Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem

on

  • 3,092 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,092
Views on SlideShare
3,092
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
150
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem Introduction of wide area mesurement syatem Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction of Wide Area Measurements System
    Seminar By :
    Nitesh Pandit
    Kedar Khandeparkar
    Under The Guidance of
    Prof. A.M. Kulkarni
    Electrical Engineering Dept, IIT Bombay
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • 1. Introduction
    1.1 Power Grid
    1.2 WAMS
    2.Components of WAMS
    2.1 PMU
    2.2 PDC
    3. Standards for PMU
    3.1 IEEE C37.118
    4. Communication between PMU & PDC
    4.1 UDP Communication
    4.1 TCP Communication
    5. WAMS Implementations
    6. Possible Approach
    7. Conclusion
    8. References
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Introduction
    Power Grid
    • High voltage electric transmission is the bulk transfer of electric energy, from generating power plants to substations located nearer.
    • Transmission lines, when interconnected with each other, become high voltage transmission networks these are typically referred to as power grids.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS)
    • Advanced measurement technology to collect information.
    • The WAMS technologies are comprised of two major functions:
    • obtaining the data
    • extracting value from it
    • Getting the data is accomplished with a new generation of data recording hardware that produces high quality and high volume recordings.
    • Data is extracted and analyzed using several signal analysis tools and algorithms.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Need Of WAMS
    In order to avoid major regional blackouts such as those occurred in North America and Canada in 2003.
    When constant monitoring applications are available immediate action can be taken if some failures are detected.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Comparison of SCADA & WAMS
    • SCADA can only provides steady, low sampling density, and non synchronous information of the network.
    • Controlling centre cannot know the dynamic operation states of the system.
    • Instant action cannot be taken in case of failures.
    • WAMS enables us to observe the power system synchronously in more elaborate time scale.
    • WAMS requires data to be sent and captured at very fast rate.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Components of WAMS
    • Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
    • Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC)
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PMU
    • They are devices which use synchronization signals from the global positioning system (GPS) satellites and provide the phasor voltages and currents measured at a given substation.
    • A phasor is a complex number that represents both the magnitude and phase angle of the sine waves found in electricity.
    • PMU can have different Data Rate i.e. 60, 30, 10 frame per second.
    Input
    Output
    PMU
    Secondary sides of the 3Φ P.T. or C.T.
    Corresponding Voltage or Current phasors
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Advantage of using GPS
    • It is accurate to within 1 microsecond at any location on earth.
    • A 1-microsecond error translates into 0.021° for a 60 Hz system and 0.018 ° for a 50 Hz system and is certainly more accurate than any other application.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PDC
    • It is a node in a system where phasor data from a number of PMUs or PDCs is correlated and fed out as a single stream to other applications.
    • PDC would performs the Real time monitoring , alarming , event triggering.
    • It performs local archiving.
    • It performs various quality checks on the phasor data.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC)
    Super PDC
    Level n
    Visualization
    DB
    Real Time Monitoring
    Level 1
    PDC 1
    PDC 6
    PMU 1
    PMU 2
    PMU 8
    PMU 41
    PMU 42
    PMU 48
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Operations inside PDC
    • Receive data from PMU's/PDC's
    • Align the data as per the time tag and then perform sorting
    • Combine all data from multiple PMU's having same time stamp t into a single frame
    • Perform Local archival and also send the combined frame to other applications.
    • PDCs are available as Hardware and Software.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Time Based Aligning of Data
    Algorithm 1
    • An array of time stamped buffers is maintained.
    • PDC will group together measurements from the same time stamp in to a single buffer.
    • In some cases the measurements may be delayed so there will be more than one time stamped buffer.
    • When the buffer is full the PDC will forward it to the applications consuming it.
    Drawbacks
    • PDC has to wait for the buffer to be full before forwarding it to the applications.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Algorithm 2
    • Add a time-out per time stamped buffer.
    • The PDC assigns this newly arrived measurement to a new buffer.
    • The countdown to the time-out is initiated when the first phasor measurement of a certain time stamp arrives at the PDC.
    • When the time-out is up the PDC will forward the set without waiting for the rest of the phasor measurements to arrive
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Continue…
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Process Model for Sorting
    begin
    Send_Set
    Buffer Full
    default
    Time Out
    Received Frame
    sort
    default
    wait
    default
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Standards for PMU
    • IEEE Std 1344
    • IEEE C37.118
    • OPC-DA / OPC-HDA - A Microsoft Windows based interface protocol that is currently being generalized to use XML and run on non Windows computers.
    • IEC 61850 a standard for electrical substation automation.
    • BPA PDCStream - a variant of IEEE 1344 used by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) PDCs and user interface software.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • IEEE C37.118
    Four message/frame types
    Command (Binary)
    Configuration (Binary)
    Data (Binary)
    Header (ASCII)
    Frame Transmission Order
    SYNC 2B
    FRAMESIZE 2B
    IDCODE 2B
    SOC 4B
    FRACSEC 4B
    DATA 1
    DATA 2
    DATA n
    CHK
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Command Frame is received by PMU in order to take a particular action. Example “turn ON the transmission of data”.
    Header frame is human readable/ASCII information about the PMU, the data sources, scaling, algorithms, analog filters used, or other related information.
    Configuration frame contains the information and processing parameters of the PMU. Like it contains phasor, analog, frequency and digital value of PMU.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Configuration Frame Organization
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • 3)Data frame provides information regarding phasor data and the state of the digital inputs on each channel. It also defines the frequency, angle, over-current, under-voltage and rate of frequency change.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Communication between PMU & PDC
    1) UDP Communication
    2) TCP Communication
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PDC
    PMU
    CMD Frame - Send CFG frame
    UDP Communication
    CFG Frame
    CMD Frame - Send data frame
    Data Frame
    Data Frame
    Data Frame
    Conf change bit (0->1)
    CMD Frame - Send New CFG frame
    CFG Frame
    CMD Frame - Send data frame
    Data Frame
    Data Frame
    CMD Frame -data transmission off
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PDC
    PMU
    TCP Communication
    SYN , Seq=0
    Seq=0, Ack=1
    Seq=1,Ack=1
    CMD Frame - Send CFG frame
    Ack = YY
    CFG Frame : Seq 22
    Ack = 22
    CMD Frame - Send Data frame Seq :23
    Ack = 23
    DATA Frame : Seq 24
    CMD Frame - Stop Data frame Seq :xx
    FIN
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • WAMS Implementations
    OpenPDC
    • The openPDC is a complete set of applications for processing streaming time-series data in real-time.
    • The openPDC is based on the SuperPDC which was developed by the Tennesse Valley Authority starting in 2004.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Wide Area Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET)‏
    • It is a GPS-synchronized wide-area frequency measurement network.
    • Currently, FNET collects data from over 80 FDRs, most of which are installed in the North American power grid.
    • Applications provided by FNET include
    • event detection and location,
    • oscillation detection
    • visualization.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Wide Area Frequency Monitoring by IIT Bombay
    • It is a continuous data archiving system.
    • It provides Web display of of the archived data.
    • Work on generating triggers, alarms in case some unusual events occur is in progress.
    • Currently, frequency measuring sensors are located at Mumbai, Kharagpur and Ahmedabad.
    • http://www.wafms.co.cc/
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Other Implementations
    • ePDC
    • SEL
    • TNB
    • KalkiTech
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PDC Product Comparison Chart
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Possible Approach
    • We have considered TCP/UDP as network communication protocol.
    • Client Server Architecture.
    State Diagram :
    PDC : Process 1
    CMD FRM - send CFG Frame
    PMU Simulator
    CFG FRM
    DATA FRM
    PDC : Process 2
    CMD FRM - send DATA
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • PDC Process 2 Details
    Receive data/cnf frames
    Shared Memory
    CFG frames
    Pass_ to_ upper_
    Layer()
    Match
    Create data nodes
    Sort()
    Maintains Buffer List
    Archive()
    History
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Conclusion
    • Synchronized phasor measurement technologies have proliferated in many countries all over the world.
    • With the spread and advancement in this technology real time monitoring and decision making is going to be much easier.
    • Development of free and open source PDC software will certainly boost more contributions from all over the world.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • References
    • Ken Martin, “IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power Systems”, IEEE Std C37.118 -2005 (Revision of IEEE Std 1344-1995).
    • “Real Time Wide-Area Monitoring, Control and Protection”, EIPP Real Time Task Team, White Paper DRAFT 3: Wide Area Monitoring-Control Phasor Data Requirements.
     
    • Andrew Armenia, “A Flexible Phasor Data Concentrator Design Leveraging Existing Software Technologies”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JUNE 2010.
     
    • Biju Naduvathuparambil, Matthew C. Valenti and Ali FeXiachi, “Communication Delays in Wide Area Measurement Systems”, Lane Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Elect. Eng., West Virginia University, WV.
      
    • Basics of Electric Power Transmission and Grid technology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_transmission.
     
    • http://www.phasor-rtdms.com/phaserconcepts/phasor_adv_faq.html#Question9.
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System
  • Thank you
    10/18/10
    <number>
    Wide Area Measurement System