PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
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PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Document Transcript

  • Bharathidasan University Tiuchirappalli – 620 024 B.S., ( BIOTECHNOLOGY ) FOUR YEAR B.S. PROGRAMME COURSE STRUCTURE & SYLLABUS
  • B.S., BIOTECHNOLOGY - COURSE STRUCTURE Semester I S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Language for Science - I 4 0 4 2 English for science – I 4 0 4 3 Basic Mathematics and Computer 4 0 4 Programming 4 Bioresources: Diversity and Applications 4 0 4 5 Cell Biology 4 0 4 6 Lab I: Bioresources and Cell Biology 0 6 3 20 hr 6hr 23 Semester II S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Language for Science – II 4 0 4 2 English for science - II 4 0 4 3 General Physics and Biophysics 4 0 4 4 General Chemistry 4 0 4 5 Biological Chemistry 4 0 4 6 Lab I : Biological Chemistry 0 6 3 20hr 6hr 23 Semester III S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Molecular Biology 4 0 4 2 Principles of Genetics 4 0 4 3 Biology of immune System 4 0 4 4 General Microbiology 4 0 4 5 Lab I : Molecular Biology and Genetics 0 6 3 6 Lab II: Immunology and General 0 6 3 Microbiology 16hr 12hr 22 1
  • Semester IV S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 General Physiology 4 0 4 2 Cell & Tissue culture (Plant and Animal) 4 0 4 3 Environmental Science 4 0 4 4 r-DNA technology 4 0 4 5 Lab I:General Physiology & Cell and Tissue 0 6 3 culture 6 Lab II: r-DNA Technology 0 6 3 16hr 12hr 22 Semester V S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Plant Biotechnology 4 0 4 2 Animal Biotechnology 4 0 4 3 Immunotechnology 4 0 4 4 Lab I: Plant and Animal Biotechnology 0 6 3 5 Lab II: Immunotechnology 0 6 3 6 Elective I: NanoBiotechnology, Biophysical 4 0 4 processes and Biostatistics 16hr 12hr 22 Semester VI S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Molecular Diagnostics 4 0 4 2 Microbial Biotechnology 4 0 4 3 Bioprocess Technology 4 0 4 4 Lab I: Molecular Diagnostics 0 6 3 5 Lab II: Microbial Biotechnology and 0 6 3 Bioprocess Technology 6 Elective I: General Pharmacology 4 0 4 16hr 12hr 22 2
  • Semester VII S.No Course H H Credit (T) (P) 1 Basic Bioinformatics 4 0 4 2 Genomics and Proteomics 4 0 4 3 Bioinstrumentation 4 0 4 4. Lab I: Bioinformatics (Genomics and 0 6 3 Proteomics) 4 Elective I: IPR, Biosafety and Bioethics 4 0 4 5 Elective II: Cancer Biology and Stem cells 4 0 4 20 hr 6 hr 23 Semester VIII S.No Course credit 1 Project work 18 Total credits for the Entire course 175 3
  • B.S., BIOTECHNOLOGY SYLLABUS LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE - I Kjyhk; Mz;L - Kjw;gUtk;. mwptpay; jkpo; I xU thuj;jpw;Fupa gapw;W kzp Neuk; : 03 jhspd; jug;Gs;spfs; : 03 Nehf;fq;fs;: 1. mwptpay; jkpio khztUf;F mwpKfk; nra;jy;. 2. jha;nkhoptop mwptpay; nra;jpia ntspg;gLj;Jtjd; Njitia khztUf;F mwpTWj;Jjy;. 3. mwptpay; fiyr;nrhy;yhf;fj;jpy; <LghL Vw;gLj;Jjy;. 4. mwptpay; fl;Liu vOJk; Mw;wiy toq;fy;. myF: 1 mwptpay; jkpo; - tiuaiw> mwptpay; jkpopd; ,d;wpaikahik - jha;nkhopf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;G - eilKiwr; rpf;fy;fs; - Nghjpa E}y;fs; ,d;ik - rKjha kdg;ghq;F - Mrpupau;fs;> khztu;fs; - ngw;Nwhu;fs; - gapw;Wnkhopf; Nfhl;ghLfs;. myF: 2 mwptpay; jkpo; tuyhW - Njhw;wKk; tsu;r;rpAk; - mwptpay; jkpo; gw;wpa fUj;Jf;fs; - mwptpay; jkpohf;f Kd; Kaw;rpfs; - mwptpay; ,af;fq;fs; - jkpo; nkhoptopf; fy;tp - gad;fs; - jkpo;topf; fy;tp - mwptpay;> njhopy;El;gk;. myF: 3 fiyr;nrhy; - tiuaiw> fiyr;nrhy;yhf;f newpKiwfs; - xypngau;g;G> nkhopngau;g;G> GJr;nrhw; gilg;G - Ml;rpj;jkpo; - rl;lj;jkpo; - rl;lj;jkpo;f; fiyr;nrhw;fs; - mwptpay; thf;fpa mikg;G Kiwfs; - fiyr;nrhy; jug;gLj;jk; - mwptpay; fl;Liufs; vOJjy;. myF: 4 mwptpay; nra;jpfisr; RitglTk; ftu;r;rpahfTk; juty;y topfs; - mwptpay; ,jo;fs; - mwptpaiyg; gug;Gtjpy; ,jo;fspd; gq;F. myF: 5 jkpopy; mwptpay; E}y;fs; - nkhopngau;g;G - newpKiwfs; - fiyr;nrhw; fsQ;rpaq;fs;> mfuhjpfs;> fiyr;nrhy; njhFjpfs; - murpd; nghWg;Gfs; - mwptpay; kdg;ghd;ik. 4
  • ghu;it E}y;fs; : myF 1. mwptpay; jkpo; tiuaiw: th.nr. Foe;ijrhkp> mwptpay; jkpo;> gf;.75-76. ,uhjh nry;yg;gd;> fiyr;nrhy;yhf;fk;> gf;.9-11. mwptpay; jkpopd; ,d;wpaikahik: th.nr. Foe;ijrhkp> gf;.58-59. jha;nkhopf; fy;tpapd; rpwg;G: Nfh. Kj;Jg;gps;is> mupaizapy; moFjkpo;. myF 2. mwptpay; jkpo; tuyhW - Njhw;wKk; tsu;r;rpAk; - mwptpay; jkpo; gw;wpa fUj;Jf;fs; - mwptpay; jkpohf;f Kd; Kaw;rpfs;. th.nr. Foe;ijrhkp> gf;.78-83: gf;.66-74: ,uhjh nry;yg;gd;> fiyr;nrhy;yhf;fk; 99-126. myF 3 fiyr;nrhy; tiuaiw> fiyr;nrhy;yhf;f newpKiwfs; - xypngau;g;G - nkhopngau;g;G> GJr;nrhw; gilg;G: ,uhjh nry;yg;gd;> fiyr;nrhy;ypay; gf;.60-64. mwptpay; thf;fpa mikg;G Kiwfs; - fiyr;nrhy; jug;gLj;jk;> ,uhjh nry;yg;gd;> fiyr;nrhy;ypay;> gf;.146-169. ,uhjh nry;yg;gd;> fiyr;nrhy;yhf;fk;> gf;.45-52. rl;lj;jkpo;: Nfh. rz;KfRe;juk;> rl;lj;jkpo;. Ml;rpj;jkpo;: ,uhkypq;fdhu; & Kj;Jg;gps;is> Ml;rpj;jkpo;. myF 4 ,uh. ghNte;jd;> jkpopy; mwptpay; ,jo;fs;. myF 5 ,uhk. Re;juk;> nghUs; GjpJ tsk; GjpJ> gf;.120-122. R. yjh> jkpopy; mwptpay; E}y;fs;> murpd; nghWg;Gfs; - mwptpay; kdg;ghz;ik. rpwg;Gg; ghu;it 1. www.tamilvu.org 5
  • LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE - I Kjyhk; Mz;L - Kjw;gUtk;. gpwnkhop gapYk; khzth;fSf;F chpaJ mbg;gilj; jkpo; - I xU thuj;jpw;Fupa ghl kzp Neuk; : 03 jhspd; kjpg;G : 03 Nehf;fk;: jkpo;nkhopapd; mbg;gilfis mwpe;Jnfhs;Sjy;. jkpo; nkhopia vOjTk; gbf;fTk; fw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;. myF 1: vOj;Jf;fs; mwpKfk; - vOj;Jf;fspd; tifg;ghL> vz;zpf;if - capnuOj;Jf;fs; - nka;naOj;Jf;fs; - caph;nka;naOj;Jf;fs; - Ma;j vOj;J - ,dvOj;Jf;fs; - tlnkhop vOj;Jf;fs;. myF 2: vOJk; gapw;rp - jkpo; vOj;J tbtq;fisf; fhl;b mtw;iw ,dq;fhzTk; NtWgLj;jp mwpaTk; gapw;rp jUjy; - xypg;G - nghUj;jkhd vOj;ijj; Nju;e;njLf;fg; gupNrhjpj;jy; - vOj;Jf;fis vOjg; gapw;Wtpj;jy;. myF 3: nrhw;fs; fw;wy; - Nfhbl;l ,lq;fis epug;Gtjd; %yk; vOj;Jf;fisAk; nrhw;fisAk; gapw;Wtpj;jy;. thrpj;jy; - glk;> xypngau;g;Gr;nrhy;> ,izahd Mq;fpyr;nrhy; Kjypatw;iwj; je;J vOj;Jf;fisAk; nrhw;fisAk; gapw;Wtpj;jy;. myF 4: rpWnjhlu; fw;wy;; - vspa njhlu;fis mwpKfg;gLj;Jjy; - rpW njhlupd; cWg;Gf;fisf; fw;Wj;jUjy; - mt;TWg;Gf;fisj; njhlupy; ,dq;fhzr;nra;jy; - rpW njhlu;fis vOJk; gapw;rp jUjy;. myF 5: koiyg; ghly;fs;> mwnewpf;fijfs; - ghly;fisAk; fijfisAk; gpioapd;wp thrpf;fr; nra;jy; - gpioapd;wp vOjr;nra;jy;. Fwpg;G: jkpo; ,izag; gy;fiyf;fofr; rhd;wpjo;f; fy;tp ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; cs;s Kjy; myfhd “mbg;gilepiy”iag; gpd;gw;wp ,g;ghlj;jpl;lk; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 6
  • I YEAR – I SEMESTER ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE - I Core Phonetics and Educated Indian English(EIE) Speech EIE is a close approximation to the speech of the native speakers of English of the socio- economic middle class or upper class of Southern London and is represented in the Radio and TV channels of the BBC. The Pronunciation and Speech of the Southern Londoners and the channel representatives are known respectively as Received Pronunciation and Southern Speech. No teaching of a language is feasible if it is not grounded in a Normative Variety of the Target Language. Also, there is a long-standing tradition of the Indian educational institutions which from the primary through the secondary and the higher secondary to the university level have been consciously or unconsciously teaching a more or less pure or impure variety of the British Standard Speech in the wake of the pan-Indian experience of the British colonial linguo-cultural heritage. Hence it is easier for the Indian teachers to train and teach in EIE which is based on British Standard Speech rather than come up with an approximation say to American, Canadian or Australian Standard. Stage I Recognition, Production, and Transcription --- Segmental Phonemes: Vowels, Semi-vowels, and Consonants (Broad transcription in terms of the notations and symbols of the International Phonetic Association as used in Daniel Jones‟ Dictionary or Oxford/Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary). Stage II Words in isolation: Monosyllabic words and Polysyllabic words Word-stress: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Derivational Changes in words and Stress-shift. Stage III Nuclear/Tonic syllable and Sentence Stress Sentence Types (Statement, Question, Request, Order, and Exclamation) and Intonation Patterns (Rise, Fall, Rise-Fall and Fall- Rise) Normal Sentence Stress and Rhetorical Sentence Stress Remedial component vis-à-vis the difficulties and errors of Indian/Tamil learners: Voiced Vs Voiceless consonants Certain consonantal clusters like /kw/, /scr/, /skl/, /shl/ etc Lip rounding for the production of the semi-vowel /w/ Distinction between /v/ and /w/ 7
  • Musical quality and duration of the vowels Ignorance of Stress-Shift rules which follow conversion noun into verb, noun into adjective, adjective into noun etc Inability to form an echo question by varying the intonation pattern without varying the syntactical type References: 1. T.Balasubramanian, A Textbook of English Phonetics and Speech for Indian Learners 2. J.D.O‟Connor, Better English Pronunciation 3. Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary Unit II Vocabulary Functors or Structural Words: Pronouns, Proforms, Articles, Conjunctions Auxiliaries: Modal and Non-Modal Prepositions and Postpositions, Particles, Interjections and Expletives, Cardinals, Ordinals, Quantifiers, Degree words, Frequency markers Inflectional changes of number, gender, case, tense, and degrees of comparison through suffixes Prepositions and Cases Lexemes or Full words: Nouns and Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs Derivational changes through prefixes and suffixes Hyphenated and Unhyphenated Compounds and Plus juncture Portmanteau forms and Reduplicatives Synonym, Antonym and Homonym Homograph and Homophone Doublets and Bilingualisms Material Nouns Greek, Latin and Technonyms Technonyms as common words Loan words in common educated use from 8
  • other Foreign Languages Toponym, Patronym, Acronym and Abbreviation Hyponym and Hyperonym Idioms and Phrases, Collocations, Dead Metaphor and Cliché Basolect: Colloquialisms, Slang, Cant, Argot, Acrolect: Coinages, Nonce formations, Poeticisms etc. Passive Vocabulary for Recognition and Active Vocabulary for Production Restricted Vocabulary of the psychologically and culturally less evolved learners and extended vocabulary of the more advanced learners Unit III Syntax Phrases/Groups/Clusters(strings without a finite verb): Formal Types(based on parts of speech): Nominal, Verbal, Adjectival, Adverbial, Prepositional, Infinitival, Participial. Labels, Titles, Headings, Appositional Phrases, and Bullet Points. Clauses(strings with a finite verb): Formal Types: Noun Clauses, Complement Clauses, Adverbial Clauses(time,place, reason, manner,condition, contrast, concession) Relative Clauses: Restrictive/Defining and Non-restrictive and Non-defining Functional Types: Structures of Subordination and Coordination Qualification and Modification, Complementation and Adjunction Sentence Types: Semantic Types – Statement, Request, Order, Question and Exclamation Structural Types - Basic patterns and variations Constructionally Homonymous sentence Sentence with introductory „there‟ Split sentence Inverted Sentence beginning with the negative particle 9
  • or adverb Logical Types – Propositional sentence and Relational sentences Rhetorical Types – Balanced, Loose, Suspended and Mixed sentences Transformations: Phrases and Clauses into Sentences, Sentences into Phrases and Clauses Active Voice into Passive Voice and vice versa Direct Speech into Indirect Speech and vice versa Unit IV Comprehension Exercises are given with passages graded according to length and complexity are made available in print or read out or played on the audio-cassette. Types of Comprehension: Local Comprehension and Global Comprehension Listening Comprehension and Written Comprehension Types of Reading: Vocal, Sub-vocal, Mental Intensive Reading for Detail Extensive Reading for Range Scanning a paragraph or a cluster of sentences for the central idea/gist/sum and substance/essence Recovery of the explicitly given topic sentence or/and Reconstruction of the implicit topic sentence Progressive reading from facts through ideas to arguments by the sifting of the linguistic evidence in the text At the initial stage of the teaching of this unit the teacher prepares and supports the students for their exercise of written comprehension. He/She gives an exemplary oral reading of the passage by paying attention to its Sense group, Tone group and Breath group and leads the students to make sense of the passage not only with the text-specific questions but also with the pre-reading and post-reading questions raised respectively before and after the students go through the text. The teacher‟s role is expected to decrease in proportion to the progress made by the students gradually. 10
  • The students must be required to bring Oxford ALD or Cambridge ALD for all classes and particularly for those set apart for Comprehension. They may be permitted to use a Dictionary even in the examinations. Unit V Composition Stage I Exercises which involve the filling in the blanks with the key words withheld from the given exercise materials Stage II Exercises which involve reorganisation of the sentences jumbled up in the given passage Stage III Guided Paragraph Writing Exercises which involve the students listening to a short presentation on a topic either by the teacher or the super-brilliant students, and jotting down points and structuring them as a paragraph to be evaluated by the teacher Stage IV Guided composition: The teacher gives the title, the sub-titles and the salient points which the students are required to develop and organise into a short essay of 200 words Stage V Controlled composition: The teacher gives the title and briefly indicates the key idea for the students to come up with the components of the key idea and the corresponding sub- titles, and thus produce a short essay Stage VI Free Composition: The teacher leaves the students free to choose a topic and do their thinking and writing entirely on their own. The topic may relate to any of the domains: personal, social, technical, literary, aesthetic, philosophic etc. Before the students are given the writing tasks enumerated above they have to be re- trained and drilled in the correlations or convergences between Syntactical Structures and Discourse Functions. Here a summative refreshing of the students‟ memory about Syntax in Unit IV is in place. The Discourse functions of definition, description, classification, comparison and contrast, argumentation, analysis, explanation, narration etc have to be first shown and discussed by the teacher in regard to the select memorable/classic/quotable passages or even sentences of famous writers. Subsequently the students would be supplied with such additional passages for their own critical 11
  • appreciation and internalization. They may even be encouraged to imitate one or more authors with whom they feel a certain affinity. References: 1. Freedman, Sarah, Written Composition. 2. Greenbaum, Sidney. The Oxford English Grammar. New York : OUP, 1996. 3. Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan. A Communicative Grammar of English. Pearson-Education Asia Pte. Ltd. 2000. 4. MacCarthy, Michael, English Vocabulary in Use. CUP, 2002 5. Quirk, Randolf. A University Grammar of English, E.L.B.S. 6. Strumpf, Michael. The Complete Grammar. New Delhi : Goodwil Publishing House (Rs.125 /-) 7. Webster‟s Reference Library. Students‟ Companion. Scottland : Geddes & Grosset, 2002. (Rs.99/-) 12
  • I YEAR – I SEMESTER BASIC MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING MATHEMATICS UNIT I Matrix – algebra of matrices, determinants – adjoint – inverse of matrix, system of linear algebraic equations – Cramer‟s rule. UNIT II Sequence and series – limit – differentiation – L‟ Hospital rule, integration - some methods. UNIT III Mathematical modeling – ordinary differential equations – first order linear equations – methods of solving, second order differential equations with constant coefficients – methods of solving. PROGRAMMING IN C UNIT IV Constants – Variable – Data types – Operator and Expression – Managing I/O operators – Decision making and branching. UNIT V Decision making and Looping – Arrays – Functions. TUTORIAL: Mean and Median - Standard deviation - Matrix multiplication - Quadratic equations - Euler‟s method - Second order Runge-Kutta method - Simpson‟s 1/3 rule - Trapezoidal rule REFERENCES : 1. Introduction to Mathematics for Life Scientist, E. Batschelet, Springer. 2003 2. Mathematical Modeling, J.N. Kapur, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1988. 3. Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, M.D. Raisinghania, R.S.Aggarwal, S.Chand & Company Ltd., 1981. 4. Programming in ANSI C, E. Balagruswamy, Tata Mc Graw-Hill publishing company Ltd.2000. 13
  • I YEAR – I SEMESTER BIORESOURCES: DIVERSITY & APPLICATIONS UNIT I BIORESOURSES Characters, organization and diversity of living organisms – Microbes, Plants and Animals – Levels and patterns of organization – Basic concepts: Organic evolution – Developmental biology – Physiology and ecology. UNIT II MICROBIAL BIODIVERSITY Diversity of prokaryotes, algae and fungi with emphasis on their evolution and symbiosis; role of fungi in colonization of land by plants; anthropogenic impact on fungal and plant diversity; role of soil microbiota in plant protection and ecosystem restoration. Morphological, physiological and life-history diversity of protists, primary producers, consumers and predators; microbial food webs and their interactions with metazoans; mixotrophy and symbiosis with prokaryotes; spatial and temporal distribution of protists; microecosystems in laboratory experimentation. UNIT III PLANT BIODIVERSITY Major groups of algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, angiosperm and gymnosperm; modification of the plant form as adaptation to the environment. Ecology of pollination. Sexual and apomictic reproduction in plants. UNIT IV ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY Origin of major groups of invertebrate diversity in continental and marine habitats, insects as the most successful group of land invertebrates, plant insect associations. Major groups of Vertebrate, body plan, Cephalochordata – the sister group of vertebrates, early Palaeozoic Agnathans, fish diversity, tetrapods – origin and colonization of land, reptiles past glory, bird lords of the air, radiation of mammals. 14
  • UNIT V APPLICATIONS Medicinal plants & their bioactive potentials, Animals as a source for food & other applications. Hotspots in Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity and its causes threats to Biodiversity; Biodiversity and its conservation – insitu and exsitu conservation. REFERENCES: 1. Biology – Raven, Johnson, Losos, Singer, TATA Mc Graw-Hill publishing company Limited, New Delhi 2. Integrated Principles of Zoology – 9th edition – Hickmen, Roberts & larson, 1995 Wim C.Bnun Publishers, Oxford, England. 3. Invrtebrate Zoology. 7th edition. E.E. Ruppert, R.S. Fox & R.D. Barnes. Thomson Brook/Cole.U.K. 4. Vertebrate Life 4th edition. Pough, F.H., Heiser, J.B. and Mc Farland, W.N Prenitice – Hall of India Pvt ltd., New Delhi 5. Prasad B.N., “Biotechnology in Sustainable Biodiversity and Food Security” (2003), Oxford & IBH, New Delhi. 6. Foster C.F. John Ware D.A. Environmental Biotechnology, Ellis Horwood Ltd. 1987. 7. Sasson A, " Biotechnologies in developing countries present and future", UNESCO Publishers, 1993. 15
  • I YEAR - I SEMESTER CELL BIOLOGY UNIT I Microscopy: Light, Compound, Electron, Phase-Contrast, Fluorescent - TEM, SEM: Principle, description and applications – Study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells - Cytoplasm: Physical and biological properties – Plasma membrane: Structure, modifications, permeability and other functions – Cell wall: Structure, chemistry and role. UNIT II Cell organelles – Mitochondria and chloroplasts – Morphology, ultra structure and functions. UNIT III ER, Golgi complex – Morphology, ultra structure and functions - Ribosomes – Ultra- structure, subunits – Role in protein synthesis - Introduction to transcriptional and post translational modifications – Centrosomes – Morphology, ultra-structure and functions. UNIT IV Nucleus – Ultra-structure and organization - Chromosomes: Morphology, structure, chemistry – Types: Giant chromosomes – polytene and lamp-brush chromosomes – Cell division – Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle and dynamics of cell division. UNIT V Cancer cell – Cytological characteristics – Carcinogens, concept of oncogenes – Radiation and its effect – Introduction to apoptosis – Relevance of apoptosis in cancer biology and therapy. REFERENCES : 1. Cell Biology – De Roberties 2. Cell Biology – C.B. Powar 3. Cell & Molecular Biology – Sheeler P & Bianchi De 4. Biology of the Cell – Wolfe S L 5. Biology of the Cell – Bruce & Albert 16
  • I YEAR - I SEMESTER LAB I: BIORESOURCES AND CELL BIOLOGY BIORESOURCES: Practicals 1. Bioresources – biodiversity, terrestrial, avian and marine–microbe, plants, animals & Birds (Field visit) 2. Microscopy - bright field, phase contrast, florescent, electron microscopy & confocal microscopy, micrometry. 3. Microscopic observation of bacteria, microalgae, fungi, lichen and protist 4. Shape and size of the cell – simple & differential staining. 5. Identification of Plants up to species level - algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, angiosperm and gymnosperm 6. Identification of animals – Vertebrates & Invertebrates. 7. Endangered / Rare plant, animal, fossile - observation (Field visit) CELL BIOLOGY: Practicals 1. Cell division- mitosis (Onion root tip) and Meiosis (Tradescantia) 2. Polytene chromosome (chironomous larvae) 3. Microscopy- bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent microscopy electron microscopy and confocal microscopy 4. Estimation of chloroplast pigments by Arno‟s method from plant cells 5. Electrophoresis AGE and PAGE 6. Sucrose Density Fractionation 7. Determination of leaf water potential 8. Determination of osmotic potential REFERENCES : 1. C.H. Collins, P.M. Lyne (1985) Microbiological 2. Collins and Lyne's microbiological methods. 7th ed. C.H. Collins. Butterworth- Heinemann,1994. 3. Microbiology a laboratory manual, P. Gunasekaran 4. Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual, Cappuccino, J.G. & Sherman, N., Addison Wesley. 17
  • LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE - II Kjyhk; Mz;L - ,uz;lhk; gUtk; mwptpay; jkpo; II xU thuj;jpw;Fupa ghl kzp Neuk; : 03 jhspd; kjpg;G : 03 Nehf;fq;fs;: 1. jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; fhzyhFk; mwptpay; nra;jpfis khztu; mwpar; nra;jy;. 2. ,yf;fpaj;jpy; cs;s mwptpay; nra;jpfis ,dq;fhzr; nra;jy;. myF: 1 ,yf;fpak; - mwpKfk;> gz;ila jkpoupd; mwptpay; tuyhW - tpsf;fk; - rq;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; mwptpay; cz;ikfs;> ,aw;gpay;> Ntjpapay;> cstpay;> capupay;> jhtutpay; nra;jpfs;. myF: 2 ,yf;fpaq;fspy; nghwpapay;> njhopy;El;g kUj;Jtr; nra;jpfs; - njhy;fhg;gpak;> rq;f ,yf;fpak;> gjpndz;fPo;f;fzf;F> rpyg;gjpfhuk;> kzpNkfiy Kjyhd fhg;gpaq;fs;> rpj;ju; ghly;fs; Kjyhdtw;wpy; ntspg;gLk; fl;blf;fiy> efuikg;G> nghwpEl;g Ntshz;ik> cNyhftpay;> kUj;Jtr;nra;jpfs;. myF: 3 rq;f ,yf;fpak;> rpyg;gjpfhuk;> kzpNkfiy Kjyhd ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ntspg;gLk; ,ir> eldk;> Xtpak;> rpw;gk;> xg;gidf;fiy Nghd;w Ez;fiyfs; gw;wpa nra;jpfs;. myF: 4 rq;f,yf;fpak;> jpUf;Fws; Kjyhd gjpndz;fPo;f;fzf;F E}y;fspy; Ml;rpapay;> murpay;> Nkyhz;ikapay; nra;jpfs;. myF: 5 ,izaKk; jkpOk; - fzpzpapy; jkpo; - jkpo; nkd;nghUs; - ,izaj; jkpo; tuyhW> kpd;MSif> jkpo; tiykidfs;> kpd;FO - ,yf;fpa kpd; gjpg;Gfs; - gy;Y}lfk; (Multimedia) - jkpo; top kpd;dQ;ry;fs; - jkpo; kpd;dpjo;fs;. ghh;it E}y;fs;: 1. R. jkpo;NtY> “rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; mwptpay; Nfhl;ghLfs;”> r.,uhkehjd;> ,uhkRe;juk; (g.M)> mwptpay;jkpo;> fue;ijj; jkpo;rrq;fk; ; kw;Wk; jkpo;g; gy;fiyf;fof ntspaPL - 1995. 2. ney;iy R.Kj;J> “gz;ila mwptpay; tuyhW‟‟> mwptpay; jkpo;> fue;ijj;jkpo;rrq;fk; kw;Wk; jkpo;g; gy;fiyf;fof ntspaPL - 1995. ; 18
  • 3. khj;jis NrhK> tpaf;f itf;Fk; jkpoh; mwptpay;> cjfk;> (cyfj; jkpoha;Tf; fofk;)> jpUr;rp- rpl;dp - Nfhyhyk;G+h; - nfhOk;G - 2005. 4. eh. ,uhrNfhghyd;> “rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; mwptpay;”, kh.,uhkypq;fk;(njh.M)> Nts;tp> ghujpjhrd; gy;fiyf;fofj; jkpopay; Jiw ntspaPL. 5. tpf;lh; uh[khzpf;fk;> Nt.rh.mUs;uh[;> rq;f ,yf;fpaj;jpy; fhyq;fs;. 6. ney;iy. R.Kj;J> mwptpay; jkpopay;. 7. Kidth; tp.cz;zhkiy> fhye;NjhWk; mwptpay;. 8. v];.Mh; ghyRg;ukzpak;> Nrhoh; fiyg;ghzp. 9. Kidth; Nfh. nja;tehafk;> jkpou; fl;blf;fiy. 10. M.m. tuFzghz;bad;> aho; E}y;. 11. lhf;lh; ng. fpU;zd;> Nehapd;wp tho rpj;j itj;jpak;. 12. Mjh; R[hjh> tPl;Lf;Fs; tUk; cyfk;. 13. fh. mgpuhkp> b;ndl; ypkpndl;> 1998. 14. jfty; njhopy; El;gk;> jkpo; Gj;jfhyah> 2001. 15. gjhu;j;jFzrpe;jhkzp. 19
  • LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE - II Kjyhk; Mz;L - ,uz;lhk; gUtk; gpwnkhop gapYk; khztu;fSf;F cupaJ mbg;gilj; jkpo; - II xU thuj;jpw;Fupa ghl kzp Neuk; :03 jhspd; kjpg;G :03 Nehf;fk;: ,g; ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; fPNo jbj;j vOj;Jf;fspy; jug;gl;Ls;s ghlq;fspd; topahfj; jkpo; nkhopia vOjTk;> thrpf;fTk; gof;Fjy; myF: 1 re;ij - kyu;fs;> fha;fwpfs;> goq;fs; Kjypad Fwpj;j nrhw;fis mwpar; nra;jy; - mit njhlu;ghd thf;fpak; mikf;fg; gof;Fjy;. vq;fs; FLk;gk; - FLk;g cWg;gpdu;> FLk;g cwTKiwfs; gw;wp mwpar; nra;jy; - njhlh;ghd nrhw;fs;> njhlu;fs; Kjypatw;iw thrpf;fTk; vOjTk; gof;Fjy;. myF: 2 tpUe;Njhk;gy; - czT gupkhWk; Kiw - czT tiffs; Kjypad gw;wp tpsf;fkhf mwpar; nra;jy; - kio - MW> Fsk;> fly;> thdk;> Nkfk;> kiy> kio> Kjypad gw;wp mwpar; nra;jy;; ,it njhlu;ghd nrhw;fs;> njhlu;fs; Kjypatw;iw thrpf;fTk; vOjTk; gof;Fjy;. myF: 3 ghujpahu; - ghujpahu; gw;wpa tuyhW> mtuJ XupU ftpijfs; gw;wp mwpar; nra;jy; - fizf;fhy; ,Uk;nghiw - ,k;kd;ddpd; jd;khd czu;tpid ehlfj;jpd; topahf czu;j;Jjy; ,g;ghlq;fs; njhlu;ghd nrhw;fs;> njhlu;fis thrpf;fTk; vOjTk; gof;Fjy;. myF: 4 khky;yGuk; - khky;yGuk; mike;Js;s ,lk;> kw;Wk; fiyf;Nfhapy;fs; gw;wp tpsf;Fjy; - gazk; - NgUe;jpy; gazk; nra;Ak; Kiwia tpsq;f itj;jy;> thrpf;fTk; vOjTk; gof;Fjy;. myF: 5 tho;j;Jg;ghly; - tho;j;J tpsf;fk; - tho;j;Jf;fspd; tiffs;: ,iwtho;j;J: jhAkhdtupd; guhguf;fz;zp (md;igg; ngUf;fp). nkhoptho;j;J: ghujpahupd; jkpo;nkhop tho;j;J (tho;f epue;juk; tho;f jkpo;nkhop). ciuahly;: Foe;ijfSk; fy;tpAk;: Foe;ijfSk; fy;tpAk; vd;w nghUspy; ciuahly; epfo;j;jr; nra;jy;> ciuahlypy; rpwpa nrhw;nwhliuf; ifahSk; Kiwiaf; fw;gpj;jy;. fbjk;: md;idf;Ff; fbjk; - mwpKfk;> Nfl;ly;> thrpj;jwpjy;> fbjk; vOJjy; gapw;rp> nkhop mikg;Gf; $Wfisg; gapw;Wtpj;jy;. Neu;fhzy;: rJuq;fr; rhjidahsu; tp[ayl;Rkpaplk; Neu;fhzy;. ehl;Lg;Gwg;ghly;: mwpKfk; - jhyhl;Lg;ghly;> ehl;Ltsk; $Wk; ghly;. 20
  • Fwpg;G: jkpo; ,izag; gy;fiyf;fofr; rhd;wpjo;f; fy;tp ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; cs;s ,uz;lhk; myF kw;Wk; %d;whk; myFfshd KiwNa ,ilepiy> Nky;epiy Mfpatw;iwg; gpd;gw;wp ,g;ghlj;jpl;lk; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 21
  • I YEAR – II SEMESTER ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE - II Technical English for Power (TEP) UNIT I Language is an abstraction. It exists in and through its several varieties. One can find a hundred and eight varieties in any Language. To know a language therefore means to know its standard common or general variety which is more or less an abstraction and along with it a special variety, that is a variety used for special purposes like technical English, Business English, journalese, legalese, institutionalese, officialese etc. Thus English may be found to be divisible into dialects, dialects found divisible into idiolects, idiolects found divisible into registers, and registers found divisible into actual uses. This phenomenon of the mega-system of Language splitting successfully into finer and finer sub-systems and micro-systems may be diagrammatized as follows: The English Language Mega System National Dialects African British American Canadian Australian Indian Carribbean 22
  • National Dialect Regional Dialect Social Dialect Class Dialect Topolect Sociolect Ponolects Ideolect Register Mode Field Tenor Quasi- Phonic Graphic Domestic Social Technical Informal formal Formal 23
  • Unit II It is commonly assumed that technical English or technolect is exclusively objective. It is further assumed that the intelligibility of technical English is restricted to its initiates who are most probably technicians or scientists. The first assumption is called objectivism and the latter assumption may be called esotericism. And neither assumption is completely true. As any variety or use of a language necessarily involves the exercise of formal and functional rules and thereby stylization, even technolect is not free from such stylization. Once language is stylized it cannot but function rhetorically. In so far as the rhetorical effects resulting from the structural and functional requirements of the technolect are directed and controlled intentionally by the speaker or the writer technolect either spoken or written is effective. But the control of rhetoricity is accompanied with the infusion of the subjective elements, however minimal into the so called objective technical language. Apart from the in-built stylization and rhetoricity of all language including technical language the speaker or writer‟s communicational activity itself will intensify the rhetoricity as the activity cannot be purely or exclusively a transmission of facts or information. The act of speech or writing would in almost all cases marshal facts and information so as to construct arguments or express views which would be aimed either at persuading or at dissuading an individual or a group respectively to or from a course of action. In short, facts are almost never conveyed except with an admixture of subjective reactions so that corresponding subjective reactions are called forth on the part of the listener or the reader. Finally even if a particular speaker or writer could achieve technical communication in a zero degree of dependence on or complicity with factual error and emotional bias, the listener or the reader might be prone to interpret the marvel of total objectivity in an idiosyncratic if not subjective manner. As for the second assumption that technolect is esoteric or of restricted intelligibility the tendency of the present-day technolectal practice is to strive towards the middle style which is a compromise between non-technical or public communication and technical communication. Examples of this kind of technolect which is more or less translucent may be found in the articles of newspapers and popular journals on topics relating to science and technology and also in the writings of popular science writing such as those of Bertrand Russell. 24
  • The various sources of rhetoricity and subjectivity may be diagrammatised as follows: Causes of Rhetoricity and Self Projection Structural Agential Speaker/Writer Listener/Reader Linguistic Discoursal Argument Analogy and lexical syntactical Ambiguity Multiple Abstract Inversion Positional Mobility meaning Terms Unit III A lexico- Syntactic model of Technical English: Lexical Components: Numerals, quantifiers Degree words, frequency markers 25
  • Material nouns Technonyms specific to various disciplines and Domains Abbreviations of different kinds Brand Names Syntactic Components: Propositional/predicative Sentence Full passive sentence Reduced passive with agent-deletion or instrument deletion Quasi-passive Discontinuous verb phrase Unit IV Technical English in the Phonic Mode: Graded activities and Exercises: Recitation Guided imaginary Conversation A guided short talk Mock Interview Guided group Discussion Free group discussion A free long oral presentation Unit V Technical English In the Graphic Mode: Project report Preparation of tool-kit operation and maintenance folders and pamphlets manuals In the Electronic Mode: Cyberlectal terms Verbal contractions Spelling Contractions Use of Phonetic spelling Professional e-corespondances 26
  • References : 1. Second Language Writing. Ed. Barbara Kroll, CUP. 2. Composing in a Second Language. Sandra McKay. Newbury House, Cambridge. 3. Technical Writing. John Lennon 4. Technical Writing. Scot. Forfeman& Company. 5. Strengthen Your Writing. V.R.Narayanaswamy. Orint Longman 6. Reading and Writing: Theory and Practice. Ed. M.L.Tickoo. SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Singapore. 7. Technical Communication. Meenakshi Raman and Sangeetha Sharma. OUP. 27
  • I YEAR – II SEMESTER GENERAL PHYSICS & BIOPHYSICS UNIT 1 Mechanics and Elasticity: Newton‟s laws of motion – Applications – Collision – Impulse – Projectile motion Centrifugal force – Centripetal force – Applications – Elasticity – Stress – Strain – Elastic modulus : Young‟s modulus – Bulk modulus – Modulus of rigidity – Relation between elastic constants – Bending of beams – Cantilever. UNIT II Fluid Statics and Dynamics: Surface tension – Capillary rise – Water rise in tall trees – Variation of surface tension with temperature – Osmosis – Laws of osmosis – Hartley and Berkeley experiment – Viscosity – Viscosity of liquid – Poiscuille‟s formula- Viscosity of blood – Flow of liquid through tubes Bernoulli‟s equation – Venturimeter. UNIT III Atomic and Molecular Physics: Electromagnetic spectrum – Rotation and vibration of molecules – Absorption and emission spectra – Basic elements of practical spectroscopy – Absorption and emission Spectrometer (block diagram) – NMR spectroscopy. UNIT IV Radiation Physics: Atomic nucleus – Isotopes – Radioactivity 0 Radioactive decay and half – life – Disintegration – Energy distribution – Decay products- Biological traces p Ionization detection – Positive ions, electrons, and X-rays, r-rays – Defection of radiation – GM counter 0p Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter – Biological effect of Radiation – Dosimetry – Basic definitions and units of radiation. UNIT V Biomacromolecules: Proteins: Amino acids – Peptide bond – Cis and Trans configurations – Torsion angles – Phi and Psi – Steric hindrance – Conduct criteria – Ramachandran diagram, Maps for glycine and alanine residues o Classification of proteins into globular and fibrous – Levels of structural organization. Nucleic Acids: Nucleosides and nucleotides – Structure of DNA – Watson and Crick model – Base paring and base stacking – Variations in DNA structure – Polymorphism – A, B and Z – DNA. 28
  • Carbohydrates: Classification – L and D sugars – Monosaccharide – Disaccharides – Types of linkages in polysaccharides – structure of maltose, celloboise and lactose – Ramanchandran map for disaccharides. REFERENCES : 1. R. Murugesan, Modern Physics, S. Chand & Company Ltd (1998) New Delhi. 2. A. Mookerjee & Sukhendu B. Bhattacharjee, Aspects of Radiation Biophysics, Interprint, New Delhi. 3. C.N. Banwell, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1981). 4. Brij Lal, N. Subramanmiyan, Jivan Seshan Mechanics and Electrodynamics, Eurasia Publishing House (PVT.) Ltd. 1980. 5. A. I. Lehninger, D. L Nelson and M. M. Cox. Principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers, New Delhi (1993). 6. Lubert Stryer, Biochemistry, W. H. Freeman and Co., New York (1995). V. S. R. Rao, P. K. Qasba, P. V. Balajil and R. Chandrasekaran Conformation of Carbohydrates Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsteerdam(1998) 29
  • YEAR - II SEMESTER GENERAL CHEMISTRY UNIT I Reactive Intermediates, Spectroscopy and Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds: Formation and Breaking of Bonds: Homolytic and Hetrolytic fission. Reactive intermediates: Carbocations, Free radicals – Definition and simple example only. Introduction to infra Red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹ H and C¹³) spectroscopy application to organic compounds (Elementary aspects only). Stereochemistry: Chirality, Biological signification of chirality (Natural chirality, chiral drugs) configuration and conformation, R and S configuration. Optical activity, Enantiomers and Diastereomer, Resolution, Separation of enantiomers. UNIT II Hetrocycles: Nomenclature, Furan, Thiophene, Pyrole, Pyridine, Preparation, Properties and uses. Alkaloids: Definition of alkaloid, Extraction, general properties determination of chemical constitution of alkaloids, Classification, Ephedrine, Adrenaline, Nicotine only. Terpenes: Classification Occurrence, general properties, Extraction, Structure determination and property of Citral and Menthol only. UNIT III Catalysis: Difference between Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis – Steady – state approach – Enzyme catalysis – Michaelis Menten kinetics – Effect of pH on enzyme catalyzed reactions. Macromolecules: Classification of Polymers – Molecular weights of polymers: Number average and weight average of polymers – Molecular weight determination by viscosity method. UNIT IV Fundamentals of Spectroscopy and Photochemistry: Absorption and emission of radiation – region of electromagnetic spectrum – line with, Intensity – Beer – Lamborts law and applications. Various Photochemical Processes, Jablonski diagram – Fluorescence and Phosphorescence – Laser and applications. 30
  • UNIT V High – Temperature Superconductors: 1-2-3 Compounds, Meissner effect, applications of superconductors. Catenation and heterocatenation. (SN) x as one dimensional conductor, two specific examples for inorganic rings and cages. Binuclear metal clusters. An example for metal cluster in biology. UNIT VI Metal ions in medicine and biology: An Overview of metal ions in medicine and biology, Blue copper proteins – Plastocyanin as a typical example. Zinc metalloenzymes –structure and function of carboxypeptidase. Vitamin B12 – structure and any two specific reactions of B12 coenzymes. Metal based drugs – cisplatin as anticancer drug, mechanism of action. Inhibitors of metalloenzymes as drugs – allopurinlo, antabase. Detoxification of metals by chelation therapy with respect to iron, aluminium, copper, mercury, arsenic and cadmium. REFERENCES : UNIT I & II 1. J.Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, P. Worthers, ”Organic chemistry” Oxford University Press, 2001. 2. R.T.Morrision and R.N. Boyd, “Organic Chemistry” ed., prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., 2004. 3. I.L Finar, “Organic Chemistry Vol I & II” 5th ed., ELBS, 1975. 4. B.S. Bhal and Arun Bhal, “Text Book of Organic Chemistry”, 14th ed., S Chand and Company Ltd., 1997. UNIT III & IV 1. R.A.Alberty and R.J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry, Jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc., Newyork, 1995. 2. P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, ELBS and Oxford University Press, 1998. 3. G.M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1994. UNIT V & VI 1. James E. Huheey, Eleen A. Keiter, Richard L. Leiter, “Inorganic Chemistry”, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Inc., 2002. 31
  • I YEAR – II SEMESTER BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY UNIT I Properties of water – Biological significance of unusual properties of water, Acid-base equilibrium, Henderson-Hasselbach Equation, buffers, Bioenergetics – Laws of thermodynamics – Concept of free energy – Standard free energy, enthalpy, entropy – Exergonic and endergonic reactions – Definition of open, closed and isolated systems - Energy rich compounds. UNIT II Carbohydrates – Structure, classification and function – mono-di-oligo and polysaccharides – Linear – branched – Homo - Hetero – Starch – Glycogen – amylase, amylopectin – cellulose – Fructans – Chitin – Pectins – Glycosylaminoglycans - Asymetric carbon, isomerism – Sugar derivatives – sugar acids, sugar alcohols, sugar amines, sugar phosphates, sugar nucleotides, conjugated polysaccharides – Glycoprotein‟s and lipopolysaccharides. UNIT III Amino acids and proteins – Structure, classification and function of amino acids, functional groups, Single letter codes for amino acids – Zwitterions – amphoteric nature - isoelectric point – Peptide structure, Ramachandran plot, structural levels of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, alpha, beta helix – collagen, Structure – post translational modifications - fibrous and globular proteins – Ninhydrin, Sangers and Edman‟s reactions. UNIT IV Lipids – Structure, classification and function – free fatty acids, Numbering, classification, Essential and PUFA(Polyunsaturated fatty acids), triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, Sphingolipids – Steriods – basic skeleton – cholesterol - waxes, conjugated lipids – lipoproteins – Membrane anchors of proteins – Attachment of phenyl groups, fatty acids and GPI (glycol-phosphatidyl inositol), Micelles, Bilayers. 32
  • UNIT V Enzymes – Co-enzymes – Classification – factors affecting enzyme activity – pH, temperature, substrate concentration – Michaelis Menten Kinetics – Lineweaner Buck plots – Enzyme inhibition – Reversible, Irreversible – Competitive, Non-competitive, Uncompetitive – Allosteric enzymes – Properties – Isoenzymes – Mechanism of formation – importance. Mechanism of enzyme action – Activation energy – Proximity and orientation effects – Induced fit – Acid base catalysis – Mechanism of chymotrypsin, Transaminases & Lysozyne. Protein/Enzyme regulation by zymogen activation and covalent modification – Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, Pre-proinsulin – Reversible phosphorylation and adenylation. REFERENCES: 1. Outlines of Bio-chemistry by E.E. Conn and P.K. Strumpf (Wiley Eastern Limited); 2. Review of physiological chemistry by H.A. Harper (Lange); 3. Textbook of Biochemistry by West, Todd, Mason and Bruygen (Macmillan); 4. Biochemistry by A.L. Lehninger (Worth). 5. Principles of Biochemistry by White, handier and Smith (Tata Mc Graw Hill) 6. The Chemical Analysis of foods by Pearson David (Churchill) 7. Clinical Biochemistry by Cantorow & Trumper (Saunders) Biochemistry by L. Stryer (Freeman-Toppan). 33
  • I YEAR – II SEMESTER LAB I: BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS: 1. Estimation of proline 2. Estimation of Glucose – BQR method 3. Estimation of protein – Lowry‟s method 4. Determination of Salivary Amylase activity 5. Estimation of Cholestrol – Zak‟s method 6. Estimation of Ascorbic acid – Dye method 7. Estimation of sugar ® 8. Sugar(F) & (PP) 9. Serum Cholestrol 10. Lipid Profile (Demonstration) 11. Blood Urea 12. Serum Creatinine 13. Serum Uric Acid 14. Serum Bilirubin- Total and direct(Demo) 15. S.G.O.T 16. S.G.P.T 17. Serum alkaline Phosphatase 18. Total Protein 19. Albumin 20. Serum Calcium 21. Urine Sugar &Albumin deposits 22. Urine complete 23. Bile Salts and bile pigments REFERENCES : 1. Practical Clinical Biochemistry-Harold Varley 2. A Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology- V. H. Talib 34
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER MOLECULAR BIOLOGY UNIT I The Gene Concept – DNA as Genetic Material – RNA as Genetic Material – Topology of Nucleic Acids – Packaging of DNA as Chromosomes – Unique Features of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Genomes and Genes – Organisation of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genomes – Cytoplasmic Male Sterility. UNIT II Replication – DNA Replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes – Mutation – Molecular Changes Associated with Mutation – DNA Damage and Repair – DNA Recombination – Tri parental mating. UNIT III Transcription- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription – RNA processing – Post Transcriptional Modifications – Catalytic RNA – Translation Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic translation – Role of tRNA, rRNA and mRNA in translational process - Post Transcriptional Modifications – Molecular chaperones – Mitochondrial and chloroplast Genome expression and control. UNIT IV Operon Concept – Lactose, Tryptophan, Arabinose Operons – Genomic Libraries – cDNA Libraries – Screening of Libraries – Genomic projects – Genetic mapping – Artificial Nucleic acids. UNIT V Genomic reorganization for diversity in immunity – Genes in development – Gene rearrangements in development – Oncogenes and cancer. REFERENCES : 1. Freifelder D (1991). Molecular biology. Narosa publishing house. 2. Lewin B (2007). Genes IX. Oxford University Press. 3. Grieson and covey. Plant molecular biology. 4. Watson JD, Gilman M, Witkowski J, Zoller M (1992). Recombinant DNA. Scientific American books. 5. Blackburn GM, Gait MJ (1996). Nucleic acids in chemistry and biology. Oxford university press. 35
  • 6. Lodish H, Baltimore D, Beck A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Darnell J (1995). Molecular cell biology, scientific American books. 7. Freidberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W (1995) DNA repair and mutagenesis. ASM press. 8. Stryer L (1995) Biochemistry. W.H. freeman and company. 9. Singer M, Berg P (1991). Genes and genomes. University science books. 10. Molecular chaperones in the life cycle of proteins, structure and Function and Mode of Action (1997). Anthony L. Fink, Yuji Goto (Ed). Mercer Dekks Inc, USA 11. www.sciam.com 36
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS UNIT I Appreciation of history and basic methods of genetics. Types of genetic transmission; Molecular, Evolutionary, Population, Conservation – Mitosis – Meiosis. Nuclear vs. extra nuclear inheritance. Mendelism – Laws of inheritance, hybrid and dihybrid cross – Gene interactions – multiple factor and quantitative inheritance – Environment and inheritance, influence on inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance. UNIT II Alleles – di – multiple allelic systems – ABO – RH blood grouping inheritance – linkage and crossing over. Chromosome mapping – sex determination – chromosomal environmental genetics. Non-disjunction – genetic balance – theory of sex determination – modern concepts in sex determination – Pedigree analysis. Cytoplasmic inheritance – mitochondria, chloroplast. UNIT III DNA as genetic material – introduction to pro and eukaryotic genomic organization and replication. Chromosomal aberrations: Structural changes in chromosomes – deficiencies, duplication (Bar locus), translocation, inversion (inversion in Drosophila); Numerical changes in chromosome – Aneuploidy (monosomy, nullisomy, trisomy and tetrasomy) – Euploidy (haploidy and polyploidy) – practical applications of ploidy – Gene mutation: mutagenesis – mutagens – chemical – physical – mutation – types – Introduction to molecular mechanisms of mutation. UNIT IV Microbial Genetics: A brief account – bacterial – plant – animal viruses – Brief account of bacterial recombination: transformation, conjugation, and sexduction. Recombination in bacteriophage; transduction, lytic and lysogenic cycles of bacteriophages. 37
  • UNIT V Population Genetics – Hardy – Weinburg equilibrium. Introduction to genetic polymorphism – Factors affecting natural selection. Genetic disorders – one gene one enzyme concept – Syndromes – Down, Turner and Klinefilter. Use of human genetics in medical diagnosis; - karyotyping – Genetic counseling; Eugenics and Euthenics. Future of genetics. REFERENCES : 1. Brown, T.A., 1998, Genetics, A Molecular Approach, Chapman Hall, London. 2. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., and Snusted D.P., 1991, Principles of Genetics, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 3. Gupta, S.P. 1985, Elementary Statistical Methods, S. Chand and Co., New Delhi. 4. Gurumani, N. 2004, An Introduction to Biostatistics, MJP Publishers, Chennai. 5. Hotter, P, 2002, Textbook of Genetics, IVY Publishing House, New Delhi. 6. Strickberger, M.W., 1996, Genetics, Macmillan publishing Co., New York. 7. Verma, P.S. and Agarwal, V.K. 2003, Genetics, S.Chand & Company Ltd, New Delhi. 8. Weaver, R.F. and Hedrick, P.W., 1997, Genetics, W.M.C. Brown Publishers, London. 38
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER BIOLOGY OF IMMUNE SYSTEM UNIT I Historical perspective – Discovery, early theories. Types of immunity – Innate and acquired immunity. Cells and organs of the immune system – Hematopoietic, lymphoid cells, immune system cells, primary and secondary lymphoid organs of the immune system, B and T cell - Maturation and differentiation. Cytokines – Properties, receptors, related diseases and therapeutic uses. UNIT II Antigens – Factors influence immunogenicity, Epitopes, haptens. Immunoglobulins – Structure, antigenic determinants, immunoglobulin classes, monoclonal antibodies. Antigen-antibody interactions – Basic introduction about the techniques like Precipitation reactions, agglutination reactions, radioimmunoassay, and Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. UNIT III Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) – Organization and inheritance, MHC molecules and clones, genomic map of MHC genes, cellular distribution and expression, MHC and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Antigen processing and presentation – Antigen presenting cells and presentation pathways – the cytosolic pathway and endocytic pathway. UNIT IV Complement system – The complement components, classical & alternative pathways, regulation and biological consequences of complement. Cell-mediated and Humoral effector responses. Hypersensitivity reactions – Gell and Coombs classification, IgE- mediated (Type I), antibody- mediated (Type II), immune complex- mediated (Type III) and TDTH-mediated (Type IV) hypersensitivity. 39
  • UNIT V The immune system in health and diseases – Vaccines – active & passive immunization, whole-organism vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines, synthetic peptide, multivalent subunit and anti-idiotype vaccines. Brief on Autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, immune system in AIDS, transplantation immunology, cancer and the immune system REFERENCES : 1. Ivan M. Roit (1994) Essential Immunology – Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford 2. Kuby J (1997) Immunology – WH Freeman and Company, New York 3. Chapel H and Halbey M (1986) Essentials of Clinical Immunology 4. Donal M. Weir, John Steward (1993) Immunology – VII edition. ELBS, London 5. Richard M. Hyde (1995). Immunology III edition. National Medical series, Williams and Wilkins, Harward Publishing Company. 40
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY UNIT I Sterilization – Disinfection, Definition – sterilization by heat – radiation – filtration by chemical methods. UNIT II Principles of Microbiological diagnosis – Diagnosis of disease ( Fungi, Bacteria, Virus) – Morphological classification of bacteria, fungi, viral, parasites – Isolation of bacteria – Antibiotic sensitivity test – Antimicrobial agents. UNIT III Collection of Specimens - Examination of specimens for microbiological investigation – Examination of materials from sits normally sterile. Examination of materials from sites possessing normal flora – commensals & pathogenic microbial flora in human – Examination of pus from abcesses and wounds. UNIT IV Identification of bacteria – Types of media – common ingredients of culture media – common media in use in laboratory – staining procedure. UNIT V Diagnostic methods in clinical microbiology – microscopic – molecular – serologic diagnosis – Urinary tract infections – Various biochemical tests. REFERENCES : 1. Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology – V.H. Talib 2. Medical Microbiology - Murray 41
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER LAB I: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PRACTICALS: 1. Preparation of Donar (F+) and Recipient (F-) Cultures for Conjugation 2. Conjugation 3. Selection of conjugants 4. Preparation of Competence Cells 5. Transformation 6. Screening of Transformants 7. Isolation of plasmid by Alkaline Lysis Method 8. Submarine Gel Electrophoresis of Plasmid 9. Isolation of Genomic DNA from Human Blood Sample 10. Quantification and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of DNA 11. SDS – PAGE of proteins 12. Coomassive Brilliant Blue G250 – Staining Proteins 13. Silver Nitrate Staining of proteins 14. Restriction Digestion of λ DNA 15. Ligation of λ / EcoR1 Digest 16. Isolation of Plasmid DNA 17. Isolation of Genomic DNA from E.coli 18. Determination of Melting Temperature (Tm) 19. Quantification of DNA – UV absorbance method 20. DNA fingerprinting – RFLP method 21. Induction of Mutation in a Marker Gene 22. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer GENETICS PRACTICALS 1. Isolation of genomic DNA from human blood sample 2. Tm determination of genomic DNA 3. Observation of mitosis process in onion root tip 4. Bacterial conjugation 5. Karyotyping 6. Isolation of plasmid DNA from E.coli 42
  • 7. Quantification of Agarose gel electrophoresis 8. Restriction digestion of λ DNA 9. Ligation of λ / EcoR1 digest 10. Transformation technique a) Competent cell preparation by calcium chloride method b) Transformation c) Confirmation test (selected markers, restriction digestion, PCR) 11. Native and SDS – PAGE of crude protein 12. Coomassive brilliant blue G-250 staining 13. Silver nitrate staining 14. Molecular weight determination of unknown protein 15. PCR 16. Southern blotting 43
  • II YEAR – III SEMESTER LAB II: IMMUNOLOGY AND GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY IMMUNOLOGY PRACTICALS 1. Collection of venous blood from human and separation and preservation of serum/plasma 2. Agar gel diffusion – Ouchterlony‟s method 3. Counter immuno electrophoresis 4. Electrophoresis – serum proteins 5. Blood grouping 6. Latex agglutination test 7. Widal tube and slide agglutination technique 8. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 9. Western blotting 10. Immunization of protocols and raising antibody 11. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs – Dissection GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY PRACTICALS 1. Preparation of Bacteriological plates. 2. Screening of Urine Sample for UTI 3. Gram‟s staining. 4. Acid fast Bacilli Staining. 5. Preparation of Slants & Plates. 6. Hanging drop Method. 7. Confirm of E-Coli by Indole-Catalase Test, Agar Tests. 8. Antibiotic sensitivity testing 9. Skin scrap staining for Fungi( by KOH) 10. Fungal Culture 11. Fungal Staining 12. Blood & Chocolate agar preparation 13. Blood Specimen screening for bacteria. 44
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY UNIT - I: Physicochemical properties of water; osmotic and ionic regulation; acid base balance; membrane composition; Symport, Antiport, active and passive transport, carrier mediated transport. Types of nutrition – Chemotrophic and autotrophic. UNIT – II: Mode of action of hormones- plant and animal. UNIT – III: Photosynthesis – C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Nitrogen fixation; mechanism of nitrate uptake and reduction; biological nitrogen fixation. UNIT - IV : Blood and Hemostasis – Electrical activity of heart, cardiac pump – regulation of heart beat – Hemodynamics – control of cardiac output – Microcirculation (Cutaneous, skeletal, coronary, cerebral and Foetal circulation) – Case study. Overview of Respiratory systems – mechanical aspects – Pulmonary and branchial circulation – Transport of O2 and CO2 – Control of Breathing – Case study. UNIT – V: General function of neuronal cells – special sensory system (visual, auditory,vestibular,chemical sensory system) – Motor system – Automatic nervous system and its control – general physiology of muscular system – molecular basis of contraction – muscles acting on skeletal – Muscles in the walls of Hollow Organs. REFERENCES: 1. Bryant, C. (1980) – The biology of Respiration (2nd edition) 2. Devlin, R.M. (1969) – Plant Pathology – Van Nostrand, Reinholt Co., N.Y. 3. Freifelder, D. (1985) – Essentials of Modern biochemistry – Jones and Barlett. 4. Gaugh, H.G. (1972) – Inorganic plant nutrition – Nutchinson Stroudesburg, P.A. 5. Jain, V.K (1990) – Plant Physiology – S. Chand and Co., New Delhi. 6. Kumar, H.D. and Singh, H.N. (1990) – Plant metabolism. 45
  • 7. Lehninger, A.L. (1985) – Biochemistry – Worth publishers. 8. Leopold, A.C. (1973) – Plant growth and development – Tata Mc Graw Hill Co., 9. Lewitt – Introduction to Plant Physiology 10. Malik, C.P. and Srinistava (1995) – Plant Physiology 11. Salisbury and Ross – Plant Physiology 12. William G. Hopkins – Plant Physiology 46
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE (Plant and Animal) SECTION A: PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE UNIT I History of plant cell, tissue and organ culture – laboratory organization – aseptic techniques – nutritional requirements and culture media – Types of cultures – Solid – Liquid – Stationary – agitated – batch cultures – Organogenesis – callus induction – Caulogenesis – Rhizogenesis – technique of hairy root production. UNIT II Micropropagation – mass production of plantlets – hardening and mist chambers – transplantation to field – techniques for maintaining plantlets in the field – somatic embryogenesis – induction of multiple shoots – production of virus free plants – production and exploitation of haploids and triploids – techniques of overcoming incompatibility barriers – embryo rescue – protoplast culture and parasexual hybridization – exploitation of Somaclonal and Gametoclonal variations. UNIT III Mass Culture of Cells – manipulation of cell line selection – immobilization of cells and its application – synchronization of cell cultures and cell divisions – production of secondary metabolites – biotransformation – Induction of cell line mutants and mutations – cryopreservation – germplasm conservation and establishment of gene banks – Synseed technology. SECTION B: ANIMAL CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE UNIT IV Principles of Cell and Tissue Culture: advantages and disadvantages of tissue culture methods – cell markers – types of cells – primary and established cell lines – kinetics of cell growth – genetics of cultured cells – metabolism – applications of Animal Tissue Cultures. UNIT V Techniques of Cell and Tissue Culture: Sources of cells – techniques of cell culture: Mechanical, biochemical and types of animal cells – equipment – cell culture media – culture procedures – preparation of animal materials – primary culture, cell lines and cloning – somatic cell fusion – tissue cultures: slide and coverslip cultures, washing and feeding, double coverslip cultures, flask cultures, test tube culture – organ culture – whole 47
  • embryo culture – specialized culture techniques – cell synchronization – measurement of cell death – stem cell culture and transplantation. REFERENCES : 1. Plant Tissue and Cell Culture – H.E. Street. 2. Plant Tissue Culture – Kalyan Kumar Dr. 3. Plant Tissue Culture Concept – Robert N. Trigiano, Dennis and J. Gray. 4. Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology – P.S. Srivasata. 5. Methods in Plant Cell Biology – David w. Galbraith, Hans J. Bohnert and Davp Bouique. 6. Animal Cells Culture and media – D.C. Darling and S.J Morgan BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited, 1994. 7. Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 57: Animal Cell Culture Methods – Jennie P. Mather and David Barnes, Academic Press, 1998. 8. Epithelial Cell Culture – Ann Harris, Cambridge University Press 1996. 9. Animal Biotechnology – M.M. Ranga,Agrobios(India),1999-2000. 48
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE UNIT I Introduction to ecology – Media (Soil-Water-Air) – Physical factors of the environment (Light-Pressure-Temperature-Humidity-Radiation)-Biological factors (Predation-Parasitism-Commensalisms- Amensalism)- Habit ecology- Population – Community- Ecosystem- Food chain and food web- Ecological Succession- Ecological energetic- Animal distribution – Zoogeographical realms. UNIT II Introduction to soil pollution- Introduction to radioactive pollution- Introduction to water pollution- Types, Sources and consequences of water pollution, Ecological and biochemical aspects of water pollution- Types and characteristics of domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes and their effects on water bodies- Chemical and bacteriological sampling and analysis- Water quality parameters: Criteria and standards-Waste water treatment – Water pollution control. UNIT III Introduction to air pollution – Atmosphere and its components- Natural and anthropogenic Sources of atmospheric pollutants- Significance of air pollutants and their reactions in the atmosphere – Transport, dispersion and fate of pollutants (Smog and acid rain) – Effects of air pollutants- Air quality standards and criteria- Introduction to noise pollution- Measurement and analysis of sound-A weighted sound level, equivalent sound pressure level (leq), Noise pollution level (NPL), Sourd exposure level (SEL), traffic noise index(TNI), day night level, noise criteria curves- Noise sources- Noise control and abatement measures. UNIT IV Introduction to toxicology: Principles of toxicology Definitions – Bio-degradable and least- degradable toxic substances – Toxicological evaluation- Animal toxicology tests (lethal, acute, chronic, AMES and micronucleous test) - Dose effect and dose response relationship- Bio-accumulation and Bio-magnification- Toxicity indicators in the body- Indicator organisms. 49
  • UNIT V Environment and health : Basic principle of environmental health – Physiological responses of man to environmental stress (asbestosis and silicosis) –Free radicals- anti- oxidants- Histopathological evaluations – Occupational health hazards- Health and hygiene. REFERENCES : 1. Khopkar. S.M, 2004: Environmental pollution monitoring and control- New Age International Publishers(P)Limited, New Delhi. 2. Des W. Connell,1997: Basic concept of environmental chemistry- Lewis Publishers, Newyork 3. Verma & Agarwal, Ecology. 4. Odoum, Ecology. 5. Agarwal. K.C, 2001: Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects and control- Nidhi Publishers (India) Bikaner. 6. Kumaraswamy. K. Algappa Moses A, Vasanthi M: Environmental studies- Bharathidasan University Publication, Trichy. 50
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER r- DNA TECHNOLOGY UNIT I Generation of foreign DNA molecules, cutting and joining DNA molecules. Role of endonucleases (Type I, II, III) E.coli & T4 ligases, Linkers, adapters and homopolymers. Ideal cloning vehicle – alternation; Promoters, Control circuits, upstream and downstream elements and markers / reporters. Cloning bacteria and eukaryotes UNIT II Vectors: plasmid features and biology – structural and functional organization, plasmid replication and copy number – stringent and relaxed plasmid, incompatibility of plasmid maintenance. Construction of an ideal plasmid vectors – cosmids. M13 and their uses. Organization, construction and uses of pBR322 – based and pUC based vectors. UNIT III Specialized vectors- expression vectors, gene fusion and shuttle vectors. BAC and YAC vectors for Saccharomyces, Streptomyces and Bacillus. Amplification of DNAs by PCR UNIT IV Methods of introducing recombinant DNA into bacteria, plant and animals: Ca- mediated transfection, particle bombardment, microinjection, Electroporation and Lipofection. Recombinant selection and screening methods, Transgenic plants, GM foods, gene knock out and production of transgenic animals and the MMk in mouse. Blotting- southern, Northern and Western. UNIT V Application of gene technology: potential hazards – safety aspects of RDT. Human genetics – decline of human genome, eugenics and the possible approaches. Cloning of organisms and advances in reproductive biology, the cloned humans (?) and designer babies. Conservation and resurrection of extinct animals – Big panda and the Tasmanian tiger. Bio safety, Genome prospecting and controversies – issues of genetic engineering – social and scientific. 51
  • REFERENCES: 1. Biolol series Techniques for engineering Genes strategies for engineering organisms 2. Ernts L. Winnacker: From Genes to Clones 3. Glick and pasternack: Molecular Biotechnology 4. Lewis B: Genes VII 5. Maniatis: Molecular Cloning – A Lab Manual Vol. I, II. III 6. old and Primrose: Principals of Gene Manipulation 7. Watson J.D: Recombinant DNA 8. Kumar: Text Book of Biotechnology 9. Purohit: Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications 10. Genetics: B.D.Singh 11. Genomes: T.A.Brown 52
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER LAB I: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY & CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE General Physiology Practicals: 1. Chlorophyll Estimation 2. Calculation of Stomatal Index 3. Plasmolysis 4. Proline Estimation 5. Calculation of Leaf Surface Area 6. Water Potential of potato Tuber 7. Extraction and quantification of DNA from onion 8. Determination of water quality 9. Cell as an osmometer 10. Estimation of rate of O2 consumption in fish 11. Estimation of Blood sugar in human 12. Estimation of Blood urea in human 13. Total Blood Cell Count 14. Estimation of Haemoglobin level in Blood sample 15. Estimation of Ammonia in human urine 16. Recording of Blood Pressure during Stress condition 17. Preparation of Hemin crystals of the blood Cell and Tissue Culture Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Practicals: Media preparations Sterilization Callus Induction Direct Organogenesis Indirect Organogenesis Somatic Embryogenesis Plant Cell Culture Anther Culture Protoplast Isolation and Culture 53
  • Animal Cell Culture Practicals: Animal Cell Culture Media Basics of Cell culture (Types, Media Preparation, Culturing, Freezing and thawing) Sub Culturing and Maintenance Human Lymphocyte Culture and Karyotyping Cytotoxic Assays and Morphological Assays (Acridine orange / Et Br and Hoechst 33258, MTT) Cell Cycle Analysis using Flow Cytometer and Micronucleus 54
  • II YEAR – IV SEMESTER LAB II: r-DNA TECHNOLOGY 1. Isolation of Plant and Bacterial Genomic DNA and Plasmid DNA. 2. Isolation of RNA 3. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. 4. Restriction Enzyme digestion. 5. Restriction mapping and ligation. 6. Transformation, screening for recombinants. 7. Blotting Techniques. 8. Isolation of plasmid DNA- i) minipreparation ii) large scale isolation 9. In vitro DNA ligation, transformation of E.coli 10. Characterization of transformants: DNA gel electrophoresis, Restriction map Analysis 11. Southern blot analysis 12. Northern and dot blotting technique. 13. PCR/ RFLP technique 14. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation and recombinant selection, 15. Amplification of RAPD. 55
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I: Genetic Engineering in Plants-Molecular biology of Agrobacterium mediated DNA transfer- Ti plasmid Vectors- Binary and co-integrated vectors- Transformation strategies in plants – Agrobacterium tumefaciens & Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant viruses as vectors. Physical method of transfer-Biolistics –Electroporation. UNIT II: Transposons in transgenic plants – their uses – Terminator gene technology, RNAi, Metabolic Engineering – Modification of plant Nutritional content – Amino acids and lipids as Bioreactor- polymers and foreign proteins in seeds. UNIT III: Selectable Markers, reporter genes- Promoters used in Plant vectors genetic engineering for - heat, drought and saline tolerance (Osmogenes) - Virus resistance. - Pest resistance - Herbicide resistance - Herbicide tolerance - Delayed fruit ripening - Fungal and bacterial resistance - Secondary metabolite production UNIT IV: Production of therapeutic proteins- antibodies- vaccines edible Vaccines- hormones- Golden Rice- Biolistic in transgenic plants. Marker free transgenic plants. Co- transformation-Transgenic silencing. Molecular aspects of nitrogen fixation. UNIT V: Chloroplast genetic engineering Chloroplast genome- Transplastomic plants – Mitochondrial genome- Legal protection and IPR- patent Co-operation Theory (PCT) - Indian and International Agencies involving in IPR and Patenting – IPR in India- WTO agreement. 56
  • REFERENCES: 1. Intellectual property in agricultural Biotechnology, Edited by F.H.Erbisch and K.M.Maredia, University Press, 2000. 2. Plant Biotechnology – New products and Applications by J.Hammond, P.McGarvey and V.Yusibov (eds), Springer 1999. 3. Transgenic Plants by Esra Gauln and Adena Breimann. 4. Engineering Chloroplasts: an alternative site for foreign genes, proteins, reactions and products. Trends in Biotechnology, 18, 253-263. 5. Indian patent Laws, Taxmann Allied sciences Ltd by D.B.Mittal, Taxmann Sciences Ltd, 1999. 6. Molecular Biotechnology, Principles and applications of recombinant DNA technology. Bernard R.Glick and Jack J.Pasternak. ASM Press Washington DC 2001. 57
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I Animal cell, Tissue and Organ culture: History-Definition-culture environment (substrate and media) - techniques for establishing of cell lines – insect cell cultivation- organ and embryo culture- cryopreservation – valuable products. Artificial insemination –embryo transfer- cloning (DOLLY, MOLLY and POLLY) nuclear transplantation, in vitro fertilization technology, genetic engineering in animals. Transformation of animal cells / cloning vectors, expression vectors animal viral vectors and yeast vectors. UNIT II Transgenic animals. Development and uses (mice, cattle, Goat, fish and sheep and sheep) and transgenic pets, Tendered meat production-Transgenic breeding strategies- molecular farming (products with strategic importance). UNIT III Pest management: Juvenile hormone analogues-pheromones and genetic manipulation, biotechnology of silkworms, transgenic silk production -Baculo viruses vector and foreign gene expression, Biotechnological approach to the production of live feed. UNIT IV Molecular markers: use of nucleic acid probes and antibodies, In clinical diagnosis and tissue typing - Mapping of human genome-RFLP and applications Genetic engineering approaches for the correction of genetic disorders -Human cloning animal right activities Blue cross in India- society for prevention of cruelty against animals Ethical limits of Animal use, Green peace international peace -peacekeeping -Human Rights and Responsibilities. 58
  • UNIT V Regulation the sue of biotechnology: Regulation r-DNA technology-regulating food and food ingredients- human gene therapy- initial public concerns -accumulation of defective genes in future generations - future of gene therapy, patenting biotechnology inventions - patenting multi cellular organisms patenting and fundamental research. REFERENCES: 1. Harrison, M.A and BAL, I.R 1997 General techniques of all culture Cambridge University press. 2. Prakash M and Arora, C.K 1998 and issue culture, Anmol publication Pvt, Ltd., 3. Darling D.C and Morgon S.J 1994 animal cells, culture media, Ltd, John Wiley sons, 4. In vitro cultivation of animal cells 1994, 1st ed., Butter worth Heinemann Ltd., 5. B. Ianfresheny 2006 culture of animal cells and Manual basic technique, fifth edition, Wiley, liss publication 6. Bernard, B, Glick, jack, J. Pastunak, Molecular biotechnology principles and application of Recombinant DNA 7. B. Sasidhara 2006 Animal biotechnology MJP publications 8. Cooper M.G and Hausman E.R the cell and molecular approach fourth edition by sinauer associated Inc. 9. Dubey R.C 2007 Text book of biotechnology S.Chand and company ltd., 10. Text book of animal biotechnology P. Bamadess S.Meerarani 11. An introduction to molecular biology/ Bobert C. Tait 12. Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology, Second edition, Helen xreuzer and Adrianne marrey. 13. Cedric Grillot, Entomology, second edition 14. B.mathur and textbook of entomology, first edition 15. Bobert Matheson, entomology and introductory courses, first edition. 59
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I History, lymphoid organs and cells: History of Immunology: Edward Jenner, Eli Metchnikoff, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch; Innate immunity- barriers; acquired immunity-cells involved; humoral and cellular immunity; lymphoid organs- primary & secondary-Hematopoiesis; immunogens and antigens– characteristics of ideal antigens; classes of antigens, cross reactivity, haptens and adjuvants. UNIT II Antibody and complement: Antibody – isotypes – Domain structure, biological properties, kinetics of antibody response. Primary interaction, secondary interaction; Mechanism of generation of antibody diversity. Classical and alternate pathways. UNIT III Biology of lymphocyte, TcR and MHC: Ontogeny of B and T lymphocytes; TcR: interaction of TcR with MHC molecules; Thymic selection and T-cell differentiation. Role of MHC in immunity. Mechanism of allograft rejection. Cytokines in immune regulation. UNIT IV Hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and tumor immunology: Immediate hypersensitivity – general characteristics, activation and effector phases, clinical aspects – role of IgE; Clinical aspects of Type II, III and IV Hypersensitivity; Etiology of autoimmune disease – systemic and organ specific. Tumor antigens: types; effector mechanism in tumor immunity; Immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. UNIT V Immunotechnology: Principles, methodology and application of LTT, Hybridoma technology and antibody engineering; ELISA; ELISPOT; RIST; RAST and Immunoblotting; FACSCAN, Immunofluoresence and RIA; Immunoinformatics and vaccine designing; Cloning strategies for vaccine production. T cell cloning and stem cell technology. 60
  • REFERENCES: 1. Benjamini E, Coico R and G. Sunskise (2000) Immunology a short course. IV edn. (Chapters 1-13) Wiley – Liss publication, NY. 2. Kuby, J (1997) immunology, III edn, WH Freeman &Co, NY. 3. Goldsby R.A. Kindt T.I and Osborne B.A (2000) Kuby Immunology IV edn. 4. WH Freeman &Co, NY. 5. Janeway, C.A. Travers P. Wolport M and Capra J.D (1999) Immunology IV edn. Current Biology, NY. 6. Roitt, I (2000). Essential Immunology, IV edn. Blackwell Sci NY. 7. Brown, F, Chanock, R. M., Lerner R.A. (Editors) (1986) Vaccines 86: New approaches to Immunization. 8. Fathman, C. G. Fitch, F.W (1982) Isolation, characterization and utilization of 9. T-lymphocytes clones, Academic Press, London. 10. Goding, J. W (1998) Monoclonal antibodies: Principles and practice, Academic Press, London. 11. Roitt, Male and Brostoff (1998) Immunology 4th edn. Pub. Mocby, New York pp 28.14. 12. Springer T. A (Editor) (1985) Hybridoma technology in Biosciences and Medicine, Plenum Press, New York. 61
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER LAB I: PLANT AND ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY Practicals: 1. Medium preparation 2. Explant preparation 3. Seed Germination 4. Micropropagation 5. Suspension culture 6. Multiple shoot induction 7. Transformation 8. GUS assay 9. Somatic embryogenesis 10. SNP 11. Plant DNA isolation 12. GFP cloning ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Practicals: 1. Isolation of Genomic DNA from Blood 2. Isolation of Plasmid DNA by Alkaline Lysis Method 3. Restriction Digestion 4. Isolation of RNA from Mammalian Tissue 5. Isolation of Histone 6. Bacterial Transformation 7. Electroporation 8. Quantification of DNA/RNA 62
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER LAB II: IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY LIST OF PRACTICAL – IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY: 1. Bleeding techniques and immunization protocols. 2. Dissection of chick & wild rat for lymphoid organs. 3. Immunodiffusion & electrophoresis techniques. 4. Fraction of T & B sub-populations from peripheral blood. 5. Microlymphocytotoxicity assay (ALS titration assay). 6. Detection of cancer markers. 7. Immunofluorescence. 8. ELISA. 9. Immunoglobulin estimation. 63
  • III YEAR – V SEMESTER ELECTIVE I – NANO BIOTECHNOLOGY, BIOPHYSICAL PROCESSES & BIOSTATISTICS UNIT I Introduction to Nanoworld, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - nanoparticles, nanowires, thin films and multilayers; Biomolecular Structure Determination X-ray crystallography - NMR spectroscopy - Electron microscopy - Atomic force microscopy Nanobiotechnology: Introduction, Biomolecules as nanostructures and their applications in nanotechnology viz. Biosensors, separation of cells and cell organelles, drug delivery, gene therapy. UNIT II Synthesis of nanostructures: Natural in inorganic, Natural in organism, chemical and physical methods –Sol Process, Micelle, Chemical Precipitation, Hydrothermal Method, Pyrolysis, Bio-based Protocol, Chemical Vapor Deposition, Sputtering; Functionalization of nanoparticles for biological applications; Recent trends in Nanobiotechnology - Applications in life Sciences and ethical issues UNIT III Some interactions of electromagnetic radiations and living matter: Radioactivity and biological tracers ionization and detection: Positive ions, electrons, gamma rays, neutrons. Disintegration half-life, energy distribution, decay products, biological effects of ionizing radiations. Biological tracers in metabolic studies radioactive mapping. UNIT IV: Laws of thermodynamics, statements, heat content of foods, free energy and entropy, free energy released role of adenosine triphosphate and mechanism of ATP synthesis in mitochondria and chloroplast the mobile power supply, measurement of H, F and TS membrane potentials, negative entropy change in living systems, equilibrium vs. steady-state, rate controlling steps, effects of concentration and temperature, the specific rate constant, catalysis by enzymes, diffusion-co-efficient - permeability constant. 64
  • UNIT V: Data: Collection, sources and methods, presentation, tabulation, graphical and diagrammatic representation, histograms, ratio and percentage, and their limitations. Measures of central tendencies, mean, median, mode. Dispersions, skewness, coefficient of variations. Probability, binomial-poison and normal distributions Simple correlation, linear regression. Statistical inference, confidence intervals, chi-square method, „f‟ and„t‟ tests, variance ratio test. Principles of experimental design-replication, randomization. REFERENCES : 1. Cotterill RMJ (2002). Biophysics. John Willey & Sons Ltd, England. 2. Chandra R (2004). Nuclear Medicine Physics. The Basics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York. 3. Buchholy K, Kasche V, Bornschever VT (2005). Biocatalysts and Enzyme Technology. Willey- VCH Verlag Gm bh & Co. KGaA Weinheim. 4. Renugopalakrishnan V, Lavis RV (2006). Bionanotechnology- proteins to nanodevices, Springer, Dordrecht. 5. Goodsell D.s.(2004). Bionanotechnology, Lessons from Nature. Willey – Liss, New Jersey. 6. Biostatistical Analysis (4 th edition) by Jerrold H. Zar. 65
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS UNIT-I Immunodiagnostics Lymphoid organs and cells: Types of Immunity: Innate & acquired immunity- cells involved; humoral and cellular immunity– Hematopoiesis -Stem cell markers.Antibody – isotypes – Domain structure, biological properties. Serodiagnostics: agglutination, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoprecipitation – Role of MHC in immunity – HLA typing. Cytokines and interleukins: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. p53 & its role. Immunoinformatics and vaccine designing. UNIT –II Microbial Diagnostics Microbial pathogens, types: bacteria, viruses, virions, mycoplasmas – biology: type study – M. tb, HIV, HCV and Dengue. Detection of infectious agents and molecular epidemiology: M. tb, HCV & HIV; Conventional Vs Molecular diagnostics-merits and demerits. Biological warfare-Bacillus anthracis, H5N1, Chikungunya, plague – biology, pathogenesis – diagnostic methods. National and international status of pathogen transport – Regulations, quarantine and organizations. Molecular epidemiology – definition. Environmental molecular diagnostics – Pathogens of importance in aqua culture (WSSV) and agriculture- plant molecular genetic markers. UNIT III Diagnostics for Human Diseases Genetic testing: Practice of genetic testing, genetic testing for carrier detection, genetic testing to predict disorders, presymptomatic testing, and disease-susceptibility testing. Molecular aspects of mutation- Detection of genetic defects. Gene polymorphism: candidate genes approach Metabolic and genetic disorders: diabetes, cardiac disorders- DNA analysis in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy- Sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia: molecular aetiology and detection - Prenatal molecular diagnosis: CVS and amniocentesis - preimplantation test - methods and applications. Social, ethical and legal aspects of molecular diagnostics. 66
  • UNIT IV Forensic and Cancer Diagnostics Molecular Forensics: Contributions of Alec Jeffrys - DNA as evidence. DNA fingerprinting - Paternity dispute- Personal identification and identity of descent by molecular methods – Case studies - National laboratories – CDFD – Medico legal aspects. Types of cancer-Diagnosis of cancer: tumor markers, tumor imaging and staging –p53 and its role. Monoclonal and engineered antibodies and fluorescent antibodies in cancer diagnosis - Antigen specific therapy, cytokine therapy, gene therapy. UNIT V Molecular Techniques Approaches, methods and tools for molecular diagnostics: SDS-PAGE, blotting techniques, RFLP, RAPD and PCR methods. In situ hybridization methods: FISH and fluorescent methods. Microarray technique: principle of global screening and diagnosis. Principles, methodology and application of ELISA, ELISPOT, FACSCAN, Immunofluorescence and RIA; Fluorescence tag chromophore-tagged DNA and protein probes, chip-based molecular diagnostics. REFERENCES: 1. Benjamini E, Coico R and G. Sunskise (2000) Immunology a short course. IV edn. (Chapters 1-13) Wiley – Liss publication, NY. 2. Kuby, J (2005) immunology, III edn, WH Freeman &Co, NY. 3. Goldsby R.A. Kindt T.I and Osborne B.A (2000) Kuby Immunology IV edn. S WH Freeman &Co, NY. 4. Roitt, I (2006). Essential Immunology, IV edn. Blackwell Sci NY. 5. Strachan, T. and A.P. Read. 2004. Human Molecular Genetics. 3rd Edition. Garland Science, UK. 6. Clinical chemistry-Principles, Procedures and correlations 5th edn/. Michael L. Bishop, Edward P. Fody, Larry Scoeff – Lipincott Williams and Wilkins – Indian Reprint 2005. 7. Julian Little, Muin J. Khoury, Wylie Burke 2003. Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease, Oxford University Press. 8. BROCK Biology of Microorganisms. Eleventh Ed., Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko. Pearson-Prentice Hall, 2006. 67
  • 9. A Practical Guide to Clinical Virology. 2nd Ed. L.R. Haaheim., J.R. Pattison. R.J.Whitley. John Wiley &Sons, 1994. 10. Biomedical Methods Hand Book- John M. Walkser, Ralph Raplay. Humana Press, 2005. 11. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry & Molecular Diagnostics – 4th Ed. Carl A. Burtis, Edward R. Ashwood, David E. Bruns. Saunders – Elsevier, 1999. 12. CDC epidemiology manuals. 13. Medical Genetics at a Glance. Dorian J. Pritchard & Bruco R. Korf, Blackewell publishers. 14. An introduction to Human Molecular Genetics Mechanisms of Inherited Diseases. IInd Ed. Jack J. Pasternak, Wiley-Liss & Sons Inc., 2005. N J, USA. 15. Elements of Medical Genetics. II th edition-Muller, Young – Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 68
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I Biological pest control- Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biopesticides –Bacillus thuringiensis B.T Diversity-ORY genes- Classification- Mode of Action of BT toxin Species other than thuringiensis-B.Popllliae-Bacillus lentiomorbus- Bacillus Spaericus- Mode of Action-Baculo Viruses Nuclear Poly hedrosis Virus(NPV)Advantages-Mode of Action. UNIT II ABE (Acetone- Butanol -ethanol) Fermentation by olostridium acetobutylloum- strategies to improve ABE fermentation. Ethanol Fermentation by Yeast and Zymomonas entner doudoroff pathway.Basis of ethanol Tolerance- Formation of Various byproducts in the fermentation pathways UNIT III Biodegedaration- Significance- factors affecting general reactions involved in Biodegradations- Biodegradations of alkanes Benzenes Toluenes catechol-Ortho and Meta Pathways Tol Plasmid. Ore leaching by Microbes- Bioleaching- Advantages- Chemical reactions involved in leaching of Copper Thiobacillus Ferroxidans UNIT IV Aminoacid Fermentations-Significance of amino acids-Strategies to improve amino acid Productions-Production of Lysine, Proline and Glutamic acid Antibiotics-Definition, Chemical Nature-Classification-Mode of Action-Penicillin- Streptomycin-Tetracycline-Macrolides-Improvement of Strains of Higher and new antibiotic production. UNIT V Microbes to help plant growth and yield –biofertilizers –phytopathogens controlling microorganisms-rice nucleation genes Single cell protein- photosynthetic microorganisms and non photosynthetic microorganism –substrates and growth conditions –protein quality Decomposition of organic matter-biomass degradation of cellulose, Hemi cellulose and lignin. 69
  • REFERENCES: 1. Glazer, A N. and Nikaldo, H.1995 Microbial Biotechnology -W H Freeman and company network. 2. Encyclopedia of microbiology 1992-Vol 1-4.Academic press 3. Prave et al.1987-Fundamentals of Biotechnology-V C Publishers. 4. Prescott, L M., Harley, J P and Klein, D A.1999.Microbiology 4th edition Mc Graw Hill. 5. Stainer, R Y, Ingrtham, J L., Wheels, M.L and Painter P.R.1987-General Microbiology.Maomillan. 70
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY UNIT I Fermenters - Design & Operation: - Basic functions, design and components – aseptic and containment requirements – body construction and temperature control – aeration and agitation systems – sterilization of fermenter, air supply and medium, aseptic inoculation methods, value systems – a brief idea on monitoring and control devices. UNIT II Classes of Fermenters: - Mechanical – CSTR, Pneumatic – airlift fermenters, Hydrodynamic – jet fermenters; acetator and caritator, enzymatic membrane reactors, photobioreactors, solid state fermenters, anaerobic solid stage silage fermenters, animal cell culture reactors and plant cell culture reactors, tower fermenters, bed fermenters, rotating disc fermenter, bubble cap fermenter and cylindro conical vessel. UNIT III Downstream processing: - Objectives and criteria – foam separation – precipitation methods – filtration devices and filter aids – industrial scale centrifugation and cell disruption methods – liquid – liquid extraction – solvent recovery – chromatography – two-phase aqueous extraction - super – critical fluid extraction – ultrafiltration, drying devices, crystallization and whole broth processing. UNIT IV Media for industrial fermentations: - Typical media, media formulation, water, energy and carbon sources, nitrogen sources, minerals, growth factors, buffers, precursors, inhibitors, inducers and antifoams – media optimization. UNIT V Improvement of industrially important microorganisms: - Isolation, screening methods – primary and secondary, preservation methods, methods of strain improvement, recombination and molecular methods for improvements, yield and other desired properties for improvement of strains. 71
  • REFERENCES : 1. Stanbury P.F., Whitaker A., Hall S.J. (1995) Principles of Fermentation Technology, Butterwoth Heinemann. 2. Casida L.E. (1968) Industrial Microbiology, John Wiley & Sons. 3. Flickinger M.C., Drew S.W. (1999) Encyclopedia of Bioprocess Technology – 5 Volumes, John Wiley & Sons. 72
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER LAB I: MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS List of Practical: 1. Bleeding techniques and immunization protocols. 2. Dissection of chick & wild rat for lymphoid organs. 3. Immunodiffusion & electrophoresis techniques. 4. Viral & bacterial DNA extraction. 5. mRNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. 6. HLA-Class I Class II - PCR-SSP. 7. Immunofluorescence-two color (AO/PI). 8. Serodiagnostics for microbial & viral pathogens. 9. PCR diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 10. PCR-RFLP for pathogens. 11. DNA Fingerprinting for leptospiral pathogen. 12. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) by single tube/ nested PCR. 13. In-Situ Hybridization (FISH). 14.PCR based detection of cancers. 73
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER LAB II: MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 1. Extraction of phycobili proteins 2. Estimation of phycobili proteins 3. Spectral analysis of phycobili proteins 4. Ammonium sulphate precipitation of phycocyanin 5. Dialysis purification of phycocyanin 6. Gel filtration chromatic purification and estimation of phycocyanin 7. Ethanol fermentation by yeast production and estimation 8. Bacterial growth curve 9. Yeast growth curve 10. Assay of invertase BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY 1. Pure culture and maintenance of culture 2. Bacterial growth curve 3. Yeast growth curve 4. Effect of temperature on bacterial growth 5. Effect of temperature on yeast growth 6. Effect of pH on yeast growth 7. Effect of pH on bacterial growth 8. Effect of carbon sources on yeast growth 9. Effect of substrate concentration on yeast growth 10. Effect of inoculum size on yeast and bacterial growth 11. Effect of inoculum age on yeast and bacterial growth 12. Determination of thermal death point 13. Determination of thermal death time 14. Utilization of substrate and alcohol production in fermentation 74
  • III YEAR – VI SEMESTER ELECTIVE – I : GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY UNIT – I Introduction Introduction to Pharmacology, Sources of Drugs, Dosage forms and routes of administration, Mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, Factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence, Pharmocogenetics. UNIT - II Pharmacokinetics Absorption – Structure of cell membrane, Gastro-intestinal absorption of drugs, Mechanism of drug absorption, Absorption of drug from non-per oral routes. Distribution, Metabolism – Phase-I, and Phase-II reactions, Excretion of drugs, Principles of basic and clinical Pharmacokinetics. UNIT – III Adverse drug reactions and treatment of poisoning, drug interactions, Bioassay of drugs and Biological standardization, Discovery and development of new drugs. UNIT –IV Pharmacology of Central Nervous System a. Neurohumoral transmission b. Anesthetics c. Sedatives, hypnotics, antianxiety agents and centrally acting muscle relaxants d. Analgesics, anti-inflammatory antipyretics, anti gout drugs e. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists f. C.N.S.Stimulants UNIT – V Pharmacology of C.V.S and Respiratory System a) Antihypertensive drugs b) Anti – anginal and Vasodilator drugs c) Anti – arrhythmic drugs d) Anti asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators 75
  • REFERENCES: 1. Rang, M.P. Dale M.M. Reter J.M – Pharmacology 2. Pharmacology and Therpeutics – Satoskar 3. Goodman and Gilman‟s, The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics 4. Kulkarni S.K., Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 5. Chronppharmacology by B. Lammer 6. Topicss of Molecular Pharmacology I & II by Nurger and Roberts 7. Medical Pharmacology by K.D. Tripathi 8. Essential of Pharmacotherapeutics by F.S.K. Barar 9. Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics by Das & Dutta 10. Lippincotts Pharmacology 76
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER BASIC BIO-INFORMATICS UNIT-I BASICS OF BIOINFORMATICS: Role of computers in biology (biocomputing )_ Origin and Overview of bioinformatics- Applications of bioinformatics – National and International bioinformatics Institutes and Industries – Research in bioinformatics- Job Opportunities of bioinformaticians- various OMES and OMICS UNIT -II BIOLOGICAL DATABASES: Open access bibliographic resources and literature databases: PubMed, PMC and Public library of Sciences (PLoS)- Sequence Databases: GenBank ,DDBJ,EMBL, PIR and Swiss-Prot- Pattern and Motif Searches: PROSITE, BLOCKS, PRINTS,PFAM- Structure databases: PDB and NDB- Structural classification databases: SCOP, CATH- Metabolic pathways database: KEGG – Biodiversity databases: World Biodiversity Database (WBD) UNIT-III SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT: Pairwise Sequence alignment –Local and alignments – Dotplot- Dynamic Programming methods – Scoring or Substitution matrices (PAM and BLOSUM)- Statistics of alignment score –Database Searching – FASTA and BLAST searches- Multiple Sequence alignment –CLUSTALW –TCOFFEE –Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Model methods – Sequence - Function Relationships – Tools for Drug Discovery / Drug Design UNIT- IV GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS: Genome Database: GOLD – Genome Features of Prokaryote and Eukaryote – Genome annotation – Gene finders: GLIMMER and GENSCAN - Genome browser: UCSC –Genome projects: E.coli, A. thaliana and Human – Genomic Variations (SNP) – Genome Expressions (Microarray) – Computational approaches in Comparative Genomics: CMR, MUMMER and ACT Features of Protein Sequence and Structure – Proteomics tools in Expasy Server- Protein Identification Programs: Mascot, PeptIdent and Protein prospector – Secondary structure Prediction: GOR and Chou nFasman – 77
  • Tertiary structure prediction: Homology modeling – Interactomics – Protein structure Visualization tools: RasMol Swiss PDB Viewer UNIT –V PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS: Sequence –based taxonomy – From Multiple Alignment to Phylogeny – Orthologs, Paralogs and Xenologs – Phylogenetic tree representation – Construction of dendrogram – Computer Tools for Phylogenetic analysis: PAUP and PHYLIP REFERENCES: 1. Arthur M.Lesk, Introduction to Bioinformatics, Oxford University press, New Delhi, 2003. 2. A.Baxevanis and B.F. Ouellete. Bioinformatics: A practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and proteins, Third edition, Wiley –Interscience (Wiley Student Edition), 2005. 3. D.W.Mount, Bioinformatics – Sequence and Genome Analysis, Second edition, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2005. 4. D.Higgins and W.taylor (Eds), Bioinformatics - Sequence, Structure and Databanks, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2000. 5. A.M.Campbell & L.G. Heyer , Discovering Genomics , Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Pearson Education ,New Delhi ,2003. 1. S.R.Pennington & M.J.Dunn, Proteomics –from Protein sequence to function, Viva Books Pvt .Ltd, New Delhi, 2002. 78
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS UNIT I Introduction to genomics – structure and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes- nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes – interaction between nuclear and chloroplast genome- recognization of coding and non coding regions and annotation of genes. Tools for genome analysis rDNA, cDNA, genomic library, blotting techniques- RFLP, DNA finger printing, RAPD, PCR and automated DNA sequencing. Linkage and pedigree analysis- physical and genetic mapping UNIT II Genome sequencing projects-Microbes plants and animals. Comparative genomics of relevant organisms such as pathogens and non pathogens. Taxonomic classifications of organisms using Molecular Markers-16SrRNA typing/Sequencing. Computational Analysis sequence analysis Similarity searches and pairwaise alignment-Global and Local Alignment Multiple sequence alignment-Phylogenetics UNIT III Functional genomics-Global gene expression analysis. Microarray-Spotted Microarray and oliogonucleotide arrays- Genotypic Microarrays-Comparative Transcriptomics- Differential Gene expression, Transplastomics UNIT IV Proteomics-Definition, Identifications and analysis of Proteins by 2D analysis, Mass spectrophotometry, MALDI TOFF NMR,CD,FTRI, Small angle X-ray scattering, Differential Proteomics, Protein-Protein Interactions, Yeast Two Hybrid systems and Phage Display UNIT V Pharmacogenetics- High Throughput Screening for Drug Discovery-Identification of Drug targets, Pharmacophore, Pharmacogenetics and Drug development. ADME Properties, Metabolome and Metabolomics. Systems Biology-Model systems. Global databases and analysis and statistical Modelling 79
  • REFERENCES: 1. Genomics: The Science and technology behind the human genome project (2000.) Edited by C. Cantor and C.L Smith, Wiley-interscience. Newyork 2. Genome Analysis- A practical Approach(19995)by J.M Davis, Oxford University press, Oxford 3. 3. Genome Mapping A practical Approach(1997) by P.H Dear, Oxford University press, Oxford 4. DNA microarrays: A practical Approach(1999) Edited by M.Schena, Oxford University press, Oxford 5. TWYMAN, R.M. (2004) Principles of proteomics. Bios Scientific Publishers, New York ISBN 1859962734 6. Westerneir.R&T.Navn.2002 Proteomics in practice: A laboratory manual of proteome analysis. Wiley-vch,weinheim.ISBN3527303545 liebler.D.C.2002 7. Introduction to proteomics: Tools for the New Biology. Humana Press Tottava, NJISBN0585418799 8. Proteome Research: New frontiers in functional genomics (1997). Edited by M.R. wilkins, K.L.Wiliams, R.D.Appel and D.F. Hochstrasscr- Springrt Vereag, New York 80
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER BIOINSTRUMENTATION UNIT-I: MICROSCOPY AND RELATED TECHNIQUES Light Microscopy - Microscopic optics, components of microscopes, Basic principles and methods of Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast Fluorescence, Polarization and confocal microscopes - Microscopic measurement techniques. Electron Microscopy – Principle, Techniques and applications of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). UNIT – II: ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: Centrifugation – Principles, various types including density gradient - rate zonal and Isopycnic centrifugation - Spectrophotometer – Principles and application. Radioactive Analysis - Basic of radioactivity, GM counter, LS Counter. UNIT – III: CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES: Basic Principles and different types of Chromatographic techniques - Adsorption – Ion exchange, affinity chromatography; Non adsorption chromatography – gel permeation- Separation of compounds using Gas chromatography and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and HPTLC. UNIT – IV: ELECTROPORETIC TECHNIQUES Protein Electrophoresis – SDS PAGE, Native, Iso, Gradient gel and 2D gel - Nucleic acid – Vertical – submerged - Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis - Immuno Electrophoresis – various types - Gel Documentation UNIT – V: MOLECULARE BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES: Basic Principles of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Gene transfer technique – Electroporation, Gene Gun – Particle gun REFERENCES : 1. Principles of Bioinstrumentation by Richard Normann 2. Biophysical Chemistry by Canter & Canter (1996). 3. Molecular Biotechnology by Glick and Pasternack. ASM Press (1994). 4. Physical chemistry, P.L.. Soni, S. Chand publications 5. Physical chemistry, Puri & Sharma 6. Biophysical chemistry, David Freifelder 81
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER LAB I: BIOINFORMATICS (Genomics and Proteomics) BIOINFORMATICS: List of Practical: 1. Study of Internet resources in Bioinformatics- E.g. NCBI, ICGEB, EMBL-EBI. 2. Searches on NCBI- Pub Med bibliographic databases Concept of Boolean operators. 3. Expert protein Analysis System (ExPASy)- Primary & Secondary structure tools- analysis & prediction 4. Multiple alignment- Domain/Motif databases-BLOCKS, PRINTS, SBASE and PFAM 5. Protein Structure and classification databases-PDB, SCOP,CATH, FSSP,PDBSUM 6. Evaluation of protein structure by Swiss PDB viewer or by any other suitable programs like Insight-II. 7. Calculation of Phi-Psi angles and Ramachandran plot for given protein structure. 8. Multiple alignment-CLUSTALW 9. Phylogenetic Trees-PHYLIP 82
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER ELECTIVE-I : IPR, BIOSAFETY and BIOETHICS UNIT I Definition and requirement – biosafety and biodiversity – Cartagena protocol on biosafety - biosafety for human health and environment – social and ethical issues – biosafety in relation to transgenic research and applications – biotechnological products and ethical issues – Governing of biosafety - bioethics and patenting. UNIT – II Ethical issues in human genome project – ethical issues in the prediction of predisposition to diseases – gene cloning and bioethics – ethical aspects of transgenic plants, animals and microbes – biosafety of Genetically Modified Fruits (GMF). UNIT – III Safety and ethical issues related to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), Bt genes and gene transfer, marker free transgenics, transfer of herbicide resistance, super weed creation, organ transplantation, piracy of organ transplantation, biological warfare, super virulent microbes – safety and containment of microbiological laboratories. UNIT – IV General agreement on trade and tariffs (GATT) and WTO – forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) – Industrial rights – patents, trademarks, designs, geographical indications etc., - copy rights and related rights UNIT V Patents and patentability – patenting in India – patent co-operation Treaty (PCT)- convention on Biological diversity (CBD) – Biological diversity act of India – sui- generis system for animal varieties and the protection of plant varieties and farmers Rights act of India 83
  • REFERENCES: Bioethics related information sources 1) Ethical issues in human stem cell research. Nut field council/National Bioethics vol. 1 (1999). www.bioethics.org 2) Ethics, morality and animal biotechnology. www.bbsrc.ac.uk/tools/download/ethics_animal_biotech 3) Welfare science and animal biotechnology. www.library.wur.nl/frontis/ethics/07athompson.pdf Biosafety and Bioethics related book. Rajmohan Joshi (Ed.) 2006. Biosafety and Bioethics. Isha Books, Delhi. 84
  • IV YEAR – VII SEMESTER ELECTIVE-II : CANCER BIOLOGY AND STEM CELLS UNIT I: Introduction: cancer cell and its properties, Classification of cancer (carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma), Clonal nature of cancer, Cell cycle (Phases of cell cycle, cyclins and CDKs G2/M checkpoint). UNIT II: Mechanisms: Chemical carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion and progression), Radiation and cancer, genetic effects of ionizing radiation, oncogene activation (c-MYC, RAS superfamily, BCL-2 family) Apoptosis (Extrinsic and intrinsic pathways). Risk factors (oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). UNIT III: Diagnosis and Treatment: Methods in cancer cytogenetics (Karyotyping, FISH). Tumor markers, genetic markers of cancer predisposition, Chemotherapy (classification of cytotoxic drugs: Alkylating agents, Platinum drugs, Topoisomerase inhibitors) and Radiotherapy. UNIT IV: Cancer epidemiology. Inherited susceptibility to cancer. Disease staging. Tumor suppressor (P53 and Rb pathways in cancer) Genetic instability (Aneuploidy, Tolomere attrition).Tumor Metastasis. UNIT V: Stem cells: Definition, classification and sources. Human Embryonic Stem cells: Nature and Properties (phenotype & behavior), Maintenance (culture, sub cloning, spontaneous and controlled differentiation). Clinical applications of hESCs. Haemopoietic stem cells: Definition, isolation of human HSC, Clinical applications of Hematopoietic stem cells. Ethical implications of National Policies governing ES cells research for Science and the Scientist. REFERENCES: 1. Cancer Biology, 2nd edition, Ruddon R.W., Oxford University Press, 1987. 2. The molecular biology of Cancer. Ed. Stella Pelengaries and Michael Khan. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. 3. Stem Cells (Bench to Bedside) Ariff Bongso, Eng Hin Lee (editors)-2005-world Scientific Publishing Co. 85
  • IV YEAR – VIII SEMESTER ---------------- PROJECT WORK --------------------- 86