C. During the 2 yr period, the person has not been without symptoms for more than 2 months at a time.
D. No major depressive episode has been present during the 1 st 2 yrs of the disturbance. After the initial 2 yrs, there may be superimposed episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, in which case both diagnoses are given.
A lack of rewarding, pleasurable experiences or reinforcement.
Stressful, negative life events or aversive consequences.
Behavioral deficits and excesses, such as a lack of social skills, continued complaining, & self-preoccupation.
Passive, repetitious, unrewarding behavior.
Stressor leads to reduction in reinforcers Person withdraws Reinforcers further reduced More withdrawal and depression Lewinsohn’s Behavioral Theory of Depression Behavioral Theories of Mood Disorders