Teaching Biotechnology in the Local High Schools (ppt)


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Teaching Biotechnology in the Local High Schools (ppt)

  1. 1. Biotechnology In Local Schools (BILS) Presented by: Holly Jefferson Biotechnology Instructor hjefferson @ lenoircc . edu And Mickey Adams Biology Instructor [email_address]
  2. 2. Introduction to BILS <ul><ul><li>Provides an opportunity for teachers and students to learn the fundamentals of biotechnology, genetics, and/or molecular biology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces career paths in the field of biotechnology to students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers dual enrollment to high school students to Lenoir Community College. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations and hands on activity in local middle and high schools performed by LCC staff with the use of mobile labs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BILS manual to serve as a resource for middle and high school teachers. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Biotechnology? <ul><li>Biological science when applied especially in genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology - Meriam-Webster </li></ul>The use living organisms or their products to perform a valuable purpose.
  4. 4. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>~8000 BC Mesopotamia: Humans began farming and the domestication of animals. </li></ul>Selective breeding soon followed.
  5. 5. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>500 BC In China, moldy soybean curds became first antibiotic used to treat infections/ailments </li></ul><ul><li>300 BC Greeks develop grafting techniques for plant breeding. </li></ul><ul><li>100 AD First insecticide produced in China – from powdered chrysanthemums. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1663 Robert Hooke discovers Cells </li></ul><ul><li>1861 Louis Pasteur develops pasteurization and Germ Theory </li></ul><ul><li>1865 Gregory Mendel, the father of modern genetics, discovers laws of heredity </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>Late 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Luther Burbank, the father of modern plant breeding, developed more than 800 new strains of fruits, vegetables and flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant breeders crossbreed cotton to develop hundreds of varieties with superior growing qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers first inoculate fields with nitrogen-fixing bacteria to improve yields. </li></ul><ul><li>First experimental corn hybrid produced in the laboratory by William James Beal, a Professor of Botany, at Michigan Academy of Sciences, 1870-1910. </li></ul>
  8. 8. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1941 Danish microbiologist A. Justin coins term &quot;genetic engineering” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique involving a transfer of a select piece of genetic material from one organism to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: We did not yet know what the genetic material was. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>In 1944 Oswald Avery proves DNA is the genetic material, and his findings were confirmed in 1952 by Hershey and Chase. </li></ul>
  10. 10. In 1953, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) was discovered as a double helix structure by Watson and Crick using data collected by Rosalind Franklin.
  11. 11. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1961 Marshall Nirenberg and colleagues decipher the genetic code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic code is a triplet code, with each codon consisting of three nucleotide bases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code Properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degenerate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unambiguous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains start and stop signals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Origin of Life </li></ul></ul></ul>Marshall Nirenberg
  12. 12. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1970 American microbiologist, Daniel Nathans, discovers first restriction enzyme which can cut specifically cut DNA at a specific recognition site. </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1972: DNA ligase, which links DNA fragments together, used for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>1973: Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer discover recombinant DNA technology. They inserted a gene from an African clawed toad into bacterial DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>1978: Boyer was the first to insert a human gene (Insulin) into Bacteria for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>1982: Scientists at Ohio University produced the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. </li></ul>
  14. 14. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>In 1983 the first genetically engineered drug was developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria was the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Diabetes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. History of Biotechnology <ul><li>1985: First genetically modified crops field tested. </li></ul><ul><li>1986:The EPA approved the release of the first genetically engineered crop, virus resistant tobacco plants. </li></ul><ul><li>1990: Human Genome Project launched. Aim: Sequence and Map the entire genome. </li></ul><ul><li>1994: The first genetically engineered food product, the Flavr Savr tomato, gained FDA approval </li></ul><ul><li>2003: Human Genome successfully mapped. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biotechnology Today <ul><li>Agricultural Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically altered Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically modified Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioremediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials Science </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Biotechnology Today <ul><li>Medical Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease Identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designer Drugs/Vaccines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gene Therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue/Organ Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forensics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Fingerprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How big is Biotech? <ul><li>$450 Billion dollars in annual revenues with projected annual growth of 10-15%. </li></ul><ul><li>The US accounts for ~70% of the Global Biotech Industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomanufacturing jobs are among the highest paying in the manufacturing sector. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting wages of $25,000-$30,000 per year that can grow to $40,000-$50,000 with experience. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. NC Biotech
  20. 20. Importance of Biotech to NC <ul><li>Wetlands – bioremediation or aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and Animal agriculture – tobacco and sweet potatoes #1 crops, hogs and broilers #1 farm commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Industry – christmas trees #2 crop </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Research </li></ul>
  21. 21. Importance of Biotech to NC <ul><li>NC has the 3 rd largest biotech industry in the nation employing ~48,897 people with an annual payroll of ~ $1 Billion, and generates ~$3 Billion in revenue per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Milken Institute report predicts ~7,000 new biotech jobs in NC by 2014. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of workers have HS diploma, certification, or AAS, 27% have BS, and only 6% have post graduate degrees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community Colleges play a vital role in training biomanufacturing workers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Classroom Lecture Material <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand the structure and function of cells, understand the importance of DNA and RNA, and to understand the basic principles of Biotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom Lecture contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell structure and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA and RNA structure and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gel electrophoresis </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Cell <ul><li>The cell is the building block of all living things </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are composed of Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can only come from preexisting cells </li></ul><ul><li>There are two general types of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cells like bacterial cells are simple cells that lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic cells are much more complex, contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Cell <ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates cells from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates permeability of ions, nutrients, and waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of a Phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains Cytosol, the watery liquid of the cell and cellular organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organnelles are structures that perform specific functions inside cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Cell <ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves and “skeleton” for the cells providing support, strength, stability, and plays a role in transport of cellular products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the surface areas of the cell to allow for increased absorptive capacity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists in movement of chromosomes during cellular division </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Cell <ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slender extensions of the cell membrane that beat rhythmically to move fluids across the surface of cells or provide locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles responsible for the translation of mRNA into protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteasome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles responsible to breaking down cellular proteins </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Cell <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network of intracellular membranes connected to the nuclear envelope surrounding the nucleus of a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis, storage, transport, and detoxification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Golgi Apparatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifyies and packages secretions, such as, enzymes, for release through exocytosis, it renews or modifies the cell membrane, and packages special enzymes within vesicles for use in the cytosol of the cell </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Cell <ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles that contain digestive enzymes that function in the breakdown of foreign and intracellular materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peroxisome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles that break down fatty acids and other organic compounds </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Cell <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleus serves as the headquarters of cellular activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and processes DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organelle is the “power plant” of the cell. The mitochondria produces energy for cellular activities in the form of ATP </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. DNA <ul><li>Double stranded polymer that stores an organism’s genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of phosphoric acid, a pentose sugar called ribose, and a nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>Two strands of nucleotides intertwine to form a double helix structure </li></ul>
  31. 31. DNA <ul><li>The nitrogenous bases exhibit complimentary base pairing and form hydrogen bonds that hold the two strands of DNA together </li></ul><ul><li>The pyrimidines cytosine, and thymine for hydrogen bonds with the purines guanine and adenine respectively </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Genetic Code <ul><li>An organism’s genetic information, the organisms genes, is written in a DNA language. </li></ul><ul><li>A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular polypeptide product. These polypeptides called proteins perform numerous critical roles in each cell in an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence of nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecule contains a code that determines the particular amino acids that will be incorporated into the protein. </li></ul>
  33. 34. The Genetic Code <ul><li>Each protein is composed of different combination of 20 different amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Three nitrogenous bases code for one amino acid in a protein, therefore the genetic code is a triplet code </li></ul><ul><li>One triplet is called a codon </li></ul><ul><li>Code properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The code is universal for all organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one codon codes for the same amino acid </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. How Genes Work <ul><li>DNA is Transcribed into mRNA and mRNA is Translated into Protein </li></ul><ul><li>RNA is a very similar to DNA with a few structural differences </li></ul>
  35. 36. Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><li>Several discoveries combined with the knowledge of DNA structure and function allowed scientists to construct DNA molecules in the test tube. </li></ul><ul><li>These recombinant DNA molecules can be placed in other organisms in order to manufacture a protein product of interest or make copies of the gene. This is commonly referred to a gene cloning. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of placing foreign DNA into a host organism is called transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms created in this way are referred to as transgenic. </li></ul><ul><li>Many beneficial molecules can be manufactured this way including insulin, growth hormone, and antibodies. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><li>The Recombinant DNA Technology Toolkit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction enzymes: specifically cleave DNA and thus act as DNA scissors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA ligase: An enzyme that binds to two DNA fragments together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector: Serves to carry foreign DNA inside host cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmids: Circular strands of bacterial DNA that can easily transport foreign DNA inside cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses: Intracellular parasites that can be harnessed to transport foreign DNA inside cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><li>Isolate gene of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Ligate gene into a vector </li></ul><ul><li>Transform host organism </li></ul><ul><li>Culture host organism </li></ul><ul><li>Purify gene product of interest </li></ul>How to
  38. 39. Production of Transgenic Organisms <ul><li>The production of transgenic organisms involves the injection of foreign DNA into an egg. </li></ul><ul><li>The egg is then fertilized and placed inside a surrogate organism which carries the transgenic organism to term. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Production of Transgenic Plants <ul><li>Transgenic plants can be produced with plant cell culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign DNA is used to transform disassociated plant cells that are then grown in culture. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Researchers are currently working on ways to treat and even cure certain genetic disorders utilizing recombinant DNA technology </li></ul><ul><li>Today many can be detected using genetic screening </li></ul>
  41. 42. DNA Gel Electrophoresis <ul><li>Fragments of DNA can be separated based on size when subjected to an electrical field because DNA carries a negative charge. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA samples are loaded into semisolid matrix made of the carbohydrate agarose. </li></ul><ul><li>As the DNA moves through the gel the DNA collides with the matrix. The smaller fragments collide less often and thus move faster than larger fragments </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Gel electrophoresis allows DNA to be visualized after staining </li></ul>
  42. 43. Gel Electrophoresis
  43. 44. Uses of DNA Electrophoresis <ul><li>Identify people by their DNA (DNA fingerprinting) </li></ul><ul><li>Test for diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Allows manipulation of fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Gene mapping </li></ul>
  44. 45. DNA Fingerprinting <ul><li>Everyone's DNA has small differences. The only exceptions are identical siblings. </li></ul><ul><li>When subjected to restriction enzymes that cut specific sequences of DNA, each persons DNA will be cut into different sized fragments. These are referred to as restriction fragment lengths polymorphisms or RFLP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Since each person has different RFLP’s, each individuals fragments produce different banding patterns when subjected to gel electrophoresis. The result is a unique pattern of DNA fragments called a DNA fingerprint. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Classroom Activities <ul><li>The classroom activities detailed in the BILS manual are intended to foster understanding of cell biology and biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities described in the manual are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building a cell: Understand the structure of the cell by building a 3-D model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing a cell: Understand basic cell physiology and organelle function by acting out the structures of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion and Osmosis: Explain the concepts of diffusion and osmosis visually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micropipetting: Introduce the students to the most common tool used in biotechnology laboratories and also review the metric system </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Micropipetting
  47. 48. Classroom Activities <ul><li>Activities described in the manual continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Isolation: Students isolate and can actually see DNA from strawberries or kiwi fruit using common household items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Gel Electrophoresis: Students learn to perform one of the most fundamental techniques of biotechnology whereby DNA is separated in an agarose gel matrix according to size </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. For More Information <ul><li>For more information on BILS: www.lenoircc.edu/biotech/ </li></ul><ul><li>For the Biotechnology Workshop Manual: www.lenoircc.edu/biotech/BiotechWorkshop. pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holly Jefferson: [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lisa Boyd: [email_address] </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lisa Boyd </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Pharr </li></ul>