I YEAR – I SEMESTER
ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE - I
Core Phonetics and Educated Indian English(EIE) Speech
EIE is a close approximation to the speech of the native speakers of English of the socio-
economic middle class or upper class of Southern London and is represented in the Radio
and TV channels of the BBC. The Pronunciation and Speech of the Southern Londoners
and the channel representatives are known respectively as Received Pronunciation and
No teaching of a language is feasible if it is not grounded in a Normative Variety of the
Target Language. Also, there is a long-standing tradition of the Indian educational
institutions which from the primary through the secondary and the higher secondary to
the university level have been consciously or unconsciously teaching a more or less pure
or impure variety of the British Standard Speech in the wake of the pan-Indian experience
of the British colonial linguo-cultural heritage. Hence it is easier for the Indian teachers
to train and teach in EIE which is based on British Standard Speech rather than come up
with an approximation say to American, Canadian or Australian Standard.
Recognition, Production, and Transcription ---
Segmental Phonemes: Vowels, Semi-vowels, and Consonants (Broad transcription
in terms of the notations and symbols of the International Phonetic Association as used in
Daniel Jones‟ Dictionary or Oxford/Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary).
Words in isolation: Monosyllabic words and Polysyllabic words Word-stress: Primary,
Secondary, and Tertiary Derivational Changes in words and Stress-shift.
Nuclear/Tonic syllable and Sentence Stress Sentence Types (Statement, Question,
Request, Order, and Exclamation) and Intonation Patterns (Rise, Fall, Rise-Fall and Fall-
Rise) Normal Sentence Stress and Rhetorical Sentence Stress
Remedial component vis-à-vis the difficulties and errors of Indian/Tamil learners:
Voiced Vs Voiceless consonants
Certain consonantal clusters like /kw/, /scr/, /skl/, /shl/ etc
Lip rounding for the production of the semi-vowel /w/
Distinction between /v/ and /w/
Musical quality and duration of the vowels
Ignorance of Stress-Shift rules which follow conversion noun
into verb, noun into adjective, adjective into noun etc
Inability to form an echo question by varying the intonation
pattern without varying the syntactical type
1. T.Balasubramanian, A Textbook of English Phonetics and Speech for Indian Learners
2. J.D.O‟Connor, Better English Pronunciation
3. Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary
Functors or Structural Words:
Pronouns, Proforms, Articles, Conjunctions
Auxiliaries: Modal and Non-Modal
Prepositions and Postpositions, Particles, Interjections
Cardinals, Ordinals, Quantifiers, Degree words,
Inflectional changes of number, gender, case, tense, and
degrees of comparison through suffixes
Prepositions and Cases
Lexemes or Full words:
Nouns and Adjectives, Verbs and Adverbs
Derivational changes through prefixes and suffixes
Hyphenated and Unhyphenated Compounds and
Portmanteau forms and Reduplicatives
Synonym, Antonym and Homonym
Homograph and Homophone
Doublets and Bilingualisms
Greek, Latin and Technonyms
Technonyms as common words
Loan words in common educated use from
other Foreign Languages
Toponym, Patronym, Acronym and Abbreviation
Hyponym and Hyperonym
Idioms and Phrases, Collocations, Dead Metaphor and Cliché
Basolect: Colloquialisms, Slang, Cant, Argot,
Acrolect: Coinages, Nonce formations, Poeticisms etc.
Passive Vocabulary for Recognition and Active Vocabulary for Production
Restricted Vocabulary of the psychologically and culturally less evolved learners and
extended vocabulary of the more advanced learners
Phrases/Groups/Clusters(strings without a finite verb):
Formal Types(based on parts of speech): Nominal, Verbal,
Adjectival, Adverbial, Prepositional, Infinitival, Participial.
Labels, Titles, Headings, Appositional Phrases, and
Clauses(strings with a finite verb):
Noun Clauses, Complement Clauses,
reason, manner,condition, contrast, concession)
Relative Clauses: Restrictive/Defining and
Non-restrictive and Non-defining
Functional Types: Structures of Subordination and Coordination
Qualification and Modification, Complementation
Semantic Types – Statement, Request, Order,
Question and Exclamation
Structural Types - Basic patterns and variations
Constructionally Homonymous sentence
Sentence with introductory „there‟
Inverted Sentence beginning with the negative particle
Logical Types – Propositional sentence and
Rhetorical Types – Balanced, Loose, Suspended
and Mixed sentences
Phrases and Clauses into Sentences,
Sentences into Phrases and Clauses
Active Voice into Passive Voice and vice versa
Direct Speech into Indirect Speech and vice versa
Exercises are given with passages graded according to length and complexity are made
available in print or read out or played on the audio-cassette.
Types of Comprehension:
Local Comprehension and Global Comprehension
Listening Comprehension and Written Comprehension
Types of Reading: Vocal, Sub-vocal, Mental
Intensive Reading for Detail
Extensive Reading for Range
Scanning a paragraph or a cluster of sentences for
the central idea/gist/sum and substance/essence
Recovery of the explicitly given topic sentence or/and
Reconstruction of the implicit topic sentence
Progressive reading from facts through ideas
to arguments by the sifting of the linguistic
evidence in the text
At the initial stage of the teaching of this unit the teacher prepares and supports the
students for their exercise of written comprehension. He/She gives an exemplary oral
reading of the passage by paying attention to its Sense group, Tone group and Breath
group and leads the students to make sense of the passage not only with the text-specific
questions but also with the pre-reading and post-reading questions raised respectively
before and after the students go through the text. The teacher‟s role is expected to
decrease in proportion to the progress made by the students gradually.
The students must be required to bring Oxford ALD or Cambridge ALD for all classes
and particularly for those set apart for Comprehension. They may be permitted to use a
Dictionary even in the examinations.
Exercises which involve the filling in the blanks with the key words withheld from the
given exercise materials
Exercises which involve reorganisation of the sentences jumbled up in the given passage
Guided Paragraph Writing
Exercises which involve the students listening to a short presentation on a topic either by
the teacher or the super-brilliant students, and jotting down points and structuring them as
a paragraph to be evaluated by the teacher
Guided composition: The teacher gives the title, the sub-titles and the salient points
which the students are required to develop and organise into a short essay of 200 words
Controlled composition: The teacher gives the title and briefly indicates the key idea for
the students to come up with the components of the key idea and the corresponding sub-
titles, and thus produce a short essay
Free Composition: The teacher leaves the students free to choose a topic and do their
thinking and writing entirely on their own. The topic may relate to any of the domains:
personal, social, technical, literary, aesthetic, philosophic etc.
Before the students are given the writing tasks enumerated above they have to be re-
trained and drilled in the correlations or convergences between Syntactical Structures and
Discourse Functions. Here a summative refreshing of the students‟ memory about Syntax
in Unit IV is in place. The Discourse functions of definition, description, classification,
comparison and contrast, argumentation, analysis, explanation, narration etc have to be
first shown and discussed by the teacher in regard to the select
memorable/classic/quotable passages or even sentences of famous writers. Subsequently
the students would be supplied with such additional passages for their own critical
appreciation and internalization. They may even be encouraged to imitate one or more
authors with whom they feel a certain affinity.
1. Freedman, Sarah, Written Composition.
2. Greenbaum, Sidney. The Oxford English Grammar. New York : OUP, 1996.
3. Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan. A Communicative Grammar of English.
Pearson-Education Asia Pte. Ltd. 2000.
4. MacCarthy, Michael, English Vocabulary in Use. CUP, 2002
5. Quirk, Randolf. A University Grammar of English, E.L.B.S.
6. Strumpf, Michael. The Complete Grammar. New Delhi : Goodwil Publishing
House (Rs.125 /-)
7. Webster‟s Reference Library. Students‟ Companion. Scottland : Geddes &
Grosset, 2002. (Rs.99/-)
I YEAR – I SEMESTER
BASIC MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Matrix – algebra of matrices, determinants – adjoint – inverse of matrix, system of
linear algebraic equations – Cramer‟s rule.
Sequence and series – limit – differentiation – L‟ Hospital rule, integration - some
Mathematical modeling – ordinary differential equations – first order linear
equations – methods of solving, second order differential equations with constant
coefficients – methods of solving.
PROGRAMMING IN C
Constants – Variable – Data types – Operator and Expression – Managing I/O
operators – Decision making and branching.
Decision making and Looping – Arrays – Functions.
Mean and Median - Standard deviation - Matrix multiplication - Quadratic
equations - Euler‟s method - Second order Runge-Kutta method - Simpson‟s 1/3 rule -
1. Introduction to Mathematics for Life Scientist, E. Batschelet, Springer. 2003
2. Mathematical Modeling, J.N. Kapur, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1988.
3. Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations, M.D. Raisinghania, R.S.Aggarwal,
S.Chand & Company Ltd., 1981.
4. Programming in ANSI C, E. Balagruswamy, Tata Mc Graw-Hill publishing
I YEAR – I SEMESTER
BIORESOURCES: DIVERSITY & APPLICATIONS
Characters, organization and diversity of living organisms – Microbes, Plants and
Animals – Levels and patterns of organization – Basic concepts: Organic evolution –
Developmental biology – Physiology and ecology.
Diversity of prokaryotes, algae and fungi with emphasis on their evolution and symbiosis;
role of fungi in colonization of land by plants; anthropogenic impact on fungal and plant
diversity; role of soil microbiota in plant protection and ecosystem restoration.
Morphological, physiological and life-history diversity of protists, primary producers,
consumers and predators; microbial food webs and their interactions with metazoans;
mixotrophy and symbiosis with prokaryotes; spatial and temporal distribution of protists;
microecosystems in laboratory experimentation.
Major groups of algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, angiosperm and gymnosperm;
modification of the plant form as adaptation to the environment. Ecology of pollination.
Sexual and apomictic reproduction in plants.
Origin of major groups of invertebrate diversity in continental and marine habitats,
insects as the most successful group of land invertebrates, plant insect associations.
Major groups of Vertebrate, body plan, Cephalochordata – the sister group of vertebrates,
early Palaeozoic Agnathans, fish diversity, tetrapods – origin and colonization of land,
reptiles past glory, bird lords of the air, radiation of mammals.
Medicinal plants & their bioactive potentials, Animals as a source for food & other
Hotspots in Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity and its causes threats to Biodiversity;
Biodiversity and its conservation – insitu and exsitu conservation.
1. Biology – Raven, Johnson, Losos, Singer, TATA Mc Graw-Hill publishing
company Limited, New Delhi
2. Integrated Principles of Zoology – 9th edition – Hickmen, Roberts & larson, 1995
Wim C.Bnun Publishers, Oxford, England.
3. Invrtebrate Zoology. 7th edition. E.E. Ruppert, R.S. Fox & R.D. Barnes. Thomson
4. Vertebrate Life 4th edition. Pough, F.H., Heiser, J.B. and Mc Farland, W.N
Prenitice – Hall of India Pvt ltd., New Delhi
5. Prasad B.N., “Biotechnology in Sustainable Biodiversity and Food Security”
(2003), Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.
6. Foster C.F. John Ware D.A. Environmental Biotechnology, Ellis Horwood Ltd.
7. Sasson A, " Biotechnologies in developing countries present and future",
UNESCO Publishers, 1993.
I YEAR - I SEMESTER
Microscopy: Light, Compound, Electron, Phase-Contrast, Fluorescent - TEM, SEM:
Principle, description and applications – Study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -
Cytoplasm: Physical and biological properties – Plasma membrane: Structure,
modifications, permeability and other functions – Cell wall: Structure, chemistry and role.
Cell organelles – Mitochondria and chloroplasts – Morphology, ultra structure and
ER, Golgi complex – Morphology, ultra structure and functions - Ribosomes – Ultra-
structure, subunits – Role in protein synthesis - Introduction to transcriptional and post
translational modifications – Centrosomes – Morphology, ultra-structure and functions.
Nucleus – Ultra-structure and organization - Chromosomes: Morphology, structure,
chemistry – Types: Giant chromosomes – polytene and lamp-brush chromosomes – Cell
division – Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle and dynamics of cell division.
Cancer cell – Cytological characteristics – Carcinogens, concept of oncogenes –
Radiation and its effect – Introduction to apoptosis – Relevance of apoptosis in cancer
biology and therapy.
1. Cell Biology – De Roberties
2. Cell Biology – C.B. Powar
3. Cell & Molecular Biology – Sheeler P & Bianchi De
4. Biology of the Cell – Wolfe S L
5. Biology of the Cell – Bruce & Albert
I YEAR - I SEMESTER
LAB I: BIORESOURCES AND CELL BIOLOGY
1. Bioresources – biodiversity, terrestrial, avian and marine–microbe, plants, animals
& Birds (Field visit)
2. Microscopy - bright field, phase contrast, florescent, electron microscopy &
confocal microscopy, micrometry.
3. Microscopic observation of bacteria, microalgae, fungi, lichen and protist
4. Shape and size of the cell – simple & differential staining.
5. Identification of Plants up to species level - algae, fungi, bryophytes,
pteridophytes, angiosperm and gymnosperm
6. Identification of animals – Vertebrates & Invertebrates.
7. Endangered / Rare plant, animal, fossile - observation (Field visit)
1. Cell division- mitosis (Onion root tip) and Meiosis (Tradescantia)
2. Polytene chromosome (chironomous larvae)
3. Microscopy- bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent microscopy electron
microscopy and confocal microscopy
4. Estimation of chloroplast pigments by Arno‟s method from plant cells
5. Electrophoresis AGE and PAGE
6. Sucrose Density Fractionation
7. Determination of leaf water potential
8. Determination of osmotic potential
1. C.H. Collins, P.M. Lyne (1985) Microbiological
2. Collins and Lyne's microbiological methods. 7th ed. C.H. Collins. Butterworth-
3. Microbiology a laboratory manual, P. Gunasekaran
4. Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual, Cappuccino, J.G. & Sherman, N., Addison
I YEAR – II SEMESTER
ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE - II
Technical English for Power (TEP)
Language is an abstraction. It exists in and through its several varieties. One can
find a hundred and eight varieties in any Language. To know a language therefore means
to know its standard common or general variety which is more or less an abstraction and
along with it a special variety, that is a variety used for special purposes like technical
English, Business English, journalese, legalese, institutionalese, officialese etc.
Thus English may be found to be divisible into dialects, dialects found divisible
into idiolects, idiolects found divisible into registers, and registers found divisible into
actual uses. This phenomenon of the mega-system of Language splitting successfully into
finer and finer sub-systems and micro-systems may be diagrammatized as follows:
The English Language
British American Canadian Australian Indian
Regional Dialect Social Dialect Class Dialect
Topolect Sociolect Ponolects
Mode Field Tenor
Phonic Graphic Domestic Social Technical Informal formal Formal
It is commonly assumed that technical English or technolect is exclusively
objective. It is further assumed that the intelligibility of technical English is restricted to
its initiates who are most probably technicians or scientists. The first assumption is called
objectivism and the latter assumption may be called esotericism. And neither assumption
is completely true.
As any variety or use of a language necessarily involves the exercise of
formal and functional rules and thereby stylization, even technolect is not free from such
stylization. Once language is stylized it cannot but function rhetorically. In so far as the
rhetorical effects resulting from the structural and functional requirements of the
technolect are directed and controlled intentionally by the speaker or the writer technolect
either spoken or written is effective. But the control of rhetoricity is accompanied with
the infusion of the subjective elements, however minimal into the so called objective
Apart from the in-built stylization and rhetoricity of all language including
technical language the speaker or writer‟s communicational activity itself will intensify
the rhetoricity as the activity cannot be purely or exclusively a transmission of facts or
information. The act of speech or writing would in almost all cases marshal facts and
information so as to construct arguments or express views which would be aimed either at
persuading or at dissuading an individual or a group respectively to or from a course of
action. In short, facts are almost never conveyed except with an admixture of subjective
reactions so that corresponding subjective reactions are called forth on the part of the
listener or the reader. Finally even if a particular speaker or writer could achieve technical
communication in a zero degree of dependence on or complicity with factual error and
emotional bias, the listener or the reader might be prone to interpret the marvel of total
objectivity in an idiosyncratic if not subjective manner.
As for the second assumption that technolect is esoteric or of restricted
intelligibility the tendency of the present-day technolectal practice is to strive towards
the middle style which is a compromise between non-technical or public communication
and technical communication. Examples of this kind of technolect which is more or less
translucent may be found in the articles of newspapers and popular journals on topics
relating to science and technology and also in the writings of popular science writing such
as those of Bertrand Russell.
The various sources of rhetoricity and subjectivity may be diagrammatised as
Causes of Rhetoricity and Self Projection
Ambiguity Multiple Abstract Inversion Positional Mobility
A lexico- Syntactic model of Technical English:
Degree words, frequency markers
Technonyms specific to various disciplines and
Abbreviations of different kinds
Full passive sentence
Reduced passive with agent-deletion or instrument
Discontinuous verb phrase
Technical English in the Phonic Mode:
Graded activities and Exercises:
Guided imaginary Conversation
A guided short talk
Guided group Discussion
Free group discussion
A free long oral presentation
In the Graphic Mode:
Preparation of tool-kit operation and maintenance
folders and pamphlets manuals
In the Electronic Mode:
Use of Phonetic spelling
1. Second Language Writing. Ed. Barbara Kroll, CUP.
2. Composing in a Second Language. Sandra McKay. Newbury House, Cambridge.
3. Technical Writing. John Lennon
4. Technical Writing. Scot. Forfeman& Company.
5. Strengthen Your Writing. V.R.Narayanaswamy. Orint Longman
6. Reading and Writing: Theory and Practice. Ed. M.L.Tickoo. SEAMEO Regional
Language Centre, Singapore.
7. Technical Communication. Meenakshi Raman and Sangeetha Sharma. OUP.
I YEAR – II SEMESTER
GENERAL PHYSICS & BIOPHYSICS
Mechanics and Elasticity: Newton‟s laws of motion – Applications – Collision –
Impulse – Projectile motion Centrifugal force – Centripetal force – Applications –
Elasticity – Stress – Strain – Elastic modulus : Young‟s modulus – Bulk modulus –
Modulus of rigidity – Relation between elastic constants – Bending of beams –
Fluid Statics and Dynamics: Surface tension – Capillary rise – Water rise in tall trees –
Variation of surface tension with temperature – Osmosis – Laws of osmosis – Hartley and
Berkeley experiment – Viscosity – Viscosity of liquid – Poiscuille‟s formula- Viscosity of
blood – Flow of liquid through tubes Bernoulli‟s equation – Venturimeter.
Atomic and Molecular Physics: Electromagnetic spectrum – Rotation and vibration of
molecules – Absorption and emission spectra – Basic elements of practical spectroscopy
– Absorption and emission Spectrometer (block diagram) – NMR spectroscopy.
Radiation Physics: Atomic nucleus – Isotopes – Radioactivity 0 Radioactive decay and
half – life – Disintegration – Energy distribution – Decay products- Biological traces p
Ionization detection – Positive ions, electrons, and X-rays, r-rays – Defection of radiation
– GM counter 0p Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter – Biological effect
of Radiation – Dosimetry – Basic definitions and units of radiation.
Proteins: Amino acids – Peptide bond – Cis and Trans configurations – Torsion angles –
Phi and Psi – Steric hindrance – Conduct criteria – Ramachandran diagram, Maps for
glycine and alanine residues o Classification of proteins into globular and fibrous –
Levels of structural organization.
Nucleic Acids: Nucleosides and nucleotides – Structure of DNA – Watson and Crick
model – Base paring and base stacking – Variations in DNA structure – Polymorphism –
A, B and Z – DNA.
Carbohydrates: Classification – L and D sugars – Monosaccharide – Disaccharides –
Types of linkages in polysaccharides – structure of maltose, celloboise and lactose –
Ramanchandran map for disaccharides.
1. R. Murugesan, Modern Physics, S. Chand & Company Ltd (1998) New
2. A. Mookerjee & Sukhendu B. Bhattacharjee, Aspects of Radiation
Biophysics, Interprint, New Delhi.
3. C.N. Banwell, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (Mc Graw Hill,
New York, 1981).
4. Brij Lal, N. Subramanmiyan, Jivan Seshan Mechanics and
Electrodynamics, Eurasia Publishing House (PVT.) Ltd. 1980.
5. A. I. Lehninger, D. L Nelson and M. M. Cox. Principles of Biochemistry,
CBS Publishers, New Delhi (1993).
6. Lubert Stryer, Biochemistry, W. H. Freeman and Co., New York (1995).
V. S. R. Rao, P. K. Qasba, P. V. Balajil and R. Chandrasekaran
Conformation of Carbohydrates Harwood Academic Publishers,
YEAR - II SEMESTER
Reactive Intermediates, Spectroscopy and Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds:
Formation and Breaking of Bonds: Homolytic and Hetrolytic fission. Reactive
intermediates: Carbocations, Free radicals – Definition and simple example only.
Introduction to infra Red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹ H and C¹³) spectroscopy
application to organic compounds (Elementary aspects only).
Stereochemistry: Chirality, Biological signification of chirality (Natural chirality, chiral
drugs) configuration and conformation, R and S configuration. Optical activity,
Enantiomers and Diastereomer, Resolution, Separation of enantiomers.
Hetrocycles: Nomenclature, Furan, Thiophene, Pyrole, Pyridine, Preparation, Properties
Alkaloids: Definition of alkaloid, Extraction, general properties determination of
chemical constitution of alkaloids, Classification, Ephedrine, Adrenaline, Nicotine only.
Terpenes: Classification Occurrence, general properties, Extraction, Structure
determination and property of Citral and Menthol only.
Catalysis: Difference between Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis – Steady –
state approach – Enzyme catalysis – Michaelis Menten kinetics – Effect of pH on enzyme
Macromolecules: Classification of Polymers – Molecular weights of polymers: Number
average and weight average of polymers – Molecular weight determination by viscosity
Fundamentals of Spectroscopy and Photochemistry: Absorption and emission of
radiation – region of electromagnetic spectrum – line with, Intensity – Beer – Lamborts
law and applications. Various Photochemical Processes, Jablonski diagram –
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence – Laser and applications.
High – Temperature Superconductors: 1-2-3 Compounds, Meissner effect,
applications of superconductors. Catenation and heterocatenation. (SN) x as one
dimensional conductor, two specific examples for inorganic rings and cages. Binuclear
metal clusters. An example for metal cluster in biology.
Metal ions in medicine and biology: An Overview of metal ions in medicine and
biology, Blue copper proteins – Plastocyanin as a typical example. Zinc metalloenzymes
–structure and function of carboxypeptidase. Vitamin B12 – structure and any two specific
reactions of B12 coenzymes. Metal based drugs – cisplatin as anticancer drug, mechanism
Inhibitors of metalloenzymes as drugs – allopurinlo, antabase. Detoxification of metals by
chelation therapy with respect to iron, aluminium, copper, mercury, arsenic and cadmium.
UNIT I & II
1. J.Clayden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, P. Worthers, ”Organic chemistry”
Oxford University Press, 2001.
2. R.T.Morrision and R.N. Boyd, “Organic Chemistry” ed., prentice Hall of
India Pvt Ltd., 2004.
3. I.L Finar, “Organic Chemistry Vol I & II” 5th ed., ELBS, 1975.
4. B.S. Bhal and Arun Bhal, “Text Book of Organic Chemistry”, 14th ed., S
Chand and Company Ltd., 1997.
UNIT III & IV
1. R.A.Alberty and R.J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry, Jhon Wiley & Sons,
Inc., Newyork, 1995.
2. P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, ELBS and Oxford University Press,
3. G.M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1994.
UNIT V & VI
1. James E. Huheey, Eleen A. Keiter, Richard L. Leiter, “Inorganic
Chemistry”, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Inc., 2002.
I YEAR – II SEMESTER
Properties of water – Biological significance of unusual properties of water, Acid-base
equilibrium, Henderson-Hasselbach Equation, buffers, Bioenergetics – Laws of
thermodynamics – Concept of free energy – Standard free energy, enthalpy, entropy –
Exergonic and endergonic reactions – Definition of open, closed and isolated systems -
Energy rich compounds.
Carbohydrates – Structure, classification and function – mono-di-oligo and
polysaccharides – Linear – branched – Homo - Hetero – Starch – Glycogen – amylase,
amylopectin – cellulose – Fructans – Chitin – Pectins – Glycosylaminoglycans -
Asymetric carbon, isomerism – Sugar derivatives – sugar acids, sugar alcohols, sugar
amines, sugar phosphates, sugar nucleotides, conjugated polysaccharides –
Glycoprotein‟s and lipopolysaccharides.
Amino acids and proteins – Structure, classification and function of amino acids,
functional groups, Single letter codes for amino acids – Zwitterions – amphoteric nature -
isoelectric point – Peptide structure, Ramachandran plot, structural levels of proteins –
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, alpha, beta helix – collagen, Structure – post
translational modifications - fibrous and globular proteins – Ninhydrin, Sangers and
Lipids – Structure, classification and function – free fatty acids, Numbering,
classification, Essential and PUFA(Polyunsaturated fatty acids), triglycerides,
phospholipids, glycolipids, Sphingolipids – Steriods – basic skeleton – cholesterol -
waxes, conjugated lipids – lipoproteins – Membrane anchors of proteins – Attachment of
phenyl groups, fatty acids and GPI (glycol-phosphatidyl inositol), Micelles, Bilayers.
Enzymes – Co-enzymes – Classification – factors affecting enzyme activity – pH,
temperature, substrate concentration – Michaelis Menten Kinetics – Lineweaner Buck
plots – Enzyme inhibition – Reversible, Irreversible – Competitive, Non-competitive,
Uncompetitive – Allosteric enzymes – Properties – Isoenzymes – Mechanism of
formation – importance. Mechanism of enzyme action – Activation energy – Proximity
and orientation effects – Induced fit – Acid base catalysis – Mechanism of chymotrypsin,
Transaminases & Lysozyne. Protein/Enzyme regulation by zymogen activation and
covalent modification – Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, Pre-proinsulin – Reversible
phosphorylation and adenylation.
1. Outlines of Bio-chemistry by E.E. Conn and P.K. Strumpf (Wiley Eastern
2. Review of physiological chemistry by H.A. Harper (Lange);
3. Textbook of Biochemistry by West, Todd, Mason and Bruygen (Macmillan);
4. Biochemistry by A.L. Lehninger (Worth).
5. Principles of Biochemistry by White, handier and Smith (Tata Mc Graw Hill)
6. The Chemical Analysis of foods by Pearson David (Churchill)
7. Clinical Biochemistry by Cantorow & Trumper (Saunders) Biochemistry by
L. Stryer (Freeman-Toppan).
I YEAR – II SEMESTER
LAB I: BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS:
1. Estimation of proline
2. Estimation of Glucose – BQR method
3. Estimation of protein – Lowry‟s method
4. Determination of Salivary Amylase activity
5. Estimation of Cholestrol – Zak‟s method
6. Estimation of Ascorbic acid – Dye method
7. Estimation of sugar ®
8. Sugar(F) & (PP)
9. Serum Cholestrol
10. Lipid Profile (Demonstration)
11. Blood Urea
12. Serum Creatinine
13. Serum Uric Acid
14. Serum Bilirubin- Total and direct(Demo)
17. Serum alkaline Phosphatase
18. Total Protein
20. Serum Calcium
21. Urine Sugar &Albumin deposits
22. Urine complete
23. Bile Salts and bile pigments
1. Practical Clinical Biochemistry-Harold Varley
2. A Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology- V. H. Talib
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
The Gene Concept – DNA as Genetic Material – RNA as Genetic Material – Topology of
Nucleic Acids – Packaging of DNA as Chromosomes – Unique Features of Eukaryotic
and Prokaryotic Genomes and Genes – Organisation of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast
Genomes – Cytoplasmic Male Sterility.
Replication – DNA Replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes – Mutation – Molecular
Changes Associated with Mutation – DNA Damage and Repair – DNA Recombination –
Tri parental mating.
Transcription- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription – RNA processing – Post
Transcriptional Modifications – Catalytic RNA – Translation Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
translation – Role of tRNA, rRNA and mRNA in translational process - Post
Transcriptional Modifications – Molecular chaperones – Mitochondrial and chloroplast
Genome expression and control.
Operon Concept – Lactose, Tryptophan, Arabinose Operons – Genomic Libraries –
cDNA Libraries – Screening of Libraries – Genomic projects – Genetic mapping –
Artificial Nucleic acids.
Genomic reorganization for diversity in immunity – Genes in development – Gene
rearrangements in development – Oncogenes and cancer.
1. Freifelder D (1991). Molecular biology. Narosa publishing house.
2. Lewin B (2007). Genes IX. Oxford University Press.
3. Grieson and covey. Plant molecular biology.
4. Watson JD, Gilman M, Witkowski J, Zoller M (1992). Recombinant DNA.
Scientific American books.
5. Blackburn GM, Gait MJ (1996). Nucleic acids in chemistry and biology.
Oxford university press.
6. Lodish H, Baltimore D, Beck A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Darnell J (1995).
Molecular cell biology, scientific American books.
7. Freidberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W (1995) DNA repair and mutagenesis.
8. Stryer L (1995) Biochemistry. W.H. freeman and company.
9. Singer M, Berg P (1991). Genes and genomes. University science books.
10. Molecular chaperones in the life cycle of proteins, structure and Function and
Mode of Action (1997). Anthony L. Fink, Yuji Goto (Ed). Mercer Dekks Inc,
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS
Appreciation of history and basic methods of genetics. Types of genetic transmission;
Molecular, Evolutionary, Population, Conservation – Mitosis – Meiosis. Nuclear vs.
extra nuclear inheritance. Mendelism – Laws of inheritance, hybrid and dihybrid cross –
Gene interactions – multiple factor and quantitative inheritance – Environment and
inheritance, influence on inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance.
Alleles – di – multiple allelic systems – ABO – RH blood grouping inheritance – linkage
and crossing over. Chromosome mapping – sex determination – chromosomal
environmental genetics. Non-disjunction – genetic balance – theory of sex determination
– modern concepts in sex determination – Pedigree analysis. Cytoplasmic inheritance –
DNA as genetic material – introduction to pro and eukaryotic genomic organization and
replication. Chromosomal aberrations: Structural changes in chromosomes –
deficiencies, duplication (Bar locus), translocation, inversion (inversion in Drosophila);
Numerical changes in chromosome – Aneuploidy (monosomy, nullisomy, trisomy and
tetrasomy) – Euploidy (haploidy and polyploidy) – practical applications of ploidy –
Gene mutation: mutagenesis – mutagens – chemical – physical – mutation – types –
Introduction to molecular mechanisms of mutation.
Microbial Genetics: A brief account – bacterial – plant – animal viruses – Brief account
of bacterial recombination: transformation, conjugation, and sexduction. Recombination
in bacteriophage; transduction, lytic and lysogenic cycles of bacteriophages.
Population Genetics – Hardy – Weinburg equilibrium. Introduction to genetic
polymorphism – Factors affecting natural selection. Genetic disorders – one gene one
enzyme concept – Syndromes – Down, Turner and Klinefilter. Use of human genetics in
medical diagnosis; - karyotyping – Genetic counseling; Eugenics and Euthenics. Future
1. Brown, T.A., 1998, Genetics, A Molecular Approach, Chapman Hall, London.
2. Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J., and Snusted D.P., 1991, Principles of Genetics,
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
3. Gupta, S.P. 1985, Elementary Statistical Methods, S. Chand and Co., New
4. Gurumani, N. 2004, An Introduction to Biostatistics, MJP Publishers,
5. Hotter, P, 2002, Textbook of Genetics, IVY Publishing House, New Delhi.
6. Strickberger, M.W., 1996, Genetics, Macmillan publishing Co., New York.
7. Verma, P.S. and Agarwal, V.K. 2003, Genetics, S.Chand & Company Ltd,
8. Weaver, R.F. and Hedrick, P.W., 1997, Genetics, W.M.C. Brown Publishers,
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
BIOLOGY OF IMMUNE SYSTEM
Historical perspective – Discovery, early theories. Types of immunity – Innate and
acquired immunity. Cells and organs of the immune system – Hematopoietic, lymphoid
cells, immune system cells, primary and secondary lymphoid organs of the immune
system, B and T cell - Maturation and differentiation. Cytokines – Properties, receptors,
related diseases and therapeutic uses.
Antigens – Factors influence immunogenicity, Epitopes, haptens. Immunoglobulins –
Structure, antigenic determinants, immunoglobulin classes, monoclonal antibodies.
Antigen-antibody interactions – Basic introduction about the techniques like Precipitation
reactions, agglutination reactions, radioimmunoassay, and Enzyme-Linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting, immunofluorescence and
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) – Organization and inheritance, MHC
molecules and clones, genomic map of MHC genes, cellular distribution and expression,
MHC and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Antigen processing and presentation –
Antigen presenting cells and presentation pathways – the cytosolic pathway and
Complement system – The complement components, classical & alternative pathways,
regulation and biological consequences of complement. Cell-mediated and Humoral
effector responses. Hypersensitivity reactions – Gell and Coombs classification, IgE-
mediated (Type I), antibody- mediated (Type II), immune complex- mediated (Type III)
and TDTH-mediated (Type IV) hypersensitivity.
The immune system in health and diseases – Vaccines – active & passive immunization,
whole-organism vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines, synthetic peptide,
multivalent subunit and anti-idiotype vaccines. Brief on Autoimmunity,
immunodeficiency, immune system in AIDS, transplantation immunology, cancer and the
1. Ivan M. Roit (1994) Essential Immunology – Blackwell Scientific
2. Kuby J (1997) Immunology – WH Freeman and Company, New York
3. Chapel H and Halbey M (1986) Essentials of Clinical Immunology
4. Donal M. Weir, John Steward (1993) Immunology – VII edition. ELBS,
5. Richard M. Hyde (1995). Immunology III edition. National Medical
series, Williams and Wilkins, Harward Publishing Company.
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
Sterilization – Disinfection, Definition – sterilization by heat – radiation – filtration by
Principles of Microbiological diagnosis – Diagnosis of disease ( Fungi, Bacteria, Virus) –
Morphological classification of bacteria, fungi, viral, parasites – Isolation of bacteria –
Antibiotic sensitivity test – Antimicrobial agents.
Collection of Specimens - Examination of specimens for microbiological investigation –
Examination of materials from sits normally sterile. Examination of materials from sites
possessing normal flora – commensals & pathogenic microbial flora in human –
Examination of pus from abcesses and wounds.
Identification of bacteria – Types of media – common ingredients of culture media –
common media in use in laboratory – staining procedure.
Diagnostic methods in clinical microbiology – microscopic – molecular – serologic
diagnosis – Urinary tract infections – Various biochemical tests.
1. Handbook of Medical Laboratory Technology – V.H. Talib
2. Medical Microbiology - Murray
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
LAB I: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PRACTICALS:
1. Preparation of Donar (F+) and Recipient (F-) Cultures for Conjugation
3. Selection of conjugants
4. Preparation of Competence Cells
6. Screening of Transformants
7. Isolation of plasmid by Alkaline Lysis Method
8. Submarine Gel Electrophoresis of Plasmid
9. Isolation of Genomic DNA from Human Blood Sample
10. Quantification and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of DNA
11. SDS – PAGE of proteins
12. Coomassive Brilliant Blue G250 – Staining Proteins
13. Silver Nitrate Staining of proteins
14. Restriction Digestion of λ DNA
15. Ligation of λ / EcoR1 Digest
16. Isolation of Plasmid DNA
17. Isolation of Genomic DNA from E.coli
18. Determination of Melting Temperature (Tm)
19. Quantification of DNA – UV absorbance method
20. DNA fingerprinting – RFLP method
21. Induction of Mutation in a Marker Gene
22. Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
1. Isolation of genomic DNA from human blood sample
2. Tm determination of genomic DNA
3. Observation of mitosis process in onion root tip
4. Bacterial conjugation
6. Isolation of plasmid DNA from E.coli
7. Quantification of Agarose gel electrophoresis
8. Restriction digestion of λ DNA
9. Ligation of λ / EcoR1 digest
10. Transformation technique
a) Competent cell preparation by calcium chloride method
c) Confirmation test (selected markers, restriction digestion, PCR)
11. Native and SDS – PAGE of crude protein
12. Coomassive brilliant blue G-250 staining
13. Silver nitrate staining
14. Molecular weight determination of unknown protein
16. Southern blotting
II YEAR – III SEMESTER
LAB II: IMMUNOLOGY AND GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
1. Collection of venous blood from human and separation and preservation of
2. Agar gel diffusion – Ouchterlony‟s method
3. Counter immuno electrophoresis
4. Electrophoresis – serum proteins
5. Blood grouping
6. Latex agglutination test
7. Widal tube and slide agglutination technique
8. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
9. Western blotting
10. Immunization of protocols and raising antibody
11. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs – Dissection
GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY PRACTICALS
1. Preparation of Bacteriological plates.
2. Screening of Urine Sample for UTI
3. Gram‟s staining.
4. Acid fast Bacilli Staining.
5. Preparation of Slants & Plates.
6. Hanging drop Method.
7. Confirm of E-Coli by Indole-Catalase Test, Agar Tests.
8. Antibiotic sensitivity testing
9. Skin scrap staining for Fungi( by KOH)
10. Fungal Culture
11. Fungal Staining
12. Blood & Chocolate agar preparation
13. Blood Specimen screening for bacteria.
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
UNIT - I:
Physicochemical properties of water; osmotic and ionic regulation; acid base
balance; membrane composition; Symport, Antiport, active and passive transport, carrier
Types of nutrition – Chemotrophic and autotrophic.
UNIT – II:
Mode of action of hormones- plant and animal.
UNIT – III:
Photosynthesis – C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Nitrogen fixation; mechanism of
nitrate uptake and reduction; biological nitrogen fixation.
UNIT - IV :
Blood and Hemostasis – Electrical activity of heart, cardiac pump – regulation of
heart beat – Hemodynamics – control of cardiac output – Microcirculation (Cutaneous,
skeletal, coronary, cerebral and Foetal circulation) – Case study.
Overview of Respiratory systems – mechanical aspects – Pulmonary and branchial
circulation – Transport of O2 and CO2 – Control of Breathing – Case study.
UNIT – V:
General function of neuronal cells – special sensory system (visual,
auditory,vestibular,chemical sensory system) – Motor system – Automatic nervous
system and its control – general physiology of muscular system – molecular basis of
contraction – muscles acting on skeletal – Muscles in the walls of Hollow Organs.
1. Bryant, C. (1980) – The biology of Respiration (2nd edition)
2. Devlin, R.M. (1969) – Plant Pathology – Van Nostrand, Reinholt Co.,
3. Freifelder, D. (1985) – Essentials of Modern biochemistry – Jones and
4. Gaugh, H.G. (1972) – Inorganic plant nutrition – Nutchinson
5. Jain, V.K (1990) – Plant Physiology – S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.
6. Kumar, H.D. and Singh, H.N. (1990) – Plant metabolism.
7. Lehninger, A.L. (1985) – Biochemistry – Worth publishers.
8. Leopold, A.C. (1973) – Plant growth and development – Tata Mc
Graw Hill Co.,
9. Lewitt – Introduction to Plant Physiology
10. Malik, C.P. and Srinistava (1995) – Plant Physiology
11. Salisbury and Ross – Plant Physiology
12. William G. Hopkins – Plant Physiology
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE (Plant and Animal)
SECTION A: PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
History of plant cell, tissue and organ culture – laboratory organization – aseptic
techniques – nutritional requirements and culture media – Types of cultures – Solid –
Liquid – Stationary – agitated – batch cultures – Organogenesis – callus induction –
Caulogenesis – Rhizogenesis – technique of hairy root production.
Micropropagation – mass production of plantlets – hardening and mist chambers –
transplantation to field – techniques for maintaining plantlets in the field – somatic
embryogenesis – induction of multiple shoots – production of virus free plants –
production and exploitation of haploids and triploids – techniques of overcoming
incompatibility barriers – embryo rescue – protoplast culture and parasexual hybridization
– exploitation of Somaclonal and Gametoclonal variations.
Mass Culture of Cells – manipulation of cell line selection – immobilization of cells and
its application – synchronization of cell cultures and cell divisions – production of
secondary metabolites – biotransformation – Induction of cell line mutants and mutations
– cryopreservation – germplasm conservation and establishment of gene banks – Synseed
SECTION B: ANIMAL CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
Principles of Cell and Tissue Culture: advantages and disadvantages of tissue culture
methods – cell markers – types of cells – primary and established cell lines – kinetics of
cell growth – genetics of cultured cells – metabolism – applications of Animal Tissue
Techniques of Cell and Tissue Culture: Sources of cells – techniques of cell culture:
Mechanical, biochemical and types of animal cells – equipment – cell culture media –
culture procedures – preparation of animal materials – primary culture, cell lines and
cloning – somatic cell fusion – tissue cultures: slide and coverslip cultures, washing and
feeding, double coverslip cultures, flask cultures, test tube culture – organ culture – whole
embryo culture – specialized culture techniques – cell synchronization – measurement of
cell death – stem cell culture and transplantation.
1. Plant Tissue and Cell Culture – H.E. Street.
2. Plant Tissue Culture – Kalyan Kumar Dr.
3. Plant Tissue Culture Concept – Robert N. Trigiano, Dennis and J. Gray.
4. Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology – P.S. Srivasata.
5. Methods in Plant Cell Biology – David w. Galbraith, Hans J. Bohnert and
6. Animal Cells Culture and media – D.C. Darling and S.J Morgan BIOS
Scientific Publishers Limited, 1994.
7. Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 57: Animal Cell Culture Methods –
Jennie P. Mather and David Barnes, Academic Press, 1998.
8. Epithelial Cell Culture – Ann Harris, Cambridge University Press 1996.
9. Animal Biotechnology – M.M. Ranga,Agrobios(India),1999-2000.
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
Introduction to ecology – Media (Soil-Water-Air) – Physical factors of the
environment (Light-Pressure-Temperature-Humidity-Radiation)-Biological factors
(Predation-Parasitism-Commensalisms- Amensalism)- Habit ecology- Population –
Community- Ecosystem- Food chain and food web- Ecological Succession- Ecological
energetic- Animal distribution – Zoogeographical realms.
Introduction to soil pollution- Introduction to radioactive pollution- Introduction
to water pollution- Types, Sources and consequences of water pollution, Ecological and
biochemical aspects of water pollution- Types and characteristics of domestic, industrial
and agricultural wastes and their effects on water bodies- Chemical and bacteriological
sampling and analysis- Water quality parameters: Criteria and standards-Waste water
treatment – Water pollution control.
Introduction to air pollution – Atmosphere and its components- Natural and
anthropogenic Sources of atmospheric pollutants- Significance of air pollutants and their
reactions in the atmosphere – Transport, dispersion and fate of pollutants (Smog and acid
rain) – Effects of air pollutants- Air quality standards and criteria- Introduction to noise
pollution- Measurement and analysis of sound-A weighted sound level, equivalent sound
pressure level (leq), Noise pollution level (NPL), Sourd exposure level (SEL), traffic
noise index(TNI), day night level, noise criteria curves- Noise sources- Noise control and
Introduction to toxicology: Principles of toxicology Definitions – Bio-degradable
and least- degradable toxic substances – Toxicological evaluation- Animal toxicology
tests (lethal, acute, chronic, AMES and micronucleous test) - Dose effect and dose
response relationship- Bio-accumulation and Bio-magnification- Toxicity indicators in
the body- Indicator organisms.
Environment and health : Basic principle of environmental health – Physiological
responses of man to environmental stress (asbestosis and silicosis) –Free radicals- anti-
oxidants- Histopathological evaluations – Occupational health hazards- Health and
1. Khopkar. S.M, 2004: Environmental pollution monitoring and control- New Age
International Publishers(P)Limited, New Delhi.
2. Des W. Connell,1997: Basic concept of environmental chemistry- Lewis
3. Verma & Agarwal, Ecology.
4. Odoum, Ecology.
5. Agarwal. K.C, 2001: Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects and control- Nidhi
Publishers (India) Bikaner.
6. Kumaraswamy. K. Algappa Moses A, Vasanthi M: Environmental studies-
Bharathidasan University Publication, Trichy.
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
r- DNA TECHNOLOGY
Generation of foreign DNA molecules, cutting and joining DNA molecules. Role of
endonucleases (Type I, II, III) E.coli & T4 ligases, Linkers, adapters and homopolymers.
Ideal cloning vehicle – alternation; Promoters, Control circuits, upstream and downstream
elements and markers / reporters. Cloning bacteria and eukaryotes
Vectors: plasmid features and biology – structural and functional organization, plasmid
replication and copy number – stringent and relaxed plasmid, incompatibility of plasmid
maintenance. Construction of an ideal plasmid vectors – cosmids. M13 and their uses.
Organization, construction and uses of pBR322 – based and pUC based vectors.
Specialized vectors- expression vectors, gene fusion and shuttle vectors. BAC and YAC
vectors for Saccharomyces, Streptomyces and Bacillus. Amplification of DNAs by PCR
Methods of introducing recombinant DNA into bacteria, plant and animals: Ca- mediated
transfection, particle bombardment, microinjection, Electroporation and Lipofection.
Recombinant selection and screening methods, Transgenic plants, GM foods, gene knock
out and production of transgenic animals and the MMk in mouse. Blotting- southern,
Northern and Western.
Application of gene technology: potential hazards – safety aspects of RDT. Human
genetics – decline of human genome, eugenics and the possible approaches. Cloning of
organisms and advances in reproductive biology, the cloned humans (?) and designer
babies. Conservation and resurrection of extinct animals – Big panda and the Tasmanian
tiger. Bio safety, Genome prospecting and controversies – issues of genetic engineering –
social and scientific.
1. Biolol series Techniques for engineering Genes strategies for engineering
2. Ernts L. Winnacker: From Genes to Clones
3. Glick and pasternack: Molecular Biotechnology
4. Lewis B: Genes VII
5. Maniatis: Molecular Cloning – A Lab Manual Vol. I, II. III
6. old and Primrose: Principals of Gene Manipulation
7. Watson J.D: Recombinant DNA
8. Kumar: Text Book of Biotechnology
9. Purohit: Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications
10. Genetics: B.D.Singh
11. Genomes: T.A.Brown
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
LAB I: GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY & CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE
General Physiology Practicals:
1. Chlorophyll Estimation
2. Calculation of Stomatal Index
4. Proline Estimation
5. Calculation of Leaf Surface Area
6. Water Potential of potato Tuber
7. Extraction and quantification of DNA from onion
8. Determination of water quality
9. Cell as an osmometer
10. Estimation of rate of O2 consumption in fish
11. Estimation of Blood sugar in human
12. Estimation of Blood urea in human
13. Total Blood Cell Count
14. Estimation of Haemoglobin level in Blood sample
15. Estimation of Ammonia in human urine
16. Recording of Blood Pressure during Stress condition
17. Preparation of Hemin crystals of the blood
Cell and Tissue Culture
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Practicals:
Plant Cell Culture
Protoplast Isolation and Culture
Animal Cell Culture Practicals:
Animal Cell Culture Media
Basics of Cell culture (Types, Media Preparation, Culturing, Freezing and
Sub Culturing and Maintenance
Human Lymphocyte Culture and Karyotyping
Cytotoxic Assays and Morphological Assays (Acridine orange / Et Br and
Hoechst 33258, MTT)
Cell Cycle Analysis using Flow Cytometer and Micronucleus
II YEAR – IV SEMESTER
LAB II: r-DNA TECHNOLOGY
1. Isolation of Plant and Bacterial Genomic DNA and Plasmid DNA.
2. Isolation of RNA
3. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.
4. Restriction Enzyme digestion.
5. Restriction mapping and ligation.
6. Transformation, screening for recombinants.
7. Blotting Techniques.
8. Isolation of plasmid DNA- i) minipreparation ii) large scale isolation
9. In vitro DNA ligation, transformation of E.coli
10. Characterization of transformants: DNA gel electrophoresis, Restriction map
11. Southern blot analysis
12. Northern and dot blotting technique.
13. PCR/ RFLP technique
14. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation and recombinant selection,
15. Amplification of RAPD.
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
Genetic Engineering in Plants-Molecular biology of Agrobacterium mediated
DNA transfer- Ti plasmid Vectors- Binary and co-integrated vectors- Transformation
strategies in plants – Agrobacterium tumefaciens & Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant
viruses as vectors. Physical method of transfer-Biolistics –Electroporation.
Transposons in transgenic plants – their uses – Terminator gene technology,
RNAi, Metabolic Engineering – Modification of plant Nutritional content – Amino acids
and lipids as Bioreactor- polymers and foreign proteins in seeds.
Selectable Markers, reporter genes- Promoters used in Plant vectors genetic
- heat, drought and saline tolerance (Osmogenes)
- Virus resistance.
- Pest resistance
- Herbicide resistance
- Herbicide tolerance
- Delayed fruit ripening
- Fungal and bacterial resistance
- Secondary metabolite production
Production of therapeutic proteins- antibodies- vaccines edible Vaccines-
hormones- Golden Rice- Biolistic in transgenic plants. Marker free transgenic plants. Co-
transformation-Transgenic silencing. Molecular aspects of nitrogen fixation.
Chloroplast genetic engineering
Chloroplast genome- Transplastomic plants – Mitochondrial genome- Legal protection
and IPR- patent Co-operation Theory (PCT) - Indian and International Agencies
involving in IPR and Patenting – IPR in India- WTO agreement.
1. Intellectual property in agricultural Biotechnology, Edited by F.H.Erbisch and
K.M.Maredia, University Press, 2000.
2. Plant Biotechnology – New products and Applications by J.Hammond,
P.McGarvey and V.Yusibov (eds), Springer 1999.
3. Transgenic Plants by Esra Gauln and Adena Breimann.
4. Engineering Chloroplasts: an alternative site for foreign genes, proteins, reactions
and products. Trends in Biotechnology, 18, 253-263.
5. Indian patent Laws, Taxmann Allied sciences Ltd by D.B.Mittal, Taxmann
Sciences Ltd, 1999.
6. Molecular Biotechnology, Principles and applications of recombinant DNA
technology. Bernard R.Glick and Jack J.Pasternak. ASM Press Washington DC
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
Animal cell, Tissue and Organ culture:
History-Definition-culture environment (substrate and media) - techniques for
establishing of cell lines – insect cell cultivation- organ and embryo culture-
cryopreservation – valuable products.
Artificial insemination –embryo transfer- cloning (DOLLY, MOLLY and
POLLY) nuclear transplantation, in vitro fertilization technology, genetic engineering in
animals. Transformation of animal cells / cloning vectors, expression vectors animal viral
vectors and yeast vectors.
Transgenic animals. Development and uses (mice, cattle, Goat, fish and sheep and
sheep) and transgenic pets, Tendered meat production-Transgenic breeding strategies-
molecular farming (products with strategic importance).
Pest management: Juvenile hormone analogues-pheromones and genetic
manipulation, biotechnology of silkworms, transgenic silk production -Baculo viruses
vector and foreign gene expression, Biotechnological approach to the production of live
Molecular markers: use of nucleic acid probes and antibodies, In clinical
diagnosis and tissue typing - Mapping of human genome-RFLP and applications Genetic
engineering approaches for the correction of genetic disorders -Human cloning animal
right activities Blue cross in India- society for prevention of cruelty against animals
Ethical limits of Animal use, Green peace international peace -peacekeeping -Human
Rights and Responsibilities.
Regulation the sue of biotechnology: Regulation r-DNA technology-regulating
food and food ingredients- human gene therapy- initial public concerns -accumulation of
defective genes in future generations - future of gene therapy, patenting biotechnology
inventions - patenting multi cellular organisms patenting and fundamental research.
1. Harrison, M.A and BAL, I.R 1997 General techniques of all culture Cambridge
2. Prakash M and Arora, C.K 1998 and issue culture, Anmol publication Pvt, Ltd.,
3. Darling D.C and Morgon S.J 1994 animal cells, culture media, Ltd, John Wiley
4. In vitro cultivation of animal cells 1994, 1st ed., Butter worth Heinemann Ltd.,
5. B. Ianfresheny 2006 culture of animal cells and Manual basic technique, fifth
edition, Wiley, liss publication
6. Bernard, B, Glick, jack, J. Pastunak, Molecular biotechnology principles and
application of Recombinant DNA
7. B. Sasidhara 2006 Animal biotechnology MJP publications
8. Cooper M.G and Hausman E.R the cell and molecular approach fourth edition by
sinauer associated Inc.
9. Dubey R.C 2007 Text book of biotechnology S.Chand and company ltd.,
10. Text book of animal biotechnology P. Bamadess S.Meerarani
11. An introduction to molecular biology/ Bobert C. Tait
12. Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology, Second edition, Helen xreuzer and
13. Cedric Grillot, Entomology, second edition
14. B.mathur and textbook of entomology, first edition
15. Bobert Matheson, entomology and introductory courses, first edition.
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
History, lymphoid organs and cells: History of Immunology: Edward Jenner, Eli
Metchnikoff, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch; Innate immunity- barriers; acquired
immunity-cells involved; humoral and cellular immunity; lymphoid organs-
primary & secondary-Hematopoiesis; immunogens and antigens– characteristics
of ideal antigens; classes of antigens, cross reactivity, haptens and adjuvants.
Antibody and complement: Antibody – isotypes – Domain structure, biological
properties, kinetics of antibody response. Primary interaction, secondary
interaction; Mechanism of generation of antibody diversity. Classical and alternate
Biology of lymphocyte, TcR and MHC: Ontogeny of B and T lymphocytes;
TcR: interaction of TcR with MHC molecules; Thymic selection and T-cell
differentiation. Role of MHC in immunity. Mechanism of allograft rejection.
Cytokines in immune regulation.
Hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and tumor immunology: Immediate
hypersensitivity – general characteristics, activation and effector phases, clinical
aspects – role of IgE; Clinical aspects of Type II, III and IV Hypersensitivity;
Etiology of autoimmune disease – systemic and organ specific. Tumor antigens:
types; effector mechanism in tumor immunity; Immunodiagnosis and
Immunotechnology: Principles, methodology and application of LTT,
Hybridoma technology and antibody engineering; ELISA; ELISPOT; RIST;
RAST and Immunoblotting; FACSCAN, Immunofluoresence and RIA;
Immunoinformatics and vaccine designing; Cloning strategies for vaccine
production. T cell cloning and stem cell technology.
1. Benjamini E, Coico R and G. Sunskise (2000) Immunology a short course. IV
edn. (Chapters 1-13) Wiley – Liss publication, NY.
2. Kuby, J (1997) immunology, III edn, WH Freeman &Co, NY.
3. Goldsby R.A. Kindt T.I and Osborne B.A (2000) Kuby Immunology IV edn.
4. WH Freeman &Co, NY.
5. Janeway, C.A. Travers P. Wolport M and Capra J.D (1999) Immunology IV edn.
Current Biology, NY.
6. Roitt, I (2000). Essential Immunology, IV edn. Blackwell Sci NY.
7. Brown, F, Chanock, R. M., Lerner R.A. (Editors) (1986) Vaccines 86: New
approaches to Immunization.
8. Fathman, C. G. Fitch, F.W (1982) Isolation, characterization and utilization of
9. T-lymphocytes clones, Academic Press, London.
10. Goding, J. W (1998) Monoclonal antibodies: Principles and practice, Academic
11. Roitt, Male and Brostoff (1998) Immunology 4th edn. Pub. Mocby, New York pp
12. Springer T. A (Editor) (1985) Hybridoma technology in Biosciences and
Medicine, Plenum Press, New York.
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
LAB I: PLANT AND ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY Practicals:
1. Medium preparation
2. Explant preparation
3. Seed Germination
5. Suspension culture
6. Multiple shoot induction
8. GUS assay
9. Somatic embryogenesis
11. Plant DNA isolation
12. GFP cloning
ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Practicals:
1. Isolation of Genomic DNA from Blood
2. Isolation of Plasmid DNA by Alkaline Lysis Method
3. Restriction Digestion
4. Isolation of RNA from Mammalian Tissue
5. Isolation of Histone
6. Bacterial Transformation
8. Quantification of DNA/RNA
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
LAB II: IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
LIST OF PRACTICAL – IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY:
1. Bleeding techniques and immunization protocols.
2. Dissection of chick & wild rat for lymphoid organs.
3. Immunodiffusion & electrophoresis techniques.
4. Fraction of T & B sub-populations from peripheral blood.
5. Microlymphocytotoxicity assay (ALS titration assay).
6. Detection of cancer markers.
9. Immunoglobulin estimation.
III YEAR – V SEMESTER
ELECTIVE I – NANO BIOTECHNOLOGY, BIOPHYSICAL
PROCESSES & BIOSTATISTICS
Introduction to Nanoworld, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology -
nanoparticles, nanowires, thin films and multilayers; Biomolecular Structure
Determination X-ray crystallography - NMR spectroscopy - Electron microscopy -
Atomic force microscopy Nanobiotechnology: Introduction, Biomolecules as
nanostructures and their applications in nanotechnology viz. Biosensors,
separation of cells and cell organelles, drug delivery, gene therapy.
Synthesis of nanostructures: Natural in inorganic, Natural in organism,
chemical and physical methods –Sol Process, Micelle, Chemical Precipitation,
Hydrothermal Method, Pyrolysis, Bio-based Protocol, Chemical Vapor
Deposition, Sputtering; Functionalization of nanoparticles for biological
applications; Recent trends in Nanobiotechnology - Applications in life Sciences
and ethical issues
Some interactions of electromagnetic radiations and living matter:
Radioactivity and biological tracers ionization and detection: Positive ions,
electrons, gamma rays, neutrons. Disintegration half-life, energy distribution,
decay products, biological effects of ionizing radiations. Biological tracers in
metabolic studies radioactive mapping.
Laws of thermodynamics, statements, heat content of foods, free energy
and entropy, free energy released role of adenosine triphosphate and mechanism
of ATP synthesis in mitochondria and chloroplast the mobile power supply,
measurement of H, F and TS membrane potentials, negative entropy change in
living systems, equilibrium vs. steady-state, rate controlling steps, effects of
concentration and temperature, the specific rate constant, catalysis by enzymes,
diffusion-co-efficient - permeability constant.
Data: Collection, sources and methods, presentation, tabulation, graphical
and diagrammatic representation, histograms, ratio and percentage, and their
limitations. Measures of central tendencies, mean, median, mode. Dispersions,
skewness, coefficient of variations. Probability, binomial-poison and normal
distributions Simple correlation, linear regression. Statistical inference, confidence
intervals, chi-square method, „f‟ and„t‟ tests, variance ratio test. Principles of
experimental design-replication, randomization.
1. Cotterill RMJ (2002). Biophysics. John Willey & Sons Ltd, England.
2. Chandra R (2004). Nuclear Medicine Physics. The Basics. Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, New York.
3. Buchholy K, Kasche V, Bornschever VT (2005). Biocatalysts and Enzyme
Technology. Willey- VCH Verlag Gm bh & Co. KGaA Weinheim.
4. Renugopalakrishnan V, Lavis RV (2006). Bionanotechnology- proteins to
nanodevices, Springer, Dordrecht.
5. Goodsell D.s.(2004). Bionanotechnology, Lessons from Nature. Willey –
Liss, New Jersey.
6. Biostatistical Analysis (4 th edition) by Jerrold H. Zar.
III YEAR – VI SEMESTER
Lymphoid organs and cells: Types of Immunity: Innate & acquired immunity-
cells involved; humoral and cellular immunity– Hematopoiesis -Stem cell
markers.Antibody – isotypes – Domain structure, biological properties.
Serodiagnostics: agglutination, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and
immunoprecipitation – Role of MHC in immunity – HLA typing. Cytokines and
interleukins: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. p53 & its role.
Immunoinformatics and vaccine designing.
Microbial pathogens, types: bacteria, viruses, virions, mycoplasmas – biology:
type study – M. tb, HIV, HCV and Dengue. Detection of infectious agents and
molecular epidemiology: M. tb, HCV & HIV; Conventional Vs Molecular
diagnostics-merits and demerits. Biological warfare-Bacillus anthracis, H5N1,
Chikungunya, plague – biology, pathogenesis – diagnostic methods. National and
international status of pathogen transport – Regulations, quarantine and organizations.
Molecular epidemiology – definition. Environmental molecular diagnostics –
Pathogens of importance in aqua culture (WSSV) and agriculture- plant molecular
Diagnostics for Human Diseases
Genetic testing: Practice of genetic testing, genetic testing for carrier detection,
genetic testing to predict disorders, presymptomatic testing, and disease-susceptibility
testing. Molecular aspects of mutation- Detection of genetic defects. Gene
polymorphism: candidate genes approach Metabolic and genetic disorders: diabetes,
cardiac disorders- DNA analysis in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy- Sickle cell anemia
and beta thalassemia: molecular aetiology and detection - Prenatal molecular
diagnosis: CVS and amniocentesis - preimplantation test - methods and applications.
Social, ethical and legal aspects of molecular diagnostics.