Stylized diagram of the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and the cell.
Figure 1.1 DNA. (a) Three-dimensional molecular model of DNA. (b) Stylized diagram of the DNA double helix.
Figure 1.2 Example of easily distinguishable alternative traits: purpleflowered (left) vs. white-flowered (right) pea plants.
Figure 1.3 Transcription. The DNA separates locally into single strands, and RNA polymerase makes an RNA copy of one of the DNA strands.
Figure 1.4 A ribosome, the organelle on which translation of mRNA (protein synthesis) takes place. Two views of three-dimensional models of the E. coli ribosome. The large subunit is red, and the small subunit is yellow.
Figure 1.7 Eukaryotic organisms that have contributed significantly to our knowledge of genetics. (a) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a budding yeast). (b) Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). (c) Caenorhabditis elegans (a nematode). (d) Arabidopsis thaliana (Thale cress, a member of the mustard family). (e) Mus musculus (a mouse). (f) Homo sapiens (human). (g) Neurospora crassa (orange bread mold). (h) Tetrahymena (a protozoan). (i) Paramecium (a protozoan). (j) Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green alga). (k) Pisum sativum (a garden pea). (l) Zea mays (corn). (m) Gallus (chicken).
Figure 1.8 Eukaryotic cells. Cutaway diagrams of (a) a generalized higher plant cell and (b) a generalized animal cell, showing the main organizational features and the principal organelles in each.
Figure 1.9 Cutaway diagram of a generalized prokaryotic cell.
Figure 1.10 Colorized scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli , a rod-shaped eubacterium common in human intestines.
What is a genome and how is it organized (i.e. DNA to genes to chromosomes
Double-stranded DNA What are the bonds Between the bases? How many? What are the bonds Between the sugar and Phosphate groups? If you dissolved DNA in Water, what is the pH Value?
Transmission of Genetic Information (you should already know this info as this was reviewed in high school)
What is a genetic trait, and how did Gregor Mendel perform genetic transmission studies using such traits?
What is an allele, and how are organisms classified when they carry two different alleles? Two identical alleles?
What is phenotype and what are two major factors that influence an organism’s phenotype? (environment and heredity)
What is an organism’s genotype?
When performing a cross between a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent, what are the resulting genotypes and the phenotypes of the P (parental) generation, the F1 (first filial) generation, and the F2 (second filial) generation? Use a Punnett square when necessary to give the ratios of each genotype and phenotypes in each of these generations.
George Beadle and Edward Tatum proposed the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
Which has been modified to the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis (why? Because they didn’t know that enzymes could be made of more than one polypeptide)
What enzyme catalyzes the transcription reaction? What are the Building blocks? What is the product? (occurs 5’ to 3’ direction only, why?-phosphate adds to the hydroxyl on the growing RNA molecule) Transcription
Resulted from the evolutionary process of mutation (a change in genetic material), recombination (the exchange of genetic material) and selection (the favoring of particular combinations of genes in a given environment)
The public has free access to genetic databases at the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information website ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ). What specific kinds of information are available at this website?
Describe how the tool called BLAST can be used to access information about gene function from these databases.
What does OMIM stand for, and what information does this database have?
How can you locate specific information about genetic sequences of a specific gene? (GenBank)
Genetic Maps Are one items Found at this site National Center for Biotechnology Information—what is found at this site? Where is the sequence data housed?
Briefly describe the structural features and biological activities of the following subcellular components in the living eukaryotic cell: plasma membrane, nuclear membrane and pores, nucleolus, centriole, centrosome, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, and mitochondria.
Where are nucleic acids and ribosomes found in the eukaryotic cell?
Where are double membranes found?
Which of these subcellular components are missing in prokaryotes?
Search on the Internet for the site, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
Provide a ½ page description of what information can be found at this site including the purpose of this site. (5 points). Email the assignment to the instructor. Include in this email your major and any specific interests you have in the field of genetics.