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  • Stylized diagram of the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and the cell.
  • Figure 1.1 DNA. (a) Three-dimensional molecular model of DNA. (b) Stylized diagram of the DNA double helix.
  • Figure 2.2
  • Figure 2.5
  • Figure 1.2 Example of easily distinguishable alternative traits: purpleflowered (left) vs. white-flowered (right) pea plants.
  • Figure 1.3 Transcription. The DNA separates locally into single strands, and RNA polymerase makes an RNA copy of one of the DNA strands.
  • Figure 1.4 A ribosome, the organelle on which translation of mRNA (protein synthesis) takes place. Two views of three-dimensional models of the E. coli ribosome. The large subunit is red, and the small subunit is yellow.
  • Figure 1.6 Example of a genetic map, illustrating some of the genes on chromosome 2 of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster . The numerical values represent the positions of the genes from the chromosome end (top) measured in map units. (From Principles of Genetics by Robert Tamarin. Copyright © 1996. Reproduced with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.)
  • Figure 1.7 Eukaryotic organisms that have contributed significantly to our knowledge of genetics. (a) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a budding yeast). (b) Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). (c) Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode). (d) Arabidopsis thaliana (Thale cress, a member of the mustard family). (e) Mus musculus (a mouse). (f) Homo sapiens (human). (g) Neurospora crassa (orange bread mold). (h) Tetrahymena (a protozoan). (i) Paramecium (a protozoan). (j) Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green alga). (k) Pisum sativum (a garden pea). (l) Zea mays (corn). (m) Gallus (chicken).
  • Figure 1.8 Eukaryotic cells. Cutaway diagrams of (a) a generalized higher plant cell and (b) a generalized animal cell, showing the main organizational features and the principal organelles in each.
  • Figure 1.9 Cutaway diagram of a generalized prokaryotic cell.
  • Figure 1.10 Colorized scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli , a rod-shaped eubacterium common in human intestines.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 1: Genetics An Introduction Linnea Fletcher Ph.D. BIOL 2316
    • 2. SUGGESTED: Required Knowledge
      • One semester college biology course in which you learned the following:
        • Basic Mendelian genetics
        • Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
        • DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
        • Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
        • Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
        • Glycolysis, Kreb Cycle, and Electron Transport and Fermentation
        • Basic protein, carbohydrate, nucleotide, and lipid chemistry as it relates to the cell
        • Basic molecular techniques such as gel electrophoresis and transformation
    • 3. The first chapter is review and you should already know this information IF you feel you do not have adequate background knowledge for this genetics course, please consider dropping the course--
    • 4. How to do well in this course
      • KEEP ON SCHEDULE
      • Review the Power Point and master objectives and answer all questions
      • Read the chapter paying attention to principal points, bolded words, summary
      • Review iActivity and problems –there is no homework to turn in, only tests and the presentation
    • 5. What type of cell has a defined nucleus? Prokaryote or Eukaryote Define genetics (the science of heredity)
    • 6. Basic Concepts of Genetics
      • Describe the genetic material found in organisms
        • What are the building blocks?
        • How is DNA different from RNA?
        • What is a genome and how is it organized (i.e. DNA to genes to chromosomes
    • 7. Double-stranded DNA What are the bonds Between the bases? How many? What are the bonds Between the sugar and Phosphate groups? If you dissolved DNA in Water, what is the pH Value?
    • 8. Transmission of Genetic Information (you should already know this info as this was reviewed in high school)
      • What is a genetic trait, and how did Gregor Mendel perform genetic transmission studies using such traits?
      • What is an allele, and how are organisms classified when they carry two different alleles? Two identical alleles?
      • What is phenotype and what are two major factors that influence an organism’s phenotype? (environment and heredity)
      • What is an organism’s genotype?
      • When performing a cross between a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent, what are the resulting genotypes and the phenotypes of the P (parental) generation, the F1 (first filial) generation, and the F2 (second filial) generation? Use a Punnett square when necessary to give the ratios of each genotype and phenotypes in each of these generations.
    • 9. Gregor Mendel Fig. 2.2
      • Before showing you how to do a Punnett Square– a few Mendel Tidbits:
      • At that time, Monasteries were doing a lot of the animal breeding and so the Monks were interested in hereditary.
      • Realizing how smart Mendel was, the Abbot paid for Mendel’s education
      • Mendel read Darwin’s work and sent his results to Darwin but Darwin never read it! (Too bad, Mendel realized how important his work was to Darwin’s Theory and that is why he sent him his results)
      • Mendel asked a Mathematician to figure out how to show his results were significant, the Mathematician came up with Chi Square!
    • 10. Mendel’s workplace Fig. 2.5 The garden at the Abby and his microscope. Genetic research was his main job!
    • 11. Mendel used sweet peas for his experiments, why? (cheap, easy to grow, could pick traits that were easy to follow, rapid generation time, lots of offspring)
    • 12. Mendel’s Experiments
      • Crossed a dominant trait (homozygous) with homozygous recessive
      • YY x yy
      • The F1 generation is Yy (heterozygous dominant)
      Capital letters indicate dominance and lower case indicates recessive
    • 13. Genetic Crosses and Punnett Squares recessive dominant 3:1 phenotype ( what does This mean?) 1:2:1 genotype ( what Does this mean?)
    • 14. Expression of Genetic Information
      • Define gene expression
      • What are the 2 major steps for gene expression? (transcription and translation)
      • What are the main enzymes involved in these two processes, the building blocks, and what are the products in each step?
      • What role do the following nucleic acids play in these steps: DNA, mRNA, codons, tRNA, & ribosomes?
      • How many nucleotides in a DNA sequence code for one amino acid in a protein sequence?
    • 15.
      • George Beadle and Edward Tatum proposed the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
      • Which has been modified to the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis (why? Because they didn’t know that enzymes could be made of more than one polypeptide)
    • 16. What enzyme catalyzes the transcription reaction? What are the Building blocks? What is the product? (occurs 5’ to 3’ direction only, why?-phosphate adds to the hydroxyl on the growing RNA molecule) Transcription
    • 17.
      • Prokaryotes make mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
      • Eukaryotes make these three and one more, small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
    • 18. Only specific genes are expressed at one time
      • Jacques Monod proposed the operon theory
      • In what organisms do you find operons?
        • Bacteria, viruses, as well as some genes in nematodes
    • 19. Know what a ribosome does and compare/contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis
    • 20. Sources of Genetic Variation
      • Resulted from the evolutionary process of mutation (a change in genetic material), recombination (the exchange of genetic material) and selection (the favoring of particular combinations of genes in a given environment)
    • 21. Diversity
      • What are two agents that can induce mutations? (radiation or chemicals)
      • When does genetic recombination most often occur in eukaryotes? (meiosis)
      • What is the consequence of selection, on an individual basis and on a population basis? (a change in the frequencies of genes affecting the trait or traits on which selection acts)
    • 22. Beak size as a result of Natural selection Mutation as a result of Treatment with mutagenic reagents
    • 23. Subdisciplines of Genetics
      • Transmission (genetic traits passed from generation to generation)
      • Molecular (molecular structure and function of genes)
      • Population (studies heredity in groups for traits that are determined by one or two genes)
      • Quantitative (heredity of traits in groups of individuals but < one or two genes)
    • 24. Where is Genetic Info Stored?
      • The public has free access to genetic databases at the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information website ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ). What specific kinds of information are available at this website?
      • Describe how the tool called BLAST can be used to access information about gene function from these databases.
      • What does OMIM stand for, and what information does this database have?
      • How can you locate specific information about genetic sequences of a specific gene? (GenBank)
    • 25. Genetic Maps Are one items Found at this site National Center for Biotechnology Information—what is found at this site? Where is the sequence data housed?
    • 26.
      • What are “model organisms” and how are they selected for study by scientists?
        • Genetic history is well known
        • Short life cycle
        • Many offspring
        • Easy to handle
        • There is phenotypic genetic variation
      • Explain how the study of model organisms have contributed to our understanding of how genes work in humans.
    • 27. Examples of model organisms
    • 28. Plant, Animal and Bacterial Cells
      • Briefly describe the structural features and biological activities of the following subcellular components in the living eukaryotic cell: plasma membrane, nuclear membrane and pores, nucleolus, centriole, centrosome, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, and mitochondria.
      • Where are nucleic acids and ribosomes found in the eukaryotic cell?
      • Where are double membranes found?
      • Which of these subcellular components are missing in prokaryotes?
    • 29.  
    • 30. How does a Prokaryote differ from a Eukaryote What are the two evolutionarily distinct prokaryote groups and where Do they primarily live?
    • 31. The most studied bacteria is E. coli
    • 32. Extra Credit (5 pts)
      • Search on the Internet for the site, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
      • Provide a ½ page description of what information can be found at this site including the purpose of this site. (5 points). Email the assignment to the instructor. Include in this email your major and any specific interests you have in the field of genetics.
      • Welcome to Genetics!