GENETICS <ul><li>Study of how characteristics are pass along through inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>Genome </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic units of heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) </l...
<ul><li>Gregor Mendal (1823-1884) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective breeding – pea plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alleles </l...
<ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual genetic makeup determined at time of conception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pheno...
<ul><li>Why are you so different than your siblings? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Behavioral genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How genes and environment interact to influence behavior </li></ul></ul>...
 
 
<ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations among a population (differences in certain traits, eg. height) ascri...
DEVELOPMENT OF SEX AND GENDER <ul><li>Genetic sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XX or XY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphological (str...
<ul><li>GENDER ROLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some expected behavior for men and women in our culture? </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>SEX DIFFERENCES IN GENDER ROLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity dif...
<ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more active and physically assertive than females </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Girls are still aggressive, but less physically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational aggression </li></ul...
<ul><li>Patterns of Intellectual Aptitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and men do better on spatial and math </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Testosterone and spatial abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of testosterone show impairment in visuospatia...
<ul><li>Culture and Cognitive Abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalize...
<ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By age three, most kids can report who is male and female and identify their...
<ul><li>Intersexuality and sex reassignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersexuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children who...
<ul><li>The Effects of Reassignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The case of “John” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological factors...
GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT THEORIES <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Gender schema theory </li></ul>
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY <ul><li>People learn behaviors mainly through observation and mental processing of information </li...
GENDER SCHEMA THEORY <ul><li>Combines aspects of social learning theory and the cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
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GENETICS Study of how characteristics are pass along through ...

  1. 2. GENETICS <ul><li>Study of how characteristics are pass along through inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>Genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside each cell, the master blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures within the cell made up of genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have of each pair coming from each parent </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic units of heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double helix – two intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of these molecules represent instructions on how to build certain proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segment of DNA, a blueprint for making a certain protein. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Gregor Mendal (1823-1884) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective breeding – pea plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alleles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two versions of a gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in offspring whenever present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual genetic makeup determined at time of conception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observable physical characteristics of an organism due to genes and environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polygenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics influenced by more than one gene </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Why are you so different than your siblings? </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Behavioral genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How genes and environment interact to influence behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monozygotic twins (identical twins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizygotic twins (fraternal twins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same wombmates but dissimilar genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adoption studies </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins raised together or raised apart </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations among a population (differences in certain traits, eg. height) ascribed (due to) genes or heredity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by a number from 1 to 0. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if for a given population the characteristic of height is given a score of .60, then 60% of all of the height differences is due to genes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue curling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number is called a heritability coefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic variance/total variance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must take the environment into serious consideration </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. DEVELOPMENT OF SEX AND GENDER <ul><li>Genetic sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XX or XY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphological (structural) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing genitals, internal as well as external </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior patterns that a given culture deems appropriate for each sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner sense that we are male or female </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>GENDER ROLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some expected behavior for men and women in our culture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“gender belief system” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents treat their children differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play with “Joey” or “Janie” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violations by children are frowned upon </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>SEX DIFFERENCES IN GENDER ROLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain differences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more active and physically assertive than females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even in utero </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continues into adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cultural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature predisposes boys and nurture magnifies it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><ul><li>Girls are still aggressive, but less physically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altering social alliances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Patterns of Intellectual Aptitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and men do better on spatial and math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls do better on many verbal tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top 10% kids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature or nurture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some credence to suggest nurture but </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain differences in regions of verbal and visuospatial task. What accounts for this? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Testosterone and spatial abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of testosterone show impairment in visuospatial skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects girls too! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal tumors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstrual cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Culture and Cognitive Abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalized by women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test results </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By age three, most kids can report who is male and female and identify their own sex but… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschoolers determine sex by hair length more than genitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender constancy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Intersexuality and sex reassignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersexuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children who are clearly not either male or female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% of live births </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True hermphroditism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functioning reproductive tissue from both sexes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudohermaphroditism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One in two-thousand births </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External genitals, sometimes internal, anatomically ambiguous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous genitalia and sex reassignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five a year in the United States </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ When in doubt, make it a female.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>The Effects of Reassignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The case of “John” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological factors can have an influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgenized girls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Guevedoces Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare genetic disorder in three rural villages of the Dominican republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During fetal stage unaffected by androgens </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT THEORIES <ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Gender schema theory </li></ul>
  20. 23. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY <ul><li>People learn behaviors mainly through observation and mental processing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and newborn children </li></ul><ul><li>Role of peers </li></ul>
  21. 24. GENDER SCHEMA THEORY <ul><li>Combines aspects of social learning theory and the cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive structures that assimilate and organize information about women and men. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender schematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender aschematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender schemas develop early </li></ul></ul>

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