Magnetic storage disks that could hold 100,000 times more data than current disks
In the next 50 years, machines will get increasingly smaller- -so small that thousands of these tiny machine s would fit into the period at the end of this sentence.
Within a few decades, we will use these nanomachines to manufacture consumer goods at the molecular level…
Make baseballs, telephones, cars, etc. in the same company
Fly’s eye and microfabricated device
If we can manipulate single atoms…
… the results could lead to a revolution in computing, electronics, energy, materials design, manufacturing, medicine, and numerous other fields.
Vision - Hype or Potential?
“Nanotechnology – the next big thing”
Microscopic computer that assembles itself, atom by atom, then calculates at a speed faster than today's zippiest electronic chips
Self Assembly Uses Forces in Nature
Transfer of material through cell walls, DNA
Self-Assembly at Millimeter Scales
Molecules want to form structures
Coded to do this
Order/complexity is “built in” to the components
Low energy requirements
Simple when it works, but don’t yet know the rules for how things aggregate
5mm plastic self-assembled light-emitting diode (fits on a penny)
Molecular machines able to build objects to complex atomic specifications
Possibilities include :
molecular manufacturing systems able to construct computers smaller than living cells ,
devices able to repair cells ,
diamond-based structural materials , and
other molecular manufacturing systems .
Smallest object ever created by humans was sculpted by two laser beams focused across resin. The resin solidified only where the lasers crossed. Created by a team of researchers at Osaka University in Japan, the bull measures 10 microns from horns to tail, and seven microns across (1 micron = 1000 nm).
Could sit on a single human blood cell
Can fabricate any structure of design.
Another team at Osaka University is developing devices to be implanted into the human body
Hope to combine the two techniques
Cell surgery or blood cell reparation
Promises to be a new Industrial Revolution.
Global market for nanotech products to reach $700 billion by 2008
The leanest manufacturing ever!!
VISIONS OF LIFE
Nanotechnology makes better social and economic conditions possible:
Every product made to customer specifications
Diseases cured (Nanobiotechnology)
Clean up toxic waste
Create clean energy and bountiful clean water
“ buckyballs” or fullerenes
Can encapsulate things
Many interesting properties
Tubes 10,000 X thinner than a human hair
An electronic device based on a single rolled-up sheet of carbon atoms
Discovered in 1991 by researchers at NEC
Potential for use as minuscule wires or in ultra-small electronic devices.
Mechanically strong - held by covalent bonds
Folds and buckles but does not snap
Hollow interiors - put things inside them
Tube is stable and won’t react on the outside
Conductive and respond to electrical fields
Carbon Nanotube Transistor
May 2002: Researchers built the world's first array of transistors out of carbon nanotubes -- tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that measure as small as 10 atoms across and are 500 times smaller than today's silicon-based transistors .
The breakthrough is a new batch process for forming large numbers of nanotube transistors.
Displacing mature technologies
Disruptive in the workplace and the economy
“ Today’s science fiction is often tomorrow’s science fact.” -Stephen Hawking
Convergence of computers, networks, biotech will create products never before imagined
Nanodevices will be invisible, intelligent and powerful
Used in every industry defining the limits of what is possible
Smaller than the head of a pin, surgical nanobots will operate from within the human body
Nano-biology will prolong life, prevent illness, and increase people’s health
StuffDust (nano-product created by San Francisco-based company minus9)
Marks objects and materials with serial numbers invisible to the naked eye - easily read with an optical microscope
Composed of micron-scale particles
Smaller than human hair
Carries a serial number
Marketed as efficient and secure way to mark computers, currency, explosives, toxic waste, etc.
New way to thwart thieves and improve inventory controls and manufacturing
World’s first implantable micro-machine, insulin-dispensing device was developed in 1998
Miniature cochlea ear implants are giving back hearing to thousands of people
Cornell scientist created a nano-sized guitar to demonstrate the scale at which we can manipulate molecules today
VISIONS OF LIFE
Computer biochips with organic materials to replace silicon
Viruses and proteins as molecular machines or nanofactories to build commercial products
New drug development
VISIONS OF LIFE
Synthetic DNA (nanogeonomics) to use for creating cloned life forms, robotics, human organs, and hybrid synthetic/organic compounds
Nano-informatics - use of advanced computers to “grow” nano-engineered products from informational models
Nanotechnology – What is it?
Rearrange matter with atomic precision
Central thesis of nanotechnology is that almost any chemically stable structure that is not specifically disallowed by the laws of physics can in fact be built.
Researchers have been building tiny motors inspired by machinery inside living cells.
These biomolecular motors run on adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the same energy-rich molecule that powers chemical reactions within cells.
The Promise – Nanotechnology should let us:
Get every atom in the right place.
Make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in molecular detail.
Have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required raw materials and energy.
Some nanoparticles are so small, they can slip past the immune system or directly into the brain, bypassing the selective blood-brain barrier.
Makes nanoparticles useful for delivering much-needed drugs
But they might also deliver toxins.
Studying how nano-structured membranes could screen pesticides and harmful bacteria from water supplies.
Other scientists are developing low-cost, nano-scale iron hydroxide granules to remove arsenic from drinking water.
Still others have suggested that nano-sized sensors could help detect pollutants or monitor and correct changes in the ozone layer.
“ If it can be done, it will be done”
“ The same kinds of sweeping patents that have allowed biotech firms to "own life," in effect, may allow nanotech firms to "own" the building blocks of the entire physical world”
Hope Shand, director of research in the ETC Group, Carrboro, N.C.
Crossing the Bridge to Nanomanufacturing Tech 2003 Speakers: Marcene Sonneborn Kirk Wardell May 7, 2003
Nanotech – Who’s Involved Nanotechnology Private Companies Venture Capital Government Entrepreneurs Public Companies Universities Non-Profits Grade Schools
Nanotech - Collectively, $B’s & $T’s Nanotechnology Private Companies Venture Capital Government Entrepreneurs Public Companies Universities Non-Profits Grade Schools 2003 $766M 2003 $880M 2003 $???M 2003 $???M 2003 $???B
Federal Initiative: National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
Ten Federal Agencies are requesting funding in the 2004 budget for NNI activities
FY 2004 budget request $847
9.5% increase over FY 2003
NNI expenditures in the United States:
FY 01 $464 M
FY 02 $604 M
FY 03 $710 M
The $$ are Flowing
2002 – 2003 > 18% increase in the budget
Some Areas of Focus Nanotechnology Plastics Ceramics Epoxies Medications Manufacturing Transportation Textiles Metals Electronics Energy Sensors Disease Treatment Organ Growth Weapons Waste Surgery
Methods Must Change
Grind, saw, weld, melt, machine, bend, etc into desired part or product
The Nano Method
Start with atoms and molecules
Grow to desired end product
The Bridge Methods
Add Nano & Micro Technologies to existing processes and or materials > Nanocomposites & MEMS
Inkjet Printer Heads
Piezo Light Switches > self powered
Airbags > accelerometers
Environment Sensors > Temperature, pressure, etc
Wired / Wireless Communication
MEMS in the Marketplace
Applied MEMS to Provide Accelerometers for Earthquake Monitoring May 03 @ 22:02:10 HOUSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 1, 2003 Applied MEMS Inc. [ profile ], an Input/Output company, and Refraction Technology Inc. (REF TEK), announced today that Applied MEMS has been selected to manufacture its MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) based Si-Flex(TM) accelerometer sensor modules for REF TEK, a leading supplier of seismic recording systems for earthquake monitoring applications.
REF TEK will integrate the sensor modules into seismic recording systems for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). The Si-Flex sensor converts ground vibrations into an electronic signal that can be processed for monitoring seismic events such as earthquakes. This represents the second such contract from REF TEK with Applied MEMS for addressing this specific application.
Nanocomposites Cocktail of organic and in-organic materials that are brought together by catalysts to form super materials whose properties are significantly better than either of the individual materials. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts
Case in Point
Nanosteel Company > Maitland, Florida
Developed coating for steel
20,000 inch thick > mixture of iron, carbon, tungsten, boron
increased surface hardness > 4x over conventional alloys
lasted 48 hours on 20-ton mining rock-crusher plates before wearing out > any other coating lasts 1 hour
currently being tested by Navy to extend engine life from 80 hours to over 1000 hours > saving $110,000 per engine replacement
Cause & Affect Nanosteel Coating The Technology Potential Industries Impacted Engine Manufactures fewer engines needed Engine Part Manufactures fewer parts needed Drill Bit Manufactures fewer bits needed
Added to plastic
Improved tensile strength
Improved vapor barrier traits
Low wt. % required
More flame resistant
Beer and other carbonated drinks
Most areas where bottles/cans are used
Cause & Affect Nanoclay The Technology Potential Industries Impacted Bottle Manufactures Decrease in the number of bottles used Can Manufactures Decrease in the number of cans used Transportation Lower weight means less revenue
Yeah, But When ??
How long does it take for companies to change?
1, 2, 5, 7, …x years
How quickly is technology advancing?
Every 10, 5, 2, …x years
Will technology advance faster than some companies’ ability to change?
Examples of Current NanoProducts Carbon Nanotube TV’s Tennis Balls Bumpers Step Assists Shirt, Pants and Ties The Products Better, Faster, Stronger The Company Lighter, stronger, rust-proof General Motors Safari & Astro Van Brighter, more efficient Samsung Bounces twice as long Wilson 60% lighter, twice as dent resistant Toyota Stain Resistant Eddie Bauer / Dockers
More Examples Organic Light Emitting Diodes Biotech Dies Cosmetics The Products Better, Faster, Stronger Glow in vibrant colors when hit with different wavelengths of light Generate own light - requiring less energy, more vivid Lipstick that lasts longer, smears less, reflects light in wrinkles
How Will Methods Change
Might get easier
Some catalyzed materials are easier to process
Might stay the same
Some materials have no apparent affect on the process
Might have to completely change
Some materials will require extensive changes to current processes including wholesale replacement
Now What Do I Do
Search Engine type in “Nanotech + your industry name”
Foresight Institute http://www.foresight.org/NanoRev/index.html
Now What Do I Do
A listing of nano books on Amazon.com http://www.foresight.org/NanoRev/Bookstore.html
Periodicals > Small Times http://smalltimes.com/index.cfm
eNewsletters > industry / focus specific
Now What Do I Do
Alliances / Focus Groups
Alliance for Nanomedical Technologies
Symposiums / Conferences
Polymer Outreach Program > May 21-23
Albany Symposium 2003 > September 22-24
Nanotechnology Research Centers
Federally Funded Nanotech Centers
Total of 6 in the United States – 3 of the 6 are in New York State
Cornell University Center for Nanoscale Systems (largest of the 6)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Directed Assembly of Nanostructures
Columbia University Electronic Transport in Molecular Nanostructures
Alfred University > Ceramics
Binghamton University > Electronic Packaging
Clarkson University > Coatings & Surface Science
Cornell University > Materials
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute > Robotics
Rochester Institute of Technology > Bioinformatics
Syracuse University > Software Engineering
University at Albany > Semiconductors
University at Buffalo > Biotechnology
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