RANGE ANIMAL NUTRITION AND PRODUCTION AnS 477 Feb. 6, 2003

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RANGE ANIMAL NUTRITION AND PRODUCTION AnS 477 Feb. 6, 2003

  1. 1. Optimum range beef production is achieved only by matching the animal’s genetic potential to the nutritional environment .
  2. 2. OPTIMAL RANGE/ANIMAL UTILIZATION <ul><li>“ The most critical decision we make is when to change pastures. Too early, we leave valuable forage; too late, we have a detrimental impact on both livestock and rangeland sustainability”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. BOVINE BUFFET <ul><li>Healthy desert rangelands are diverse eco-systems </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of potential diet species varies depending on time of year, elevation and effective precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Collectively provides a “nutritional buffet” </li></ul><ul><li>Animals, like people have different selection preferences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of Rangeland Nutrients <ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Forbs </li></ul><ul><li>Browse </li></ul>
  5. 5. GENERAL NUTRIENT CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and Oils </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins and Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plant factors affecting animal intake: Availability Preference Quality Anti grazing factors
  7. 7. Animal factors affecting intake: breed sex body size ruminal capacity body condition digestibility supplementation rate of intake grazing time
  8. 8. WHERE DOES THE FEED GO ? <ul><li>Maintenance 70% to 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation 6% to 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation 18% to 20% </li></ul>
  9. 9. CRITICAL NUTRIENT NEEDS; Fertility and Reproduction Growth Lactation
  10. 10. Compounding Nutritional Issues <ul><li>Toxicities </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Improper ratios (minerals) </li></ul><ul><li>Synergistic and antagonistic interactions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Range Supplementation <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins and Mineral </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rifle vs Shotgun <ul><li>Rifle is appropriate for “stationary targets” </li></ul><ul><li>Harvested feeds, composition not rapidly changing, design ration for specific performance </li></ul><ul><li>Shotgun is appropriate for “flying targets” </li></ul><ul><li>Rangeland feed composition may be constantly changing. Precipitation etc </li></ul>
  13. 13. Specific Ammunition <ul><li>What mix of pellets “supplements” is best suited to meet the animal’s immediate needs? </li></ul><ul><li>What delivery system works for you? </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t measure it, can’t manage it </li></ul><ul><li>Need to have current, accurate diet data </li></ul>
  14. 14. Energy Supplementation <ul><li>Energy must be supplemented on a daily basis </li></ul><ul><li>The amount fed determines whether supplementation or substitution occurs. If 10% or more of the diet is fed, then substitution occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation will impact grazing activities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protein Supplementation <ul><li>May be supplemented as infrequently as once or twice per week </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (protein) is recycled in the form of urea </li></ul><ul><li>Protein supplementation will improve the digestibility of low quality forage by as much as 10% </li></ul>
  16. 16. Macro Mineral Nutrition in Grazing Ruminants <ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul>
  17. 17. Micro Minerals – Their role in the diet of grazing ruminants <ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul><ul><li>Cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul>
  18. 18. What biological type is best suited to Southwestern rangelands? Low production No High production Good Years Med. production Most Years
  19. 19. Limited forage availability is more detrimental to animals with high rather than low genetic production potential
  20. 20. Balancing the size of the herd to the nutritional carrying capacity of the range Stocking rate must be varied to match the nutrient yield of the range
  21. 21. RANGE LIVESTOCK NUTRITION A MOVING TARGET UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA BEEF DAY July 29, 2009 Dr. Bob Kattnig Associate Livestock Specialist Department of Animal Sciences The University of Arizona Thank You

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