Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D.


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Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D.

  1. 1. Isoflurane and Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropathogenesis Zhongcong Xie, M.D., Ph.D. Genetics and Aging Research Unit MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease Department of Neurology Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts
  2. 2. <ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the greatest public health problems in the US and in the world, and its impact will only increase with demographic changes anticipated in the coming decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, AD affects 4.5 millions Americans. It it estimated that the number of AD patients will reach 13.2 millions in the US by 2050, if no treatments are found. </li></ul><ul><li>A  production/accumulation is the important part of the AD neuropathogenesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing evidence also suggests a role for caspase activation and apoptosis in AD neuropathogenesis. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 100 million patients worldwide have surgery each year. Several reports have suggested that anesthesia and surgery may facilitate the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). </li></ul>(Reviewed in Xie and Tanzi, 2006)
  3. 4. (Xie et al., 2006a) Isoflurane induces caspase-3 activation, reduces cell viability and increases A  generation in H4 human neuroglioma cells overexpressing APP (H4-APP cells)
  4. 6. (Xie et al., 2006b) Isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4 -APP cells is dose-dependent
  5. 8. (Xie et al., 2007) Isoflurane induces caspase-3 activation without detectable changes in APP processing and A  generation in naïve H4 cells
  6. 9. (Xie et al., 2007) Z-VAD attenuates the isoflurane effects on caspase-3 activation, APP processing and A  levels
  7. 10. (Xie et al., 2007) Isoflurane enhance levels of BACE and  -secretase
  8. 11. (Xie et al., 2007) iA  5 and clioquinol attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation
  9. 12. (Xie et al., 2007) A  potentiates the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation
  10. 13. (Xie et al., 2007) Summary
  11. 14. <ul><li>Acute perioperative insults, e.g., hypoxia, hypocapnia and anesthetics, may affect A  metabolism and apoptosis, thereby increasing the risk of developing AD. </li></ul><ul><li>Isoflurane induces a vicious cycle of apoptosis and A  generation . </li></ul><ul><li>Isoflurane may induce apoptosis via A  oligomerization/fibrillar aggregation. </li></ul>Conclusion
  12. 15. <ul><li>Systematically assess the effects of isoflurane on apoptosis, APP processing, A  generation, amyloid amount/disposition, regulation of gene expression in both mice and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Further determine the molecular mechanisms by which isoflurane induces apoptosis, affects APP processing and increases A  accumulation. </li></ul>Future direction
  13. 16. <ul><li>Rudolph E. Tanzi, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Yuanlin Dong, M.D., M.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Uta Maeda </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Moir, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Guohua Zhang, M.D., Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Bin Zhang, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>**************************************************************************** </li></ul><ul><li>Deborah J. Culley, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory Crosby, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Anesthesia, </li></ul><ul><li>Brigham & Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>**************************************************************************** </li></ul><ul><li>Weiming Xia, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Neurological Diseases, Harvard Institute of Medicine and Harvard Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>**************************************************************************** </li></ul><ul><li> NIH MH 60009-02 and AG 014713-07 to Rudy Tanzi. </li></ul><ul><li> NIH K12 ( AG 000294-17 ), K08 ( NS048140-01 ), P60 (AG008812-15) and Jahnigen award from </li></ul><ul><li>American Geriatrics Society to Zhongcong Xie </li></ul>Acknowledgements