Mendelian Genetics An Overview
 
<ul><li>Pea plants have several advantages for genetics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pea plants are available in many varieties ...
<ul><li>In a typical breeding experiment, Mendel would cross-pollinate ( hybridize ) two contrasting, true-breeding pea va...
<ul><li>If the blending model were correct, the F 1  hybrids from a cross between purple-flowered and white-flowered pea p...
<ul><li>When Mendel allowed the F 1  plants to self-fertilize, the F 2  generation included both purple-flowered and white...
 
Vocabulary <ul><li>Character –heritable feature </li></ul><ul><li>Trait – each variant for a character </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Vocabulary (continued) <ul><li>Allele- alternate version of a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate allele – expressed in the he...
Law of Segregation -  the two alleles for each character segregate during gamete production
 
Law of  Independent Assortment – Each set of alleles segregates independently
Test cross – designed to reveal the genotype of an organism
Mendelian Inheritance and Rules of Probability <ul><li>Rule of Multiplication – the probability that two events will occur...
Rule Applies to dihybrid Crosses  <ul><li>For a dihybrid cross, YyRr x YyRr, what is the probability of an F2 having the g...
Incomplete Dominance Page 267 and work #2
Codominance <ul><li>Two alleles affect the phenotype in separate and distinguishable ways.  </li></ul><ul><li>Neither alle...
<ul><li>1)  In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous ( Rr ) offspring of red ( RR...
Multiple Alleles Page 267 and work #6
Pleiotropy <ul><li>Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects.  The ability of a gene to affect an organism in  many ways...
Epistasis <ul><li>Epistasis occurs when a gene at one locus alters or influences the expression of a gene at a second loci...
Polygenetic Inheritance <ul><li>Qualitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance.  This occurs when there is ...
Environmental Impact on Phenotype pH of the soil will change the color of hydrangea flowers from blue to pink
Technology And  Genetic testing Carrier Recognition Newborn screening <ul><li>Fetal testing </li></ul><ul><li>Amniocentesi...
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Mendelian Genetics

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Mendelian Genetics

  1. 1. Mendelian Genetics An Overview
  2. 3. <ul><li>Pea plants have several advantages for genetics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pea plants are available in many varieties with distinct heritable features ( characters ) with different variants ( traits ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another advantage of peas is that Mendel had strict control over which plants mated with which. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each pea plant has male (stamens) and female (carpal) sexual organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In nature, pea plants typically self-fertilize, fertilizing ova with their own sperm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Mendel could also move pollen from one plant to another to cross-pollinate plants. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.1
  3. 4. <ul><li>In a typical breeding experiment, Mendel would cross-pollinate ( hybridize ) two contrasting, true-breeding pea varieties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The true-breeding parents are the P generation and their hybrid offspring are the F 1 generation . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mendel would then allow the F 1 hybrids to self-pollinate to produce an F 2 generation. </li></ul><ul><li>It was mainly Mendel’s quantitative analysis of F 2 plants that revealed the two fundamental principles of heredity: the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. </li></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 5. <ul><li>If the blending model were correct, the F 1 hybrids from a cross between purple-flowered and white-flowered pea plants would have pale purple flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the F 1 hybrids all have purple flowers, just a purple as the purple-flowered parents. </li></ul>2. By the law of segregation, the two alleles for a characters are packaged into separate gametes Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.2
  5. 6. <ul><li>When Mendel allowed the F 1 plants to self-fertilize, the F 2 generation included both purple-flowered and white-flowered plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The white trait, absent in the F 1 , reappeared in the F 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on a large sample size, Mendel recorded 705 purple-flowered F 2 plants and 224 white-flowered F 2 plants from the original cross. </li></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.2
  6. 8. Vocabulary <ul><li>Character –heritable feature </li></ul><ul><li>Trait – each variant for a character </li></ul><ul><li>True-breeding – plants that self-pollinate all offspring are the same variety </li></ul><ul><li>Monohybrid cross – a cross that tracks the inheritance of a single character </li></ul><ul><li>P generation – (parental) true-breeding </li></ul><ul><li>F 1 - (first filial) offspring of P generation </li></ul><ul><li>F 2 – (second filial) offspring from F 1 cross </li></ul>
  7. 9. Vocabulary (continued) <ul><li>Allele- alternate version of a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate allele – expressed in the heterozygote </li></ul><ul><li>Recessive allele – not expressed in the heterozygote </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygote – pair of identical alleles for a character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homozygous dominant- BB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homozygous recessive - bb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterozygote – two different alleles for a character (Bb) </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype – genetic makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype – appearance of an organism </li></ul>
  8. 10. Law of Segregation - the two alleles for each character segregate during gamete production
  9. 12. Law of Independent Assortment – Each set of alleles segregates independently
  10. 13. Test cross – designed to reveal the genotype of an organism
  11. 14. Mendelian Inheritance and Rules of Probability <ul><li>Rule of Multiplication – the probability that two events will occur simultaneously is the product of their individual probabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Probability that an egg from the F1 (Pp) will receive p = ½ </li></ul><ul><li>Probability that an sperm from the F1 (Pp) will receive p = ½ </li></ul><ul><li>Probability that a of offspring receiving two recessive alleles during fertilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ x ½ = ¼ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Rule Applies to dihybrid Crosses <ul><li>For a dihybrid cross, YyRr x YyRr, what is the probability of an F2 having the genotype YYRR? </li></ul><ul><li>Go page 267 and work #9 and #10 </li></ul>
  13. 16. Incomplete Dominance Page 267 and work #2
  14. 17. Codominance <ul><li>Two alleles affect the phenotype in separate and distinguishable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither allele can mask the other and both are expressed in the offspring and not in an “intermediate” form. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: red flowers that are crossed with white flowers that yield red and white flowers. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>1) In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous ( Rr ) offspring of red ( RR ) and white ( rr ) homozygotes. When two roan cattle are crossed, the phenotypes of the progeny are found to be in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white. Which of the following crosses could produce the highest percentage of roan cattle? </li></ul><ul><li>A) roan x roan </li></ul><ul><li>B) red x white </li></ul><ul><li>C) white x roan </li></ul><ul><li>D) red x roan </li></ul><ul><li>E) All of the above crosses would give the same percentage of roan. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Multiple Alleles Page 267 and work #6
  17. 20. Pleiotropy <ul><li>Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects. The ability of a gene to affect an organism in many ways is called pleiotropy. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Epistasis <ul><li>Epistasis occurs when a gene at one locus alters or influences the expression of a gene at a second loci. In this example, C is for color and the dominate allele must be present for pigment (color) to be expressed. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Polygenetic Inheritance <ul><li>Qualitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance. This occurs when there is an additive effect from two or more genes. Pigmentation in humans is controlled by at least three (3) separately inherited genes. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Environmental Impact on Phenotype pH of the soil will change the color of hydrangea flowers from blue to pink
  21. 24. Technology And Genetic testing Carrier Recognition Newborn screening <ul><li>Fetal testing </li></ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis </li></ul><ul><li>Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>Fetoscopy </li></ul>
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