What Is Biotechnology?
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What Is Biotechnology?






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What Is Biotechnology? What Is Biotechnology? Presentation Transcript

  • What is Biotechnology?
  • Biotechnology A wide ranging scientific field which includes the manipulation of living organisms that results in new products or processes by that cell.
  • How Old Is Biotechnology ? 10,000 BC Domesticating Crops Domesticating Animals 8,000-9,000 BC 6,000 BC Brewing Beer 4,000 BC Leavening Bread 1880’s Production of Vaccines 1940’s Production of Antibiotics 1980’s Use of genetically modified organisms
  • Discovered the Laws Governing the Genetic Inheritance of Traits by Scientific Experimentation Founded Modern Genetics
  • How Old is Modern Biotechnology?
  • Genetically Modified Animals 1983 Transgenic Mice 1997 Cloned sheep
  • Modern Biotechnology
    • Molecular Biology
    • - microbiology
    • - biochemistry
    • - cell biology
    • Molecular Genetics
    • Genetic Engineering: Moving a gene from one organism to another
    • - chemical engineering
    • - biomanufacturing
  • Genetically Modifying DNA Integration of Foreign DNA into Existing DNA
  • Gene Manipulation and Introduction in Plant Biotechnology
  • Restriction Enzyme and Ligase
  • Examples of Plant Transformations
  • Biotechnology Industry
    • As of December 2003:
    • There are 1,473 companies & 198,300 employees
    • 300 Biotechnology drug products and vaccines are in clinical trials
    • Biotechnology foods include papaya, corn and soybeans
    • Environmental biotechnology used to clean up hazardous spills
    • Forensic medicine is used for identification by DNA Fingerprinting
    • Regulated by the FDA
    • More than 323 million people worldwide have been helped by Biotech
  • Fermentation Vessels in Biomanufacturing Plant
  • Biopharmaceuticals Defined
    • Any biology-based therapeutic that structurally mimics components found in the body
    • Includes: recombinant proteins, antibodies, peptides, antisense nucleotides, therapeutic genes, therapeutic vaccines
  • Biotechnology Applications in Health and Medicine
    • Protein Pharmaceuticals
    • Vaccines & Therapeutic Agents
    • Diagnostics: Protein or DNA Based
    • Gene Therapy
    • Stem Cell Research
    • Cancer Treatment
  • Biotech Products in Use
    • Epogen,neupogen (Amgen)
    • TPA, Insulin
    • (Genentech)
    • Interferon Beta
    • (Biogenidec)
    • Algucerase
    • (Genzyme)
    • Anemia, chemotherapy effects
    • Blood clot remover,
    • diabetic treatment
    • Treatment of Multiple
    • Sclerosis
    • Gaucher’s Disease
    • lysosomal storage
    • genetic defect
  • Gene Therapy
    • Insertion of a new “healthy” gene into the organism to provide needed (usually) proteins, hormones etc.
    • Gene is carried into the host by a viral
    • vector that has been disabled
    • Can provide relief for many genetic diseases
    • Problems: Jessie Gelsinger, xscid babies
    • immune responses, and cancer
  • Cancer Therapy
    • Factors that inhibit blood vessel growth
    • Toxic chemicals delivered by antibodies to
    • specific cancer cells
    • Killer gene is delivered to tumor cells by
    • specific binding to the cancer cell
  • Stem Cells
    • Can be used to replace damaged tissue
    • Examples: Heart cells, Parkinson’s disease and Pancreatic cells in Diabetes
    • Ethical issues and lack of cells to work with have slowed this research