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  • 2. Genetics
    • The study of heredity
    • The study of how differences between individuals are transmitted from one generation to the next
    • The study of how information in the genes is used in the development and functioning of the adult organism
  • 3. Gene products are studied in vivo through the genes that encode them Gene products are purified and studied in vitro Genetic analysis tells you that the product has a role in the process It doesn’t tell you how direct the role is Biochemistry tells you what a protein can do in vitro It doesn’t tell you whether it really does it in vivo Genetics Biochemistry
  • 4. Three Major Areas of Genetics Quantitative Genetics Genom Mendel’s Principles DNA cloning Control of gene expression Cytogenetics Translation Chromosomal mapping Speciation Transcription Sex linkage Evolution Chemistry of DNA Sex determination Population Genetics DNA structure Meiosis + mitosis Evolutionary Genetics Molecular Genetics Classical Genetics (Transmission)
  • 5. Major Subdisciplines of Genetics
    • Transmission Genetics: focuses on the transmission of genes and chromosomes in individuals from generation to generation.
    • Molecular Genetics: focuses on the structure and function of genes at the molecular level.
    • Population Genetics: focuses on heredity in groups of individuals for traits determined by one or only a few genes.
    • Quantitative Genetics: focuses on heredity in groups of individuals for traits determined by many genes simultaneously.
  • 6. Molecular Genetics ? Understanding the molecular basis of biological processes through studies on the gene Study of gene structure, function and regulation – below the organism level Study of genes and how they are expressed The Molecular Basis of Genetics Molecular Biology? Study of molecules in cells
  • 7. The Molecular Basis of Genetics ?
  • 8. The Molecular Basis of Genetics ?
  • 9. Genome The Molecular Basis of Genetics ? RNA Polypeptides Genes, regulatory sequences Others?
  • 10. The Molecular Basis of Genetics ?
    • Genome
    • Chromosome
    • DNA/RNA
    • Nucleic Acid
    • Protein
    • Amino Acid
  • 11. The Molecular Basis of Genetics ?
    • Genome
    • Total genetic information carried by a single set of chromosome in a haploid nucleus
    • Chromosome
    • A DNA – histone protein thread, usually associated with RNA, occurring in the nucleus of a cell
    • Chromosomes contain hundreds of genes encoded within their DNA.
    • Nucleic Acid
    • Nucleotide polymers which high molecular mass, produced by living cell
    • and found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm
    • DNA
    • Double stranded form of genetic material of organisms
  • 12. The Molecular Basis of Genetics ?
    • RNA
    • Single stranded form of genetic material of organisms result of the DNA
    • transcription
    • Nucleotide
    • Unit structure of nucleic acid
    • Protein
    • a polymer that has a high relative molecular mass of amino acids
    • Polypeptide
    • a linear polymer that consists of ten or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds
    • Amino Acid
    • An organic compound containing an acidic carboxyl group and a basic amino group
    • Genome
    • Genetic Material (DNA & RNA)
    • DNA structure
    • Chemistry of DNA
    • Transcription and translation
    • Control of gene expression
    • Molecular tool
    • DNA cloning
  • 14. Grading system
    • Grade : 0 – 100
    • A > 80
    • B – D -> 45 – 80 (Normal distribution)
    • E < 45
    Grade composition 30 : Mid-term 40 : Final Exam 30 : Home work