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  • 1. NORTHEAST TEXAS COMMUNITY COLLEGE BIOL 2421 Microbiology Syllabus Fall 2007 Instructor: Dr. Mary Hearron Math/Science Building Office Phone: (903) 434-8296 Email: Website: Office Hours: MW 3:30-4:30 TR 2:30-3:30 Course Description: This course is a survey of microbiology emphasizing microbial morphology, metabolism, growth, and genetics. The classification of microorganisms with emphasis on biological principles and the medical significance to humans is also included. Textbooks: Talero and Talero, 2005, Foundations in Microbiology 5th Edition, W.C. Brown Publishing Leboffe and Pierce, 1999. A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory; 2nd Edition, Morton Publishing Hearron, 2005, Microbiology Lab Manual, 2nd Edition, NTCC Website: I maintain a website for you to obtain outlines of notes, study aids, lab reviews, etc. The homepage address for my website is If you are an AOL user, you may have to switch to Internet Explorer as your browser to access these pages from your home computer. Once at the opening homepage you will find links to the various courses that I teach. Click on the “Courses” link and you will find a link to “Biology 2421”. I hope you will access this helpful information online. Let me know what you think! Be aware that the college server is occasionally “down”. Do not wait until the last minute to check for notes, etc. Be sure to identify yourself when you email a question or comment. I always like to know to whom I am speaking and cannot always tell from an email address.
  • 2. Methods of Evaluation and Grading: A. Lecture: 3 major examinations and 1 comprehensive final will constitute 60 % of the final course grade. B. Laboratory: Weekly evaluation, research of unknown microorganisms, and 2 lab practicals will constitute 40 % of the final course grade. C. Grades will be determined as follows: 90.0 --- 100 =A 80.0 --- 89.9 =B 70.0 --- 79.9 =C 60.0 --- 69.9 =D 59.9 and < =F D. Make-up Work: Any test missed, for any reason, will result in a make-up exam (all essays) to be given during the final week of classes. Any exceptions must be cleared prior to the test date and are solely up to the discretion of the instructor. There is no makeup for daily work. All assignments will be accepted only on the due date at the beginning of the period. E. The last day to drop the course with a grade of W is Thursday, April 21, 2007. If circumstances require you to withdraw from this course you must do so by that date. It is the student’s sole responsibility to initiate the withdrawal from the registrar’s office. Failure to officially withdraw will result in your receiving a grade of F. WebGrade: I will provide you with a user name and password for using the WebGrade server to view your grades in BIOL 2421. It will be your responsibility to secure your password so that you are the only individual to access your grades. You may change your password once you initially access the WebGrade site. FOR A COMPLETE COURSE OUTLINE AND LIST OF OBJECTIVES, SEE THE BIOL 2421 WEBSITE.
  • 3. UNIT ONE: THE HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY GOAL ONE: THE STUDENT WILL UNDERSTAND THE CENTRAL THEMES OF MICROBIOLOGY INCLUDING, THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS, THE HISTORY AND TOOLS OF MICROBIOLOGY, THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE, AND THE PROFILE OF PROKARYTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS. CHAPTERS 1, 3 AND 4 Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to complete the following OBJECTIVES for this course. 1.1 Define the term "microbiology" and be able to list at least five areas of applied microbiology. 1.2 Write a two-page essay outlining the history of microbiology from the period of the early Greeks, to the "golden" age of microbiology to the present. 1.3 Discuss the origins of the theory of abiogenesis, the theory of biogenesis, and the germ theory of disease. Be able to identify the role the following individuals played in the development of these theories: Aristotle, Redi, Needham, Spallazani, Virchow, Pasteur, Semmelweis, Lister, and Koch. 1.4 List the individuals responsible for the origins of vaccination and chemotherapy and briefly describe the contribution that they made. 1.5 Identify the five kingdoms customarily used by most biologists, describe the general characteristics of each kingdom, and be able to list examples under each category. 1.6 Identify the four (4) fundamental types of staining procedures: basic, acid, simple, and differential, and describe how they are used. 1.7 List the steps in both the Gram stain, Acid-fast, and Endospore staining procedures. Understand the general types of organisms that stain positive or negative in each category. 1.8 Draw and label the various shapes and arrangements of bacterial cells. 1.9 List and identify the prokaryotic structures that exist external to the bacterial cell wall. 1.10 List and identify the prokaryotic structures that exist internal to the bacterial cell wall. 1.11 Write a two page essay describing the composition and characteristics of the bacterial cell wall, comparing and contrasting the Gram (+) cell wall and the Gram (-) cell wall. 1.12 Compare and contrast the fundamental similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. UNIT TWO: MICROBIAL METABOLISM, AND GROWTH
  • 4. GOAL TWO: THE STUDENT WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPTS OF MICROBIAL NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, MICROBIAL GROWTH REQUIREMENTS, AND THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS FOR CONTROLLING GROWTH. CHAPTERS: 7,8 AND 11 Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to complete the following OBJECTIVES for this course: 2.1 Define metabolism, and describe the fundamental differences between anabolism and catabolism and explain the connection with oxidation/reduction. 2.2 List and provide examples of three types of phosphorylation reactions that generate ATP. 2.3 Be able to discuss the relationship between enzymes, cofactors, and metabolic pathways. 2.4 Define fermentation. Write a description of three types of fermentation (lactic acid, alcoholic, and mixed acid) and identify the microorganisms involved in each. 2.5 Define and describe the main stages of respiration. Be able to name and recognize the necessary raw materials of each stage and the important end products of each. 2.6 Compare and contrast fermentation with respiration and aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration. 2.7 List physical and chemical growth requirements for microorganisms. 2.8 Differentiate between the various types of culture media. 2.9. Graph and explain the four phases of bacterial growth. 2.10 Differentiate between physical and chemical methods of control of microbial growth.
  • 5. UNIT THREE: MICROORGANISMS AND DISEASE GOAL THREE: THE STUDENT WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA, VIRUSES, AND OTHER MICROORGANISMS AS WELL AS UNDERSTANDING THE MAJOR TYPES OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THESE MICROORGANISMS. CHAPTERS: 18 - 21, 6, 24 & 25 Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to complete the following OBJECTIVES for this course: 3.1 Describe the organization of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 3.2 Describe the distinguishing features of the major groups of Gram (-) organisms including but not limited to: a) Spirochetes b) vibrios c) pseudomonads d) enterobacters e) richettsias and chlamydias f) mycoplasms 3.3 Differentiate between coliforms and non-coliforms. 3.4 List and identify the major diseases caused by the organisms in objective 3.2. 3.5 Describe the distinguishing features of the major groups of Gram (+) organisms including but not limited to: a) staphylococci d) non-spore forming bacteria b) streptococci e) mycobacteria c) spore forming bacteria 3.6 List and identify the major diseases caused by the organisms in objective 3.5. 3.7 Identify the major characteristics of the pathogenic fungi, protozoans, and/or algae and the diseases they cause. 3.8 Identify the basic characteristics of the viruses and the diseases they cause. 3.9 Outline the lytic and lysogenic cycle of viral replication.
  • 6. UNIT FOUR: INTERACTION BETWEEN MICROBE AND HOST GOAL FOUR: THE STUDENT WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENICITY, AND HOST DEFENSES. CHAPTERS: 13, 14, AND 15 Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to complete the following OBJECTIVES for this course: 4.1 Define the terms: a) normal flora f) communicable b) pathology g) contagious c) etiology h) non-communicable d) infection i) nosocomial e) disease j) epidemiology 4.2 Identify the major portals of entry of microorganisms. 4.3 Differentiate between endotoxins and exotoxins. 4.4 List the various types of host involvement in infections: local, systemic, focal, bacterimia, septicemia, toxemia, viremia, primary infection, and secondary infection. 4.5 List three ways in which infections are spread. 4.6 Give examples for the three principle routes by which diseases are transmitted: contact, vehicle, or vectors. 4.7 Differentiate between non-specific and specific host defenses. 4.8 Discuss the major components of the first line of defense (skin and mucous membranes) and the second line of defense (phagocytosis, inflammation, and fever). 4.9 Write a two-page essay outlining the third line of defense (cell-mediated and antibody- mediated or humoral immunity).
  • 7. UNIT FIVE: MICROBIAL GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (when time allows) GOAL FIVE: THE STUDENT WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF GENETICS, THE CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION, AND THE APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING. CHAPTERS 9 AND 10 Upon completion of this unit, the student will be able to complete the following OBJECTIVES for this course: 5.1 Summarize the concepts of replication, transcription, and translation. 5.2 Describe the working of the lac operon discovered by Jacob and Monod and the way it illustrates inducible gene regulation. 5.3 List various sources of genetic mutation. 5.4 Describe three methods of genetic exchange in bacteria. 5.5 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering