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Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
Psychology 1010
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Psychology 1010

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  • 1. 1 Psychology 1010 Test 1 “Sample Questions” Let me give some examples of the types of questions you can expect on Test 1, so you can plan to "deeply" rather than "superficially" study the materials for the test, and to reinforce the need to study well in advance, rather than cramming. The questions illustrate that you need to well understand the meanings of the concepts covered in the textbook, or in class, in order to be able to apply those correctly to real- world examples. They also illustrate that some questions will be based on the lecture notes or what we have discussed in class. An important lesson from these questions also is: You are not being tested on your opinions or common sense; you are being tested on what you have learned in the book and in class. They additionally show that you should approach ANY multiple-choice test by first ruling out what are obviously the wrong answers and only then rule in the absolutely best answer. There truly IS only one right/best answer for each question. Finally, they illustrate that I will give examples on the test that might be fictitious – that is, they do not necessarily refer to a real study, but they illustrate concepts you need to know and understand. Read each question & answer carefully. Students sometimes goof because they don’t see words like “NOT” in the question or answer alternatives. I do NOT give you the correct answers to these sample questions. I would like you to figure out what the right answers are. You all should be able to if you have been studying your book, your lecture notes, and attending class. Rikki during SI (or during her office hours) will give you the practice you need regarding these sample questions – remember, though, she will not simply release the right answers. IF you can answer these types of questions correctly, then you should be in good stead for Test 1. Remember, though, do not lull yourself into thinking that this sample test is the ONLY material you should study. This would be unwise, since you are responsible for all material we have covered and the sample test does not canvas all of that material. Remember that ALL of the chapters we have studied, all of the lecture notes, and all of our class discussions are fair game for the test. Researchers investigated the relationship between amount of smoking and the likelihood of dying of cancer. They found that as the amount of smoking increased, the chances of dying of cancer increased. Another way to put their finding is: As the amount of smoking decreased, the likelihood of dying of cancer decreased as well. Which of the following correlation coefficients is most likely to reflect the relationship found between smoking and dying of cancer? (a) -.30 (b) +.30 (c) -110.00 (d) +110.00
  • 2. 2 Which of the following "observers" is most likely to make the fundamental attribution error when explaining someone else's behavior? (a) Reed, who was distracted while observing the behavior. (b) Pamela, who was focused on the situation. (c) Angie, who was not distracted while observing the behavior. (d) Sirajul, who is an adult in India. Joyce expected that her new roommate, Chrissie, would be somewhat cold and unfriendly. Because of this expectation, Joyce did not welcome Chrissie into her room very warmly. In turn, Chrissie did not act very warmly toward Joyce, and Chrissie even began to be unfriendly toward Joyce and Joyce's friends. This best illustrates the operation of the: (a) negative effects of counterfactual thinking. (b) self-fulfilling prophecy. (c) false-consensus effect. (d) theory of cognitive dissonance. Marty has small eyes, low eyebrows, a small forehead, and an angular chin. Victor has large round eyes, high eyebrows, round cheeks, a larger forehead, smooth skin, and a rounded chin. According to actual research findings regarding social perception, Victor should have the greatest advantage over Marty when: (a) they apply for jobs as computer software programmers. (b) they are each on trial for an intentional wrongdoing. (c) they audition to play the part of a cousin in a theater production. (d) they are each on trial for an accidental, but negligent act. Carly was given complete freedom in what paper to write for her Speech Debate class. She came up with the idea, on her own, to argue in favor of the death penalty for people convicted of murder (even though Carly has always been strongly opposed to the death penalty). After Carly writes the paper, what will her attitude be toward the death penalty, according to cognitive dissonance theory? (a) Carly is likely to favor the death penalty more. (b) Carly is likely to favor the death penalty less. (c) Carly's attitude toward the death penalty will not change. (d) Carly will have conflicting attitudes toward the death penalty. Researchers first observed kids in two different day-care centers. They saw that the kids in both day-care centers really liked drawing pictures using colorful magic markers. They knew this, because all kids would choose these materials and activities during free- play. The researchers then executed a study at the two centers over a three-week period. In Center A, they would always reward the kids every time they chose to play with the magic markers (by giving them treats). In Center B, the researchers did not introduce any
  • 3. 3 reward -- in other words, they did not introduce anything new. In the 4th week, they then observed how often the kids would freely choose to play with the magic markers. They found that the rewarded kids (Center A) played with the magic markers a LOT LESS than the kids who received no extra reward (Center B). Which school of thought, or perspective, in psychology would be totally surprised by the "day care study" finding, since the finding contradicts their predictions? (a) functionalism (b) behaviorism (c) humanistic psychology (d) cognitive psychology The day-care study is an example of a(n) _____________ study, in which at least one _______________ variable is ______________? (a) laboratory, dependent, measured. (b) field, dependent, measured. (c) experimental, independent, manipulated. (d) correlational, independent, measured. The day-care study also is an example of a study conducted in a ___________ research setting and using a(n) _______________ data-collection method? (a) field, experimental. (b) field, test. (c) laboratory, self-report. (d) field, observational. Pretend that two women were interviewed by a potential employer for a job. The two women are known to differ in physical attractiveness – with one being super beautiful and the other being average in attractiveness. Besides that difference, their resumes are identical, and they act the same and dress the same during the interview. The findings show that the interviewer later reported that he believed the more attractive candidate to be more objectively qualified for the job, and he assertively declared several examples of her better qualifications. He flat out denied relying on the candidates’ physical attractiveness to make the decision to offer the beautiful woman the job and offer her a salary that was $5,000 higher than the maximum salary that was advertised. The male interviewers' comments reveal, directly or indirectly, the: (a) problems with using self-reports as a valid data-collection method. (b) problems in relying on introspection as a data-collection method. (c) problems with the structuralists’ prime and preferred method for identifying elements of experience. (d) "what is beautiful, is good" stereotype. (e) all of the above.
  • 4. 4 Researchers who report strong correlation coefficients between two measures that have a positive (+), this means _________________, and when they find strong correlation coefficients having a minus (-) sign, this means ___________________: (a) the scores on both measures increase (or decrease) in the same direction; the scores on the two measures are inversely related. (b) the scores on the two measures are inversely related; the scores on both measures increase (or decrease) in the same direction. (c) the researchers have found a good or beneficial relationship; the researchers have found a bad or harmful relationship. (d) the plus or minus sign doesn't make a difference in interpreting either relationship, since we need to know more about the size of the coefficient. A researcher finds that there is a strongly positive, and statistically significant, correlation between the number of churches in a community and the amount of alcohol sold in that community. What is the most reasonable conclusion to draw based on these results? (a) drinking alcohol probably causes people to feel guilty, which increases their church attendance. (b) the researchers did not have a big enough sample to justify reporting this result. (c) there is probably something about church attendance (or what happens during church) that drives people to drink. (d) there probably is a "third" variable that explains the relationship (e.g., size of community). Another researcher finds that children who frequently watch TV shows with positive messages (like Mr. Rogers; shows emphasizing sharing, caring, helping) also are observed to be much more altruistic at school. Point(s) illustrated by this finding are: (a) we might be wise to expose children to positive TV shows because this brings about increases in altruism. (b) children who are altruistic might not need any extra exposure to these types of TV shows. (c) we can predict how often these shows will be watched by knowing how altruistic children are. (d) our values and hopes can interfere or bias interpretations of correlational results. (e) all of the above deserve further study to find which ones are valid. A high school teacher is worried about gender biases of the students. For example, the teacher observes the students to frequently express beliefs that girls are more emotional and more easily upset than boys. The teacher wants to eliminate these beliefs and thus makes the students write down 100 times "girls are not more emotional, girls are not more emotional, girls are not more emotional..." The teachers also criticizes the class for holding these beliefs, since they are wrong and can be harmful -- thus telling the class to stop thinking these things! What are these types of beliefs called: ___________?; What
  • 5. 5 is the most likely effect of the teachers’ behavior toward the students? (a) primed beliefs; decrease the students' behaviors. (b) stereotypes; increase the students' behaviors. (c) negative attitudes; enhance student guilt which then decreases their behaviors. (d) implicit beliefs; decrease the students' behaviors. Chapter 1 devoted a lot of space to discussing debates that raged between philosophers about the mind-body problem. Stated in layperson's terms, what IS the mind-body "problem"? (a) under what conditions observable behavior causes vs. does not cause changes in the brain, etc. (b) how a small clump of brain tissue creates thoughts, consciousness, creativity, etc. (c) how the brain sometimes causes, and other times does not cause, changes in observable behavior, etc. (d) why some people's thoughts don't match their behavior, but other people's thoughts do match their behavior, etc. The majority of Americans believe in the "soul." Many Americans believe in a "Ghost in the Machine" -- that we possess an ethereal, nonphysical "something" that is directing our brains to do things. In fact, many Americans also think that many mental problems (such as depression) reflect a weakness of the person's soul or will and that the depressed person could just "snap out of it" if the person “really wanted” to. These intuitions or beliefs best align with which philosophical roots of psychology? (a) nativism. (b) empiricism. (c) materialism. (d) dualism. Twice as many women than men, worldwide, are diagnosed with clinical levels of depression. The greater incidence of depression in women than men is consistent with which school of thought or perspective in psychology? (a) a biological perspective best accounts for the difference. (b) a learning perspective best accounts for the difference. (c) a socio-cultural perspective best accounts for the difference. (d) a psychodynamic perspective best accounts for the difference. (e) any or all of above could best account for the difference. People can suffer from several different, distinct episodes of depression throughout their lifetime. For example, a person could be clinically diagnosed as suffering from depression during their teenage years & recover; the person could again become depressed in young adulthood & recover, and then the person could suffer a third bout of depression in old age & recover. Which statement reflects the best way of explaining or
  • 6. 6 approaching this person’s three episodes of depression? (a) the cause of all three is likely a risk factor that is biological in nature (e.g., hormonal factors, neurotransmitter deficits, and/or genetic predispositions). (b) the cause of all three likely reflects some consistency in the person’s environment that creates a repeated risk for depression (e.g., continued stress, continued reinforcement for acting depressed). (c) the person has some deep-seated, unresolved, psychodynamic issue (like a secret loathing of the mother) that is creating a repeated risk for depression. (d) the person has developed thought patterns or habits that create a risk for repeated depressive episodes (e.g., the person consistently attributes negative outcomes to something about their personality as opposed to the situation). (e) each depressive episode could reflect only one of these different causes or a combination of them. We know from scientific research that a variety of biological factors contribute to the development of a disorder, like depression. We encounter a person who is clinically diagnosable as depressed. The best way of seeking to help this person is: (a) definitely referring the person to an interdisciplinary team to assess the factors specifically contributing to this episode of this person’s depression. (b) definitely referring the person to a physician to prescribe a drug treatment, like Prozac. (c) definitely using a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy. (d) definitely using psychotherapy alone, since drugs have as yet unknown negative side effects. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the genetic and evolutionary foundations of behavior. Which historical figures from Chapter 1 would resonate most to this chapter? (a) Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers. (b) Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget. (c) B.F. Skinner and J.B. Watson. (d) Konrad Lorenz and William James. Your book discusses one of Freud’s most impressive and long-lasting contributions to psychology. What was this? (a) his recognition that unconscious processes affect conscious thought and action. (b) his discovery of the psychoanalytic method for use in treatment and understanding the mind. (c) proving that physicians, and not just psychologists, could offer considerable insights into mental health processes. (d) his development of dream analysis and the method of free association to help people.
  • 7. 7 Research actually shows that (a) female humans seek to mate most frequently around the time of ovulation and (b) male humans seek out females to mate most often around the time that females ovulate or when they are “tricked” into perceiving that a female is ovulating by scenting the female with pheromones (scents emanating from the female body that are strongly correlated with ovulation). What is the most plausible ultimate explanation of these preferences?; What is the most plausible proximate explanation of these preferences? (a) Humans have evolved signals specific to their species to tell each other when it is best to mate; Culture and the Lamarckian processes contributing to acquired cultural characteristics have evolved to fine tune this signaling system. (b) These signaling systems in humans actually are nonfunctional, since they do not provide any extra added value in promoting mating since humans have evolved other ways of ensuring sexual reproduction; Male and female humans are socialized and simply consciously know that the different moods of females are signs of their reproductive willingness. (c) Pheromones and seeking mating at the time of ovulation are adaptive mechanisms for ensuring conception and the continuation of their genes; The females’ drive to mate is triggered by the production of ovulation-specific sex hormones and the males’ drive to mate is facilitated when they smell pheromones that have been triggered by the production of certain sex hormones during ovulation. (d) The male and female humans’ behaviors are fixed action patterns that have evolved over eons to ensure reproductive success; There are specific environmental (e.g., marriage) and hormonal conditions (e.g., progesterone) needed to get males and females to choose to want to mate. Human primates and nonhuman primates (such as chimpanzees and bonobos) will display smiles or smilelike expressions. They also share other types of nonverbal displays, such as yawning or crying. Nonetheless, these displays are not identical, humans show a wider variety of displays, and they seem to consciously control them more. The similarity between the nonverbal displays of human and nonhuman primates is interpreted as evidence for: (a) A linear progression of evolution in which humans gradually descended from apes, with human primates having evolved most recently and being better adapted to control their nonverbal behavior, probably because they have bigger brains. (b) A common genetic ancestry reflecting homologous evolution that could have led to the selection of genes that would produce these signals in both species because of their adaptive value in the social groups in which both species live. (c) A common genetic ancestry reflecting analogous evolution that could have led to the selection of genes that would produce these signals in both species because of their adaptive value in the social groups in which both species live. (d) The existence of vestigial characteristics in both species that got passed along genetically, because both infant human primates and nonhuman primates have no other way of communicating with their kin. Imagine that the world underwent a catastrophe of cataclysmic proportions in 2010.
  • 8. 8 Meteors and asteroids pummeled the entire earth, unleashing a series of natural disasters on earth. All that remained were underground caves no higher than 4 feet tall, with little oxygen, little light, little food – many of the resources necessary for survival, as we know it, were destroyed. Many thousands of years later, scientists observe that most of the human organisms living in these caves are short in stature; they also have low metabolism rates, huge lungs, huge eyes, narrow shoulders, hairy bodies, and great singing voices. Which of these traits most likely reflects genetic drift? (a) short stature (b) low metabolism rates (c) huge lungs & eyes (d) hairy bodies (e) narrow shoulders (f) great singing voices Researchers asked husbands and wives (who were the only people living in the household) to keep a log of their contribution to the household over a period of weeks. The logs were private, i.e., the husbands and wives were told not to discuss the percentages they estimated. Each husband and wife kept track of their positive contributions -- what percentage of the household chores each of them did (e.g., laundry, cooking, cleaning, shopping, paying bills). Each husband and wife also kept track of their negative contributions -- what percentage of the “messes” each of them left in the home (e.g., leaving dirty dishes, not using the clothes hamper to dispose of soiled clothing, not making the bed, failing to update the checkbook). The researchers then tallied two percentages, making sure to control for the number of chores and number of husband-wife pairs. That meant that each percentage, from a rationale/mathematical perspective, should have been 100% (e.g., husbands did 40% and wives did 60% of the chores; husbands made 40% of the messes and wives the remaining 60%, etc.). Surprisingly, though, they found that the percentage for the positive column was far greater than 100% and that for the negative column was far lower than 100%. How can this be?! A percentage can’t be greater or lesser than 100; it should add to 100! What effect do these results best illustrate? (a) Better-than-average phenomenon (b) Big-fish-in-little-pond (c) Self-serving bias (d) Actor-observer discrepancy (e) Fundamental attribution error Tamara and her husband drive a long distance to the USU campus. During each trip, they encounter dangerous and frustrating driving practices on the part of other drivers (not themselves, of course). Each time someone else makes an unwise driving maneuver, her husband exclaims something to the effect of “that stupid, jerk, idiot driver needs driving lessons.” Tamara will point out that “gee, maybe the driver was distracted by kids fighting in the backseat or maybe the driver just dropped a scalding hot cup of coffee.” The husband’s tendency best illustrates ___________ and Tamara’s
  • 9. 9 countertendency best illustrates _________________: (a) Self-serving bias; a focus on the driver’s dispositions. (b) Better-than-average effect; a focus on the driver’s situation. (c) Actor-observer discrepancy; a focus on the driver’s situation. (d) Fundamental attribution error; a focus on the driver’s situation. (e) Fundamental attribution error; redefining the goals of attribution. The suicide rate in collectivist cultures (e.g., Japan) is higher than in individualist cultures (e.g., the U.S.) among college students who perform consistently and extremely poorly during their school careers. Research in psychology provides several ways of understanding this difference in suicide rates. Of the evidence we have studied thus far, what is one sensible way of explaining the higher rate of suicide of students from collectivist cultures? Relatively speaking, when compared to collectivist cultures, the evidence suggests that … (a) individualist cultures attach less weight to academic achievement and are more concerned about financial and material wealth. (b) individualist cultures are more tolerant and forgiving of academic failure, because these cultures are guilt-based rather than shame-based. (c) individualist cultures see success as a personal choice, which makes them more prone to failure-induced cognitive dissonance, which then causes them to reduce their positive attitudes toward academic success. (d) individualist cultures define their self-worth less in terms of values that emphasize how their behavior or performance reflects on the larger social group and duties or obligations to the group. Physically fit adult males were asked to imagine that a fire had broken out in a church building. The fire was intense, out of control, and the smoke had incapacitated all people in the building. The males saw a slide show, depicting photographs of individuals who were in the building, in this order: the mayor of the town, the clergy leader, the respondent’s own older sister, the respondent’s own mother, the respondent’s 30 year-old wife, a 5 year-old neighborhood girl, a neighbors’ 6-month old infant, and the respondent’s beautiful adolescent daughter. Each respondent was confronted with a horrible dilemma, being told that they had the time to save only one person and that they needed to choose quickly. The majority of males picked their adolescent daughter as the person they would be most likely to save. A plausible explanation of that preference, according to your textbook, is that the respondents: (a) were saving the adolescent daughter as the most certain means of ensuring continuation of their family’s genes, even though they knew this only instinctively. (b) were revealing an unconscious bias that reflects the influence of the “what is beautiful, is good” stereotype, even in the most harrowing of circumstances. (c) intuitively felt most attached to the daughter, even though they probably didn’t even realize this themselves, because of cultural proscriptions against incestuous
  • 10. 10 feelings. (d) picked the last person from the slide show they saw, since this photo would have been more vivid and salient given the quick choice they were forced to make. One very likely consequence of saturating magazines, TV, and films with physically gorgeous or handsome people is that these depictions will: (a) lead viewers to make social comparisons that will gradually alter standards of ideal appearance. (b) lead viewers to make social comparisons that reduce viewers’ self-esteem. (c) perpetuate the opposite of the “big-fish-in-little-pond” effect. (d) increase viewers’ desires to form social rather than personal identities. Certain ads relevant to the upcoming U.S. presidential election are brief. For example, some ads meant to promote positive attitudes toward a candidate will show a photo of the candidate in dashing military garb or standing next to someone in uniform, followed by the slogan to “Vote Bush” or “Vote Kerry.” End of ad! Which model of attitudes is being used most heavily in these types of ads? (a) Getting people to perceive that behavior is controllable even in our 9-11 era, which is one component of the theory of planned behavior. (b) Encouraging people in this 9-11 era to systematically think about the candidate’s qualities as a military leader, which is one component of the elaboration likelihood model. (c) Cognitive dissonance theory’s prediction that free choice (symbolized by the military’s role as liberators) produces favorable attitudes. (d) Classically conditioning favorable views of the candidate to the already favorable military attitudes that most Americans in the 9-11 era have. Evolutionary approaches to thought and behavior assert that: (a) Any naturally evolved tendency (e.g., the capacity to feel spiritual awe or to reflect on our existence) must at some level reflect an adaptation, which means that these tendencies are morally superior. (b) Characteristics shared across species can reflect either common ancestry or common environmental forces favoring sexual reproduction of organisms with those characteristics. (c) Genetic factors determine our abilities and behavior more than environmental factors. (d) Appeals to positive emotions that influence behavior (such as love or compassion) are not helpful to understanding, predicting, or changing the human condition (even though they help us feel good). (e) Recent discoveries in mapping genes will allow scientists to show that human primates are descendants of nonhuman primates.
  • 11. 11 Which statement is true of Watson’s or Skinner’s behaviorism? Which statement is true of evolutionary approaches? (a) People can exert free choice and will over their behaviors; People cannot exert free choice and will over their behaviors. (b) People cannot exert free choice and will over their behaviors; People are accountable for choices they make regarding their behaviors. (c) Genetic predispositions have few influences on behavior; Genetic predispositions are determining influences on behavior. (d) The mind is not needed to understand behavior; The environment is not needed to understand behavior. (e) Nurture overrides nature; nature overrides nurture. Consider a few examples: Dogs have a keen sense of smell. Bats, dolphins, and whales can navigate using sonar. Elephants have incredible long-term memories. Ravens can solve unique problems, using insight. Parrots can count and make logical inferences based on abstract concepts. Chimps and gorillas can learn sign language to communicate their desires to humans; they act morally in many circumstances; they definitely show empathy; they definitely grieve. Wasps, bees, and ants are actually more altruistic than humans. Dolphins also can communicate grammatically correct “sentences,” and they have self-recognition. Humans have a poorer sense of smell than dogs, they do not navigate using sonar, but they definitely have all of the other skills, plus they have language, they appear to be the only organisms uniquely aware that they will die, and they possess consciousness (although there is evidence that nonhuman primates and other mammals also possess consciousness & might have a sense of death). What seems to be the most scientifically valid conclusion to make of these examples? (a) Each is somehow well adapted to the unique environmental niches in which each species formed and/or these characteristics are vestiges of successful adaptations to their distant past environments. (b) Any of the abilities shown in nonhumans were probably trained or learned, whereas humans do not need to learn those skills (they simply have them). (c) Humans show more “higher order” abilities and therefore are higher up on the evolutionary scale. (d) Consciousness, and an awareness that we will die, are not all they are cracked up to be, and are why humans seem to experience more psychological problems than many other organisms. The phrase “survival of the fittest” is actually misleading and even societally dangerous, since it implies that …? (a) There is one way of being best adapted in all environmental niches.
  • 12. 12 (b) Characteristics that we value will tend to be seen as the fittest. (c) Organisms that are the fattest, weakest, dumbest, shortest, etc. would never be the most adapted to a particular set of environmental constraints. (d) We could rationalize social policies, such as forced sterilization, based on the notion that certain organisms are simply unfit. (e) All of the above. What is NOT a feature of a scientific theory? (a) It provides the framework for explaining already existing facts. (b) It makes logical predictions about new facts that (a) should be found and (b) should not be found, if the theory is valid. (c) It is a set of ideas that people should feel free to ignore, because the ideas are “just a theory” (and any theory can find proof for its validity). (d) Its hypotheses are specific enough to be testable using the scientific method. (e) Its predictions are specific enough to actually allow scientific evidence to dispute or refute the theory. People attributed all kinds of claims to Darwin. Which claim is a false attribution to Darwin? (a) Breeding in nature is selective and can produce changes in living things over generations. (b) Might is not necessarily “right,” meaning that we should not equate how powerful or influential organisms are with how evolved or moral they are. (c) Natural selection occurs because certain organisms will have characteristics that are adaptive in overcoming environmental obstacles and other organisms will not have those characteristics. (d) The fittest survive; therefore: more evolved means more moral or right, and less evolved means less moral or less right. (e) On average and over generations, any inherited characteristic that decreases the number of offspring an organism can produce will probably be “selected against.”

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