to reflect on occasions in their own experience when they have aimed to increase the driving forces, rather than reduce the resisting ones, and have increased the resistance and the tension as a result.
Other change management authors have developed models and tools which analyse forces. (Kanter, 1983; Beckhard and Harris, 1987; Nadler)
Commitment, Enrolment and Compliance DISPOSITION Players Response to Change Commitment
Want change to happen and will work to make it happen.
Willing to create whatever structures, systems and frameworks are necessary for it to work.
Want change to happen and will devote time and energy to making it happen within given frameworks.
Act within the spirit of the frameworks.
See the virtue in what is proposed, do what is asked of them and think proactively about what is needed.
Act within the letter of the frameworks.
Can describe the benefits of what is proposed and are not hostile to them.
They do what they are asked but no more.
Stick to the letter of the framework.
Do not accept that there are benefits to what is proposed and do not go along with it.
They do enough of what is asked of them not to jeopardise position.
They voice opposition and hopes for failure.
Interpret the letter of the framework.
Do not accept that there are benefits and have nothing to lose by opposing the proposition.
Will not do what is asked of them.
Work outside framework.
Neither in support of nor in opposition to the proposal, just serving time.
Don’t care about framework.
Readiness for change Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance) D V F Is there enough dissatisfaction with the current state? What is the gap between the current reality and the envisioned future? Is there a sense of compelling vision of a highly desirable future state? To what degree is it shared? To what degree are individuals committed to the vision? Are the first steps for making the change 'doable'?
Reaction to change (Rogers) Innovators Those who will leap with enthusiasm at your proposals they will strongly support it and will expect others to be active in pursuing them. Early Adopters These are people who will be rapidly persuaded, especially by early success. They are likely to want to adapt your proposals to their own circumstances. Early Majority Are those who will want to see tangible outcomes to your proposals – they will not be convinced merely by the idea or principle. Late Majority Those who will follow the lead of a powerful person if they show signs of agreement and support for your ideas. The commitment is centred on political calculation. Resistors (Laggards) Predictable, these people’s interest will need considerable evidence – the more vivid and directly observable the better – before they can be mobilised away from present methods and preferences. As a group, this category may be relatively risk adverse.
The impact of change (its called resistance) UNCERTAINTY IMMOBILITY TO MEET/TRY OUT CHALLENGES BEYOND PERSONAL COMFORT ZONES UPWARD ABDICATION (Wait for direction, Claim lack of direction) FEAR FAILURE FEAR CONSEQUENCES OF NON-DELIVERY FRUSTRATION ( By seniors) LACK OF CONFIDENCE (Portrayed overtly and subtly)
Minimizing Resistance to Change Minimizing Resistance to Change Communication Training Employee Involvement Stress Management Negotiation Coercion
Kotter & Schlesinger - Methods for dealing with resistance to change? … /CTD Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Education + Communication Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis Once persuaded, people will often help with the implementation of the change Can be very time-consuming if lots of people are involved Participation + Involvement Where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change and where others have considerable power to resist People who participate will be committed to implementing change, and any relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if participators design and inappropriate change
Kotter & Schlesinger (1985) Methods for dealing with resistance to change? … /CTD Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Facilitation + Support Where people are resisting because of adjustment problems No other approach works as well with adjustment problems Can be time consuming, expensive and still fail Negotiation + Agreement Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change, and where that group has considerable power to resist Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate for compliance
Kotter & Schlesinger (1985) Methods for dealing with resistance to change? Approach Commonly used in situations Advantages Drawbacks Manipulation + Cooptation Where other tactics will not work, or are too expensive It can be a relatively quick and inexpensive solution to resistance problems Can lead to future problems if people feel manipulated Explicit + Implicit Coercion Where speed is essential, and the change initiators posses considerable power It is speedy, and can overcome any kind of resistance. Can be risky if it leaves people mad at the initiators
View resistance as a natural process and a sign that you are on target
Support the client in expressing the resistance directly
Not take the expression of the resistance personally or as an attack on you or your competence
Some common forms of resistance are:
Attack – Moralizing
“ Give me more detail” – Avoiding responsibility
They flood you with detail – Compliance
No time – Pressing for solutions
It’s impractical – “We’re unique”
“ I’m not surprised” – Methodology
Confusion – Nit-picking
Silence – Flight into health
Intellectualizing – Changing the subject
One word answers – Low energy, inattention
Basic steps of change Recognizing the need for change Attempting to create a new state of affairs Incorporating the changes, creating and maintaining a new organizational system Step 1: Unfreezing Step 3: Refreezing Step 2: Changing Current State New State
Team Building: Its Basic Steps Sensitivity groups Objective data Group members recognize problem Diagnose group’s strengths and weaknesses Develop desired change goals Develop action plan to make changes Implement plan Evaluate plan Process completed if successful if unsuccessful Restart process
Once change priorities have been agreed , a Force Field Analysis can be used to identify actions that would enhance their successful implementation.
Lewin (1951) suggests that there are three phases in the change process .
(Lewin, 1951) Change Model Unfreezing Moving Re-freezing
(Lewin, 1951) Change Model Strong exciting Vision, Providing Information on a Better Way of doing things – creating dissatisfaction with the current state, Identify the need for a solution – sell the benefits, model a positive outlook! Develop an incremental plan, with contingencies, design easy wins, create a safe first set, recognise the importance of education, listen to concerns empathetically, reward/reinforce small steps in the right direction! Continually reinforce new behaviours, ensure these are embedded in the artefacts of culture eg guidelines, policies, job descriptions etc., ensure clear responsibility for monitoring key processes using SPC! Unfreezing Moving Re-freezing
Unfreezing (Vision, Support, Positive Outlook & Modelling)
This can be done by providing information or examples of new ways of doing things or getting the job done or by raising everyone's awareness that the goal or goals of the organisation are not being met in some way and that a change is necessary to get back on track.
It is necessary to make those involved in the process feel secure and at ease with the proposed change or changes to reduce threats to the safety and security of those involved and reduce resistance to the proposed change.
During unfreezing , the process of developing an awareness to a need or problem is started and change is seen as the only solution .
Unfreezing (Vision, Support, Positive Outlook & Modelling)
The change agent needs to increase pressures toward the change and reduce threats associated with changing. According to Lewin, this is done through three mechanisms.
Disconfirmation : occurs when the change agent introduces evidence that a need is not being met. This can be done through meeting with the staff in small groups to discuss inadequacies or problems.
Inducing guilt or anxiety: can be accomplished by introducing a period of uncomfortableness about the way things are and how they are not meeting an important goal or value.
Creation of psychological safety: the third mechanism is important to provide sufficient security to minimise risk involved with the change. The change agent can provide time for discussion, involvement, education, supervision and approval to small advances toward the intended change.
Moving or Changing (Planning, Overcoming Resistance, Implementation, Open Communication & Support)
This is the actual change or implementation phase of the change process. During the moving stage, the driving forces have overcome the restraining forces and the change moves ahead
A new way of behaving or working is established as information and feedback is used to encourage group involvement and allow the participants to discuss and assimilate the change into their practice.
The change is planned in detail and then implementation begins. Time must be allowed for support, group discussion, evaluation, and feedback to deal with resistance as it occurs. Open communication is important.
Assess the present in terms of the future to determine the work to be done.
Manage the transition .
Enabling Conditions and the Change Equation:
D x V x C x F > Resistance
D dissatisfaction: with the present situation
V vision: an understanding of what the change(s) would look like
C capacity: sufficient resources to make the change happen
F first steps: an appreciation of how the change is to be implemented (Adapted from Beckhard & Harris, 1987)
If any of the elements on the left-hand side of the equation are zero , there will be insufficient impetus to overcome the resistance to change!!
Change Management Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
Stages of Concern Focus of Concern Expression of Concern Awareness Stage (0) Information Stage (1) Personal Stage (2) Management Stage (3) Impact / Consequence Stage (4) Collaboration Stage (5) Refocusing Stage (6) Little concern or involvement. General awareness & an interest in learning more about it. Uncertainty about demands of change. Uncertainty about decision making, potential conflicts. Issues relating to efficiency, organisation, scheduling, time etc. Focus is on impact of change for individuals in immediate sphere of contact. Focus is on coordination and cooperation with others. Focus is one of exploration of more universal benefits. “ I’m not concerned about it.” “ I would like to know more about it.” “ How will using it affect me? “ I seem to be spending all my time in paperwork.” “ How is it affecting my team?” “ I am concerned about relating what I am doing with others.” “ I have some ideas about something that will work even better.”
Making Change Last Desired Conditions Current Conditions Before Change After Change During Change Force field Analysis Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Forces Restraining Forces
The robot system is a good, colourful, eye-catching technique that makes you focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. RED – Change not implemented at all / little progress on this objective. YELLOW – Change has been partially implemented / some resistance occurring / installation not complete or signed off. GREEN – Sound progress has been made on change objective and / or has been signed off as complete. One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking of change progress is to use the robot system – or even the colours of the robot.
(How we acquire / place talent) (How we build competence / capability) (How we track performance) (How we recognise / reward desired behaviour) (How we use information to build and sustain momentum) (How we organise to support the change initiative?