Education/training BS, MS, PhD Graduates: industry, universities, int’l Cost for graduate student (1/2 – time assistantship): assistantship+fee remission+overhead+thesis research ≈ $50,000/year (competitive funding) ($100,000 – 150,000/student-degree) Project support personnel (tech, postdoc, RA) most are supported on competitive funding (res grants)
Research Varieties, gp – Small grains, Sorghum, Soybean Mrkrs, Map’g, MAS: SB, Sorghum, Wht, Oat Genetics Corn, SB, Sorghum, Wht model crops (Arab, M trunc), Rice Across crops: >’g emphasis in basic genetics Federal competitive fund’g (USDA, NSF, DOE, USAID) Minimize duplic’n, but collaborate with industry Fed. formula funds will < and/or change (competitive) US Taxpayer: accountability Faculty salaries: Indiana and US (Hatch) taxpayers accountability
So what have/are we accomplishing/contributing/doing? Interactions with seed industry?
Ongoing Program to Develop High Yielding Proprietary Varieties with Improved Disease Resistance for the Licensed Genetics Market and the Non GMO Specialty Grains Market
Use of Advanced Breeding Methods Have Shorten Variety Development Time
Crossing and Selection Since 2000
Since 2004 Indiana Seed Companies have been able to evaluate in their own systems the best lines from the Purdue Breeding program. Ten companies in 2005.
Purdue Soybean Breeding Program
Defensive Trait Objectives
Phytophthora Rps1k +3a Resistance
+ CystX SCN Resistance
+ Rps8 Phytophthora Resistance
+ SDS Resistance
Two New High Yielding Varieties Released for Foundation Seed Production in 2005 Purdue -> Ag Alumni -> IN Seedsmen
Soybean Variety Development Allen LeRoy Program funding: ISB, Purdue
USB -funded projects in Jackson Lab
Development of physical map for sequencing of soybean genome.
To enable gene cloning and marker development for breeding.
Soybean genomics NSF (2005).
Molecular cytogenetic analysis of soybean genome to elucidate genome structure.
To enable gene cloning and genetic manipulation by focusing on seed related loci.
Ohm: Wheat and Oat Breeding/genetics Wheat : Indiana, Eastern US, Mid-south 34 cultivars - earliness: doublecropping - cold tolerance : Patterson, Goldfield - 1 st YD R from wheatgrass – INW0315, INW0316 - FHB R (INW0304, INW0411, INW0412) Low incidence 1 st to pyramid res from 201R, Gfd, Chinese (MAS) - HF R 1 st to pyramid res genes (MAS) INW0301, INW0303 26 gp lines plus lines in reg’l nurseries: parents for others Oats : Indiana, upper midwest, Ontario, NE - YD tol/res; Cr R ; Milling qualities, β -glucan (Quaker)
Purdue Sorghum Research Current Research Projects in support of the US Seed Industry
Grain & Forage Quality and Bio-fuel
Brown mid-rib, low lignin mutations, sweet sorghums
High Digestible grains
B-carotene and other micronutrients
pre- and post-flowering drought tolerance
stay-green trait & associations
identification & validation of QTL
Development of lab techniques
Identification and validation of QTL
Marker Assisted Introgression
Leaf rust, anthracnose, and grain mold
Sources of resistance from cultivated and wild sorghums
Purdue Sorghum Research Non-research activities in support of the seed industry
Germplasm Conservation and Enhancement
Introduce, characterize, enhance, and conserve
Assessment of Gene Flow Among Sorghums
Pollen mediated gene flow/risk assessment
Catalyze Seed Industry Development in Africa
Part of a regional effort to develop a functional seed program.
Training of Plant Breeders
Purdue Sorghum Research Inbred Lines Released to the US Seed Industry
40 Food Grain Seed Parents
14 Drought Tolerant Pollinators
7 Grain Mold Resistant Seed Parents
6 Stay Green (Drought tolerant) Inbreds
2 Early Maturity Drought Tolerant Inbreds
1 Forage Quality Inbred Seed Parent
Modifying lignin composition to enhance ethanol production
Funded by Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research, Inc. and Dow AgroSciences
Defining cell wall properties that improve the yield of fermentable sugars from maize stover
Breeding of maize inbred lines with enhanced bio-processing characteristics
Identification and characterization of cell wall mutants by Fourier transform and near infrared spectroscopies
Funded by NSF Plant Genome Program
Identification of maize mutants with altered cell wall properties based on a high-throughput spectroscopic screen
Approxmately 50 novel mutants have been identified. No apparent visual phenotype, but altered spectral features.
Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research
Targeting Induced Limited Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) in maize
Making, and then screening large, mutant populations for single base changes in any specified gene in the genome ( NSF-funded )
The Genetics of Genetics: Genes that control meiotic recombination in maize ( NSF-funded )
Corn is a model of human immune disease: Repair of DNA hairpins
An unusual DNA structure is formed when the maize transposon Ac moves, ALSO forms while vertebrate animals make immune receptor genes.
Key factors for repairing these structures, required in humans, are absent in plants and yeast, yet all these organisms repair DNA hairpins very effectively. We are studying how this happens. (BARD-funded, NSF and NIH to be submitted shortly)
Maize genes that control starch digestibility (joint project with the Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research at Purdue) (PRF and ARP-funded)
Dan Szymanski Understanding how plant cells use actin filament polymerization during growth In developing cells of the seed and germinating seedling, the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton drives organelle biogenesis during cell growth. We are studying actin-dependent processes in order to manipulate the transport, metabolism, and storage of lipids. The actin related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex is an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins that efficiently nucleate new actin filament polymers. The grants below focus on different functional aspects of the Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex using the model plant Arabidopsis. NSF -Mechanisms of plant cell morphogenesis: ARP2/3 function and trichome distortion in Arabidopsis Objective: To determine which organelles are controlled by the Arp2/3 complex during growth. DOE - The Arabidopsis WAVE Complex: mechanisms of localized actin polymerization and growth Objective: To understand how the plant WAVE proteins control the activity of the Arp2/3 complex. Hughes Graduate Student Fellowship : 2003-2007 Regulation of the lipid content of soybean Objective: To understand how post-germination phospholipid trafficking in the cotyledon is regulated
Education/Engagement BS: internships, work experiences Graduate degrees: -need to expand experiences/intns with industry Research/Engagement Res will continue to be supported by compet fundg Expand intns/collab w industry: basic ->applied -strength & stability in broad base support Hire individuals who have appreciation for: agric, land-grant mission, tchg/res/engagement