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Ocean Biogeographic Information System: exploring its content <ul><li>Edward Vanden Berghe </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Costello...
‘ Mission’ <ul><li>OBIS publishes primary data on marine species locations online through  www.iobis.org   </li></ul><ul><...
 
Taxonomic register <ul><li>Aphia is general species register maintained at VLIZ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of several ...
 
WoRMS plans <ul><li>100,000 valid species end 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 valid species end 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
OBIS number of records <ul><li>238 datasets </li></ul><ul><li>In cache: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13.6 million records, 147,00...
Location of RONs
Map of CoML field projects
Data providers to OBIS <ul><li>7 Million from RONs </li></ul><ul><li>700,000 from all CoML combined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Historical data
Limitations of OBIS and OBIS data <ul><li>We don’t know the total biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New species are disco...
New species are discovered Data from http://marinespecies.org
Taxonomic bias <ul><li>Taxon # species # in OBIS % </li></ul><ul><li>Cetaceans 133 117 88 </li></ul><ul><li>Seals… 45 36 8...
Geographical bias
Bias in depth: deeper than 2500m
Analysis of OBIS data <ul><li>First attempts at diversity pattern on a global scale, with a large number of taxa </li></ul...
Global pattern of sampling effort
Pattern in number of species
Corrected for bias: ES(50)
Large Marine Ecosystems
Current activities <ul><li>Adding data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Together with new and existing RONs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
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Ocean Biogeographic Information System: exploring its content

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  • Needs updating!!
  • Cumulative number of species that have been described; linear growth for all animal species (slows down a bit during second world war).
  • Gaps in coverage – mainly in Southern oceans; coastal waters are better studied
  • Bias towards shallower depths; first: surface to -1000; second 1000-3000; last deeper than 3000
  • Map of number of records (‘specimens’) in the database per 5x5 degree squares. Heavily influenced by individual datasets: Continuous plankton recorder data in North Atlantic; amateur observer data and other around UK; Fisheries data in South Africa.
  • Observed number of species within each square: correlates highly with the number of specimens, as expected; some areas less red, such as the central North Atlantic
  • ES(50) is calculated as the expected number of species in a random sample of 50 specimens taken from a particular 5x5 degree square; now regions that are known to be of high diversity show up as being most diverse. The blanks are the squares where less than 50 specimens have been found, so es(50) can’t be calculated: we don’t know enough to make even a crude estimate of biodiversity. Maps like this can be used in identifying gaps, and in planning future research
  • Links with rest of conference: many RONs are represented; talk on Aphia, which is basis for WoRMS, and available through www.marinespecies.org; metadata papers and poster by Branton, Melanie Meaux and others
  • Transcript of "Ocean Biogeographic Information System: exploring its content"

    1. 1. Ocean Biogeographic Information System: exploring its content <ul><li>Edward Vanden Berghe </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Costello </li></ul><ul><li>Phoebe Zhang </li></ul><ul><li>Fred Grassle </li></ul>
    2. 2. ‘ Mission’ <ul><li>OBIS publishes primary data on marine species locations online through www.iobis.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It facilitates data discovery and exploration by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searching by species, higher taxa, time, location, depth, database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping, overlaying species distributions on ocean environment, modelling of potential environmental range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrates data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over different marine themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes to whales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics and morphology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poles to equator… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over many data providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enables data capture for re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Support CoML 2010 synthesis </li></ul>
    3. 4. Taxonomic register <ul><li>Aphia is general species register maintained at VLIZ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of several overlapping subsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defined geographical (ERMS, NWARMS…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defined taxonomic (Porifera, Platyhelminthes…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defined thematic (HABs, invasive species) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposed through www.marinespecies.org </li></ul><ul><li>WoRMS = Aphia + external GSDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algaebase, Hexacorallia, FishBase… </li></ul></ul>
    4. 6. WoRMS plans <ul><li>100,000 valid species end 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 valid species end 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85-90% of known species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution records for all of these by 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many species only known from holotype!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gap analysis </li></ul>
    5. 7. OBIS number of records <ul><li>238 datasets </li></ul><ul><li>In cache: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13.6 million records, 147,000 ‘names’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In index: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.9 million records at genus level and below, 80,000 species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Among the largest providers to GBIF </li></ul>
    6. 8. Location of RONs
    7. 9. Map of CoML field projects
    8. 10. Data providers to OBIS <ul><li>7 Million from RONs </li></ul><ul><li>700,000 from all CoML combined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadline for 2010 synthesis </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. Historical data
    10. 12. Limitations of OBIS and OBIS data <ul><li>We don’t know the total biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New species are discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective sampling in geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly in surface waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective sampling in taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly big things, vertebrates </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. New species are discovered Data from http://marinespecies.org
    12. 14. Taxonomic bias <ul><li>Taxon # species # in OBIS % </li></ul><ul><li>Cetaceans 133 117 88 </li></ul><ul><li>Seals… 45 36 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Fish 24139 21258 88 </li></ul><ul><li>Decapods 8227 3796 46 </li></ul><ul><li>Echinoderms 6199 1624 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Bryozoans 6000 1096 18 </li></ul>
    13. 15. Geographical bias
    14. 16. Bias in depth: deeper than 2500m
    15. 17. Analysis of OBIS data <ul><li>First attempts at diversity pattern on a global scale, with a large number of taxa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously either local or on one taxon (e.g. commercial large fish like tuna, forams…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Safety in numbers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results not affected by idiosynchrasies of single taxon or study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results very preliminary, and need data cleaning and further checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. by artificially removing datasets from analysis </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Global pattern of sampling effort
    17. 19. Pattern in number of species
    18. 20. Corrected for bias: ES(50)
    19. 21. Large Marine Ecosystems
    20. 22. Current activities <ul><li>Adding data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Together with new and existing RONs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From CoML projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2010 deadline! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Completing the inventory of known marine species: WoRMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritise on having at least one distribution record per species, preferably the type locality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning and harmonising taxonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlier detection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Open for business’ </li></ul></ul>
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