KCKPS Science Course Syllabus


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KCKPS Science Course Syllabus

  1. 1. KCKPS Science Course Syllabus Biology (Note: This syllabus has been correlated to the current text Biology Principles and Explorations, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2001. The material fulfills the national, state and local standards.) Overarching Course-level Essential Question: • When do we know something in science? What is the evidence and how reliable is it? • What makes something alive? When and why is the definition important? • What is growth and “natural” development in living things? What factors most influence healthy growth and development in living things? • Why am I the way I am? • How can individuals help solve world problems? • What is wasteful and how do you know? Course Description: This course is a laboratory-oriented course designed to introduce students in grades ten through twelve to the diversity of living organisms, the scientific inquiry process and important concepts surrounding living things. The course is organized into two parts, principles and explorations. The principles covered are those of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and ecology. The exploration part includes the kingdoms of life, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, and human biology. Power Standards—State and Local Assessed Standards Addressed by this Course: Biology Standard 1 – Science as Inquiry Formulate research questions, conduct experimental investigations, analyze data, use appropriate technology, communicate results, defend conclusions, and propose further investigations. _.1.1 Biology Research Benchmark: Upon completion of Biology, all students will demonstrate the abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. _.1.1.1 Develop questions and formulate testable hypotheses based upon previous experience and knowledge. (Good hypotheses are predictions based on assumptions with conditions related to the developed question. For example; an “If ___ then ___ because ___” format is used.) _.1.1.3 Design an experimental procedure to test hypotheses and conduct scientific investigations. _.1.1.5 Analyze, summarize and communicate scientific findings using technology and mathematics. Use the SI system of measurement in the recording and interpretation of results. 1
  2. 2. Standard 2 – Physical Science Analyze (quantitatively and qualitatively) the structures, properties, forms, and patterns in matter and energy, predict changes and interactions, and evaluate theories and structures using knowledge of chemistry and physics. _.2.1 Students will understand the structures of the atom. 2.1.3 Understand that the nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons, which determine the mass of the atom. 2.1.4 Understand that the dense nucleus of an atom is in the center of an electron cloud and the electron cloud determines the size of the atom. _ 2.2 The students will understand the states and properties of matter. 2.2.2 Understand that elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number on the periodic table. 2.2.4 Understand that chemical bonds result when electrons are transferred or shared between atoms. Standard 3 – Life Science Analyze the characteristics, structure, and processes of living systems (e.g., molecular, cellular, organism, populations) and describe how living systems interact with each other and their environment. _.3.1 Students will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of the cell. _.3.1.1 Understand that cells are composed of a variety of specialized structures that carry out specific functions. _.3.1.3 Understand that cells function and replicate as a result of information stored in DNA and RNA molecules. _.3.2 Students will demonstrate an understanding of chromosomes, genes, and the molecular basis of heredity. _.3.2.1 Understand hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. Each gene carries a single unit of information. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. _.3.2.2 Understand experiments have shown that all known living organisms contain DNA or RNA as their genetic material. _.3.2.3 Understand DNA (or RNA) provides the instructions that specify the characteristics of organisms. 2
  3. 3. _.3.3 Students will understand the major concepts of the theory of biological evolution. _.3.3.2 Understand that biologists use evolution theory to explain the earth’s present day biodiversity—the number, variety and variability of organisms. _.3.3.4 Analyze the sources and value of variation. _.3.4 Students will understand the interdependence of organisms and their interaction with the physical environment. _.3.4.2 Analyze how organisms cooperate and compete in ecosystems. _.3.5 Students will develop an understanding of matter, energy, and organization in living systems. _.3.5.1 Know that ecosystems have energy flowing through them and that continual energy inputs are necessary to maintain living systems. _.3.5.2 Understand the sun is the primary source of energy for life through the process of photosynthesis. _.3.5.3 Understand food molecules contain energy. This energy is made available by cellular respiration. _.3.7 Students will demonstrate an understanding of structure, function, and diversity of organisms. _.3.7.3 Understand the basic biology, diversity, ecology, and human relationships of plants. _.3.7.4 Understand the basic biology, diversity, anatomy, ecology and medical effects of major animal groups. Content Outline: I) Principles A) Principles of Cell Biology 1) Biology and You 2) Cell Structure 3) Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 4) Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction B) Principles of Genetics 1) Mendel and Heredity 2) DNA: The Genetic Material C) Principles of Evolution 1) The Theory of Evolution D) Principles of Ecology 1) Populations 2) Ecosystems 3) Biological Communities II) Explorations A) Exploring Plants 3
  4. 4. 1) Introduction to Plants B) Exploring Invertebrates 1) Introduction to Animals C) Exploring Human Biology 1) The Body’s Defenses (supporting chapter) 2) Nervous System (supporting chapter) Suggested Local Assessment Prompts: All Prompts Listed at: http://kancrn.kckps.k12.ks.us./science/assessment/index.cfm Acid Rain (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the biology of acid rain. Beef Fat (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the fat content of beef Crickets (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the behavior of crickets. Enzyme Reactions (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the rate of reaction of enzymes. Hydroponics (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the growth of plants in hydroponics. Mice Maze (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the behavior of mice in mazes. Heart Rate (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the variables affecting heart rate Air Quality (Web version) / (MS Word Download version) – Inquiry into the quality of air during different seasons. .Other Ideas for Local Assessment Prompts: Population Simulation – Investigate variables affecting populations through a simulated game with predator – prey role playing. Outbreak! – Investigate the variables related to the spread of disease through a simulation. Pill Bugs – Investigate the behavior of pill bugs. (AKA Sowbugs or rolly pollys) Reaction – Investigate the reaction time of humans and the variables which affect reaction time. Photosynthesis – Investigate the variables which affect the rate of photosynthesis using Elodea plants. 4
  5. 5. Yeast Growth – Investigate the variables which affect the growth of yeast in test tubes. Unit one—Principles of Cell Biology Unit-level Essential Question: What are the basic principles of cell organization and cell energetics? Chapter-1 Essential Questions: How do you know if something is “living”? Why is learning biology important to you? How do biologist study living organisms? Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 1 Biology and you • Relate the seven properties of life to a living organism. • Describe seven themes that can help you organize what you learn about biology. • Identify the tiny structures that make up all living organisms. • Differentiate between reproduction and heredity and between metabolism and homeostasis. • Describe the stages common to scientific investigation. • Distinguish between forming a hypothesis and making a prediction • Differentiate a control group from an experimental group and an independent variable from a dependent variable. • Define the word theory as used by a scientist. 5
  6. 6. Concepts Resources Standards Addressed Seven themes that Biology 1:1.7.2 unify the Science of Principles Biology. and --Cellular structure and Exploration; function. Holt, --Reproduction Rinehart, and --Metabolism Winston. --Homeostasis Ch. 1.1, 1.2 --Heredity Active --Evolution reading --Interdependence technique: _ 6.2.1 Brainstormin _6.2.3 g, p. 5, Reading organizer, p.12 Directed reading worksheet. 1:1.7.1 Scientific process (Inquiry) (1-1,1-2) 1:1.7.2 --Question/problem Active Reading Guide 1:1.7.3 --Hypothesis (1-1,1-2) _ .3.7.1 --Literature review Audio CD _ 3.7.12 --Experimental design One-Stop _ 7.1.1 --Data Planner CD --Analysis http://go.hrw --Conclusion .com keyword HXO Chapter 1 www.scilinks .org keyword HX010 keyword HX015 Ch. 1.3 Active Reading Guide (1-3) Directed Reading worksheet (1-3) Experimental Design pg. 24 www.scilinks 6
  7. 7. Chapter 3 –Cell Structure Essential Questions: What is the relationship between structures and functions of a cell. • How do we know what cells look like? • How do cell types differ from one another? • How do the parts of a cell work together? Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 3 Cell Structure • Describe how scientists measure the length of objects. • Relate magnification and resolution in the use of microscopes. • Analyze how light microscopes function. • List the three parts of the cell theory. • Compare the structure of prokaryotic cells with that of eukaryotic cells. • Describe the structure of cell membranes. • Describe the role of the nucleus in cell activities. • Analyze the role of internal membranes in protein production. • Summarize the importance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. • Identify three structures in plant cells that are absent from animal cells. Concepts Resources Standards Addressed Microscopes Ch. 3.1 Metric System Active Reading, Technique: Other microscopes Anticipation Guide, p.49 Active Reading Guide (3-1) Directed Reading (3-1) Www.scilinks.org keyword HX052 Cell Theory Ch. 3.2 Prokaryotic cells Active Reading, Technique: _3.7.5 Eukaryotic cells Reading Organizers p.58 Cell membrane Active Reading Guide (3-2) Directed Reading (3-2) Www.scilinks.org keyword HX056 Math lab: Calculating surface area and volume, p.56 Lab A3—Modeling Cells: Surface area to volume. Lab C1—Using a 7
  8. 8. microscope. Lab E1—Cell size. Overheads --7 Eukaryotic Cell Structure: --9 Structure of Lipid Bilayer --5A Surface-Area-to Volume Ratio. Cell Organelles Ch. 3.3 _ 3.7.5 --nucleus Active Reading Guide (3-3) _ 3.7.7 --mitochondria Directed Reading Guide _ 3.7.8 --lysosomes (3-3) --plant cells Overheads: --animal cells --7 Eukaryotic cell 1:1.7.1 --120 Plant Cell Structure 1:1.7.2 www.scilinks.org 1:1.7.3 keyword HX062 1:1.7.4 Lab: Studying animal cells 1:1.7.5 and plant cells. p.70 _ .3.7.1 _ 3.7.12 _ 7.1.1 Chapter 5 – Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essential Question: How is energy harvested and used by cells to power metabolism? • Where do you get the energy your body’s cells need to function? • How do plants make their own food? • How do plants use the energy in food? Measurable Unit Objectives: • Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration. • Describe how ATP is made in the second stage of cellular respiration. • Identify the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration. • Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration. • Summarize how energy is captured from sunlight in the first stage of photosynthesis. • Analyze the function of electron transport chains in the second stage of photosynthesis. • Relate the Calvin cycle to carbon dioxide fixation in the third stage of photosynthesis. • Identify three environmental factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis. • Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration. 8
  9. 9. • Describe how ATP is made in the second stage of cellular respiration. • Indentify the role of fermentation in the second stage of cellular respiration. • Evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration. Concept Resources Standards Addressed 9
  10. 10. Energy from autotrophs Ch. 5.1 1:1.7.2 to heterotrophs Active Reading, Technique: 1:1.7.3 Photosynthesis and K-W-L, p 93 1:1.7.4 cellular respiration Active Reading Guide (5-1) 1:1.7.5 ATP Directed Reading (5-1) _ .3.7.1 Overhead _ 3.7.12 13 Energy flow through an _ 7.1.1 ecosystem Lab C7 Measuring the I._.3.7.8 release of energy from sucrose Tutor CD Videodiscs Audio CD Three stages of Ch. 5.2 photosynthesis Active Reading Guide (5-2) Pigments absorb energy Directed Reading (5-2) Electron transport chains Reading Strategies K-W-L _.3.7.8 Making of organic worksheet compounds by the Calvin Overhead cycle 11A Light energy to Variables that effect chemical energy photosynthesis 12 Photosynthesis 17 Mitochondria 18 Photosystems and electron transport 19 Calvin cycle Quick lab, p. 101 www.scilinks.org keyword HX099, HX103 _.3.7.11 Tutor CD _.3.7.12 Videodiscs _.3.7.14 Audio CD Two stages of cellular Ch. 5.3 respiration Active Reading, Technique: Krebs cycle Anticipation guide, p. 105 Aerobic respiration Active Reading Guide (5-3) Glycolysis Directed Reading (5-3) Fermentation Overhead 16 Cellular respiration 20 Photosynthesis— cellular respiration cycle 21 Glycolysis 22 Krebs cycle 23 Two pathways of 10
  11. 11. Chapter 6 – Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction Essential Question: How does the cell cycle work? • Where do cells get the information they need to function? • Are cancer and the cell cycle associated? • How is information passed to new cells that are about to divide? Measurable Unit Objectives: • Relate binary fission to cell division prokaryotes. • Differentiate between a gene, a DNA molecule, a chromosome and a chromatid. • Compare haploid and diploid cells. • Differentiate between homologous chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes. • Predict how changes in chromosome number or structure can affect development. • Identify the major events that characterize each of the five phases of the cell cycle. • Describe how the cell cycle is controlled in eukaryotic cells. • Differentiate between normal cells and cancer cells. • Describe the structure and function of the spindle during mitosis. • Summarize the four stages of mitosis. • Differentiate cytokinesis in animal and plant cells. Concept Resources Standard Addressed Cell division Ch. 6.1 _.3.7.7 Binary fission Active Reading, Technique: _.3.7.8 Chromosome formation Anticipation Guide, p. 117 Diploid Active Reading Guide (6-1) Haploid Directed Reading (6-1) Sex determination Reading Strategies, Karyotypes Compare/Contrast matrix Overhead Chromosome and DNA structure Quick lab, p. 124 www.scilinks.org keyword HX120 Tutor CD Videodiscs Audio CD Eukaryotic cell cycle Ch. 6.2, 6.3 11
  12. 12. Mitosis and cytokinesis Active Reading Guide (6-2, 6-3) Directed Reading (6-2, 6-3) Reading Strategies, Recognizing cycles, Series- of-events chain Overhead 24 Mitosis Math lab, p. 129 Quick lab, p. 132 Experimental Design, p. 1:1.7.2 136-137 1:1.7.3 Lab B5 Mitosis 1:1.7.4 www.scilinks.org 1:1.7.5 keyword HX127, HX137 _ .3.7.1 CNN Video Split Liver _ 3.7.12 Donor _ 7.1.1 Tutor CD Videodiscs Audio CD 12
  13. 13. Unit 2 Principles of Genetics Unit-level Essential Question: What are genes and how do they function? Chapter 8 Essential Question: • How are 8 million different gene combinations posssible from one cell that divides? • Why are some offspring identical to their parents, while others are not? Measurable Unit Objectives: II.Chapter 8 • Indentify the investigator whose studies formed the basis of modern genetics. • List four characteristics that make the garden pea a good subject for genetic study. • Summarize the three major steps of Gregor Mendels’s garden-pea experiments. • Relate the ratios that Mendel observed in his crosses. • Describe the four major hypotheses Mendel developed. • Relate Mendel’s work to the terms homozygous, heterozygous, genotype and phenotype. • Compare Mendel’s two laws of heredity. • Predict the results of monohybrid genetic crosses by using Punnett squares. • Apply a test cross to determine the genotype of an organism with a dominant phenotype. • Predict the results of monhybrid genetic crosses by using probabilities. • Analyze a simple pedigree. • Identify five factors that influence patterns of heredity. • Describe how mutations can cause genetic disorders. • List two genetic disorders, and describe their causes and symptoms. • Evaluate the benefits of genetic counseling. Concept Resources Standard Addressed Mendel and heredity Active Reading Technique: _3.2.7 --origin of genetics K-W-L p. 159, --Active Reading Guide (8-1) --Directed Reading (8-1) Overhead—25 Mendel’s --Mendel’s theory Experimental Design Active Reading Worksheet (8-2) Directed Reading Worksheet (8-2) --Studying heredity Overhead 29—Crossing homozygous pea plants, 30 —Crossing heterozygous pea plants. 13
  14. 14. Active Reading Guide (8-3) Directed Reading Guide --Patterns of heredity (8-) Overhead 31—Monohybrid crosses, 32—Dihybrid crosses. Active Reading Technique – K-W-L p.180 --Active Reading Guide (8-4) --Directed Reading Guide (8-4) Overhead 38—Tracking Inherited Traits (Family tree) 30A—Important genetic disorders www.scilink.com (genetic disorders) keyword— HX179, (genetic counseling) keyword— HX180, (cystic fibrosis) keyword—HX185 DNA: The Genetic Active Reading Technique: Material K-W-L p. 187, Paired --Identifying the genetic reading, p. 189 -3.2.1,3.2.2,3.2.3 material --Active reading guide (9-1) --Directed reading guide (9-1) --K-W-L worksheet Overhead Active Reading Guide (9-2) --Structure of DNA Directed Reading Guide _3.2.2,3.2.3 (9-2) Overhead --Replication of DNA Active Reading Technique: 3.2.2,3.2.3 K-W-L, p. 198 Active Reading Guide (9-3) Directed Reading Guide (9-3) Video—Bill Nye-DNA, 14
  15. 15. Ramsey-Double Helix www.scilink.com (DNA replication) keyword— HX198, (DNA) keyword— HX203 15
  16. 16. Unit 3 Principles of Evolution Unit-level Essential Question: Chapter 13 Essential Question: • Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 13 • . Concept Resources Standard Addressed A.Principles of Active Reading Technique: Evolution reader response logs, p. 275; The Theory of Evolution paired summarizing, p. 281 --Natural selection Active Reading Guide (13-1) 3.3.1,3.3.2,3.3.3 Directed Reading Guide (13-1) Overhead 44, 52 Active Reading Guide (13-2) --Evidence of evolution Directed Reading Guide 3.3.4,3.3.5 (13-2) Overhead 49,50, 44A --Examples of evolution Active Reading Guide (13-3) Directed Reading Guide 3.3.4,3.3.5 (13-3) 16
  17. 17. Unit 4 Principles of Ecology Unit-level Essential Question: Chapter 16 Essential Question: • Measurable Unit Objectives: 17
  18. 18. Chapter 16 18
  19. 19. Concept Resources Standard Addressed 19
  20. 20. B.Principles of Active Reading Technique: 3.4.2,3.4.3,6.2.1 Ecology anticipation guide, p. 339; Populations reading organizer, p. 344 --How populations grow Active Reading Guide (16-1) Directed Reading Guide (16-1) Reading strategies, compare/contrast matrix --How populations evolve Active Reading Guide (16-2) 6.2.2,6.2.3,3.3.3,3.3.4 Directed Reading Guide (16-2) Reading strategies – spider map Ch 17 Active Reading Technique: Ecosystems anticipation guide, p. 359 3.5.1—3.5.8 --What is an ecosystem? Active Reading Guide (17-1) Directed Reading Guide (17-1) Reading Strategies, one- minute quick write Overhead 70, 80, 82, 82 www.scilinks.com (biodiversity) --Energy flow in ecosystems keyword—HX361 3.5.1--3..5.8 Active Reading Guide (17-2) Directed Reading Guide (17-2) --Ecosystem cycle material Overhead 67, 69, 77, 85 3.5.1—3.5.8 www.scilinks.com (water cycle) keyword—HX371 Active Reading Technique: paired reading, p. 372 Active Reading Guide (17-3) Directed Reading Guide (17-3) Overhead 71, 72, 73 www.scilink.com (sustainable agriculture) keyword—HX374 20
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  22. 22. Unit 5 Biological Communities Unit-level Essential Question: Chapter 18 Essential Question: • Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 18 • Indentify the investigator whose studies formed the basis of modern genetics. Concept Resources Standard Addressed Biological Communities Active Reading Technique: 3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1 --how organisms interact brainstorming, p. 381 in Active Reading Guide (18-1) Directed Reading Guide (18-1) Active Reading Technique: --how competition shapes paired summarizing, p. 389 3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1 communities Active Reading Guide (18-2) Directed Reading Guide (18-2) Overhead 86, 87 www.scilink.com (symbiosis) keyword—HX386 (extinction) keyword—HX389 Active Reading Guide (18-3) -major Directed Reading Guide biological (18-3) 3.4.2,3.4.3,3.5.5,3.6.1 communitie www.scilink.com (biomes) s keyword—HX392, (estuaries) keyword—HX397, (adaptation) keyword— - HX403 22
  23. 23. Unit 6 Exploring Plants Unit-level Essential Question: Chapter 24 Essential Question: • Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 24 • . Concept Resources Standard Addressed C.Explorations Active Reading Technique: Exploring Plants reading organizer, p. 519 Introduction to plants Active reading guide (24-1) --Adaptation of plants Directed reading guide (24-1) Chlorophyll A & B lab 3.7.3,3.3.2,3.3.3 www.apbiology.com Plant growth, www.apbiology.com Osmosis lab—www.kckps.org (resources HS science) Overhead 121, 113A, 114A --Kinds of plants Active Reading Guide (24-2) 3.7.3 Directed Reading Guide (24-2) Overhead 115A, 133 --Plants in our lives Active Reading Technique: 3.7.3,3.5.7,3.4.2 anticipation guide, p. 535; reading organizer p. 539 Active Reading Guide (24-3) Directed Reading Guide (24-3) Overhead 112, 113, 114, 112A 23
  24. 24. Unit 7 Exploring Invertebrates Unit-level Essential Question: Chapter 28.1 Essential Question: • Measurable Unit Objectives: Chapter 28.1 • . Concept Resources Standard Addressed Exploring Invertebrates Active Reading Technique: 3.7.4 Introduction to Animals reading organizer, p. 611, 614 --Animals –Features and body Active Reading Guide (28-1) plans Directed Reading Guide (28-1) Overhead 134, 135, 137A Itwhitepages.com—octopus lab apbiology.com—earthworm digestion lab dicotomous keys—computer program --Animal body system 3.7.4 Active Reading Guide (28-2) Directed Reading Guide (28-2) Exploring Human Biology Video -- Incredible Human Body – Aids Lab—contact Harman H.S. 24