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Genetics Lesson Module


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  • 1. Genetics Lesson Module Introduction: Modern technology is changing the way we look at genetics by: increasing our knowledge of the human genome, new tests for genetic disorders, and giving us new tools to solve crimes. Everyday the field of genetics is growing as scientists find new and novel ways of applying the methods and technology that modern molecular genetics has given us. Grade Levels: 6-9 Standards and Benchmarks: Lesson Plan 1- Introduction to DNA- Function and Structure (Standard 2.4, 3.1, 3.2) Lesson Plan 2- Homozygous and Heterozygous Traits- Create-a-Kid or Create-a-Monster Activities Lesson Plan 3- Human Genetics- Looking at your own traits Lesson Plan 4- DNA Mutations- Become a Genetic Counselor Lesson Plan 5- Karyotyping Scavenger Hunt Lesson Plan 6- Wyoming CSI- The Case of the Crown Jewels Overall Objectives: A. Appreciation of the technology used to study genetics B. Awareness of genetic disorders C. Understanding of homozygous and heterozygous traits D. Understanding what a karyotype is E. Appreciation of DNA testing and its use to solve crimes Expectations of prior knowledge: Cell structure and function Estimated Time: 5-6 class periods 1
  • 2. Standards Covered by this Lesson Module Standard 1.2- Levels of Organization in Living Systems: Students model the cell as the basic unit of a living system. They realize that all functions that sustain life act within a single cell and cells differentiate into specialized cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. 1Standard 2.1- Students research scientific information and present findings through appropriate means. 2 Standard 2.2- Students use inquiry to conduct scientific investigations. Ask questions that lead to conducting an investigation Collect, organize, and analyze and appropriately represent data. Draw conclusions based on evidence and make connections to applied scientific concepts. Clearly and accurately communicate the result of the investigation. Standard 2.3- Students clearly and accurately communicate the result of their own work, as well as information obtained from other sources. Standard 2.4- Students recognize the relationship between science and technology in meeting human needs. 1Standard 3.1- Students explore the nature and history of science. A. Students explore how scientific knowledge changes and grows over time, and impacts personal and social decisions. B. Students explore the historical use of scientific information to make personal and social decisions. Standard 3.2-Students explore how scientific information is used to make decisions. A. The role of science in solving personal, local, and national problems B. Interdisciplinary connections of the sciences and connections to other subject areas and careers in science or technical fields C. Origins and conservation of natural resources, including Wyoming examples 2
  • 3. Lesson Plan 1: DNA- Function and Structure Objectives: The students will be able to describe DNA and have an introduction to the study of genetics. Materials and Preparation: Reading materials and worksheets, pen or pencil Reading material: From the Blueprint to You (NIH Publication 12 pages), companion worksheet for the reading activity, and activity worksheet (What’s your DNA alias?) Background Information: Reading materials: From the Blueprint to You (NIH Publication 12 pages) is a reading assignment that is a brief guide to genetics and current research in this field. This activity covers a great deal of information and the teacher should feel free to pick passages from the reading assignment that are age appropriate for their class. Detailed Description of the Activities: Activity 1: Teachers can either read From the Blueprint to You to the students or break the students into groups to read the article. The students can each read a paragraph aloud to their groups. While they are reading they will complete Activity 1:From the Blueprint to You Worksheet. Activity 1 will be assessed by completing the companion worksheet for the reading activity. Activity 2: Then the students will work on the ‘What’s Your DNA Alias?’ worksheet. The teacher will have the students write their DNA alias on the board. The students will then compare their DNA alias to the rest of the class. Attention Getting Questions for Students: What makes you different from everyone else? Does anyone in the class share a common characteristic with you, such as hair or eye color? How much of our visual appearance is dependent on our DNA? Further discussion questions: If you could be tested for a gene that caused a serious disease (like one that causes Alzheimer’s) would you want to be tested? What are the implications to your health, family, and insurance if you test positive for a disease gene? How similar is your alias to the rest of the class? Does anyone in the class have the same exact alias? 3
  • 4. Lesson Plan 2: Homozygous and Heterozygous Traits- Create-a-Kid or Create-a- Monster Activities Objectives: Students will learn the difference between a homozygous and heterozygous trait. Students will understand alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes. Materials and Preparation: Worksheet (Create-a-Kid or Create-a-Monster), pencil or pen, markers/color pencils, and two pennies per student Background Information: Definitions of key words (from The Penguin Dictionary of Biology, 10th edition): Allele-different sequences of genetic information occupying the same gene locus. Genotype-genetic constitution of a cell or individual, as distinct from its phenotype Phenotype-total appearance of an organism, determined by interaction during development between its genotype and environment Homozygous-any locus in a diploid cell, organism, ect, is said to be homozygous when the two alleles at that locus are identical. (For example AA or aa) Heterozygous-designating a locus, or organisms, at which the two representatives (alleles) in any diploid cell are different. (For example Aa) Locus-position on a homologous chromosomes occupied, normally throughout a species population, by those genes which determine the state of a particular phenotypic character. Dominate trait- a trait that is completely dominate to another when it is expressed equally in the homozygous or heterozygous conditions. (For example Aa or AA) Recessive trait- only expressed when the genes determining them are homozygous. (For example aa) Description of the Activities: Activity: The teacher will choose to have the students do the Create-a-Kid or Create-a- Monster activity. Students will simulate the inheritance of alleles for physical traits and use those traits to create either a human face or a monster. Extension Ideas: Discussion questions for the students. Do any of the faces look the same? If they do not, what features are different? Do any of the monsters look the same? On the other hand, are they all different? Determine which of the traits for your kid or monster are dominate and which traits are recessive. 4
  • 5. Lesson Plan 3: Human Genetics- Looking at Your Own Traits Objectives: The students will learn about human traits. They will learn about dominate and recessive traits. The students will also learn about population genetics. Materials and Preparation: Students will read ‘It’s all in the genes’ and then complete a human genetics survey on their own traits. P.T.C. paper is needed for the genetics survey. Background Information: See lesson two for the definition of dominate and recessive traits. Description of the Activities: The students will read, “It’s all in the Genes” from Human Genetics, Concepts and Applications, 2nd edition, Ricki Lewis. They will then complete their own human genetics survey. Modified from: Once the students have completed their survey the teacher will go down the list of traits and have the students raise their hands if they have a particular trait. The students will then determine the percentage of students in the class who had a particular trait. Attention Getting Questions for Students: How alike are we? How different are we from each other? Are there traits that everyone shares? If so, can you name them? Extension Ideas: Discussion questions for the students. For each trait determine the percentage of students who had that trait. What other traits could be added to the trait list? Determine the class numbers who have the trait that you have described. Compare your class results to all of the other students who are taking the science class. Determine if the percentage of students with a particular trait change between classes. 5
  • 6. Lesson Plan 4: DNA Mutations- Become a Genetic Counselor Objectives: The students will become familiar with various genetic conditions. Materials and Preparation: Worksheet (Lesson 2 Mini Symposium Worksheet), access to internet or library Mini reading assignments from Human Genetics, Concepts and Applications, Second Edition, Ricki Lewis, Genetics Symposium worksheet (Modified from RosieMcKinney/index.html ) Background Information: For this lesson, students will complete four mini reading assignments that will expose them to a variety of genetic concepts. They will also participate in a mini-symposium on genetic disorders. Description of the Activities: Activity 1: The students will be put into groups (or asked to work alone) and given the mini-reading assignments. They will be asked to discuss and answer a series of questions about each reading activity. After each group has discussed the mini-readings, the teacher should lead the class in a discussion of the answers the students have to the mini- readings. Activity 2: Then each student or group of students will be assigned a genetic condition to research (modified from RosieMcKinney/index.html.) The teacher either assign the condition to each student or have the students pick the condition they want to work on. They will have to give a brief 3-5 minute oral presentation about their genetic condition. Finally, each student will write a brief report about his or her genetic condition. Attention Getting Questions for Students: We have discussed how genes affect our physical traits. What happens when our genes give us traits that cause disease? Extension Ideas: Discussion questions for the students. Mini-reading assignments- “Dogs and Cats”- Do you think that artificial selection has helped, or hurt dogs and cats? “Curious Fragile X Syndrome”- What kind of features does a Fragile X person have? “Colorblindness”- What kind of colorblindness did John Dalton have? Do you know anyone who is color blind? What would a person who is color blind have to overcome to function in our society? “The Sun is a Monster”- How will Katie’s disorder affect the rest of her life? What precautions will she have to take? 6
  • 7. Lesson Plan 5: Karyotyping Scavenger Hunt Objectives: Students will learn about karyotyping and diseases that are caused by abnormal karyotypes. Materials and Preparation: Worksheets (Karyotype worksheet and Student Karyotyping), pencil/pen, access to library/internet Background Information: Definitions and background information sheets for teachers to use. Description of the Activities: Activity: The teacher will go over the human karyotype presentation with the students. The students will learn the key terms for karyotypes. The presentation will also show the students the karyotypes of a normal male and female. Then the students will see karyotypes from people who have various karyotype abnormalities. By the end of the presentation the students should be able to identify an abnormal karyotype. Then the students will be asked to complete a scavenger hunt activity on karyotyping. This activity will be assessed on the completeness of the students scavenger hunt. Attention Getting Ideas for Students: How is DNA stored? How many chromosomes does a human have? What is the difference between male and female chromosomes? Extension Ideas: Discussion Questions for the students What does the female karyotype look like? What does the male karyotype look like? Do you think that karyotyping is an important technology to identify genetic problems? What medical problems would individuals with these karyotypes face? Can you find the karyotypes for animals other than humans (such as dogs, cats, and horses)? How are they different from human karyotypes? 7
  • 8. Lesson Plan 6:CSI Wyoming- The case of the Crown Jewels Objectives: • Identify a need for DNA restriction analysis • Model the concept of DNA restriction analysis • Apply DNA restriction analysis to the identification of DNA fragments • Work cooperatively to analyze the results of the DNA restriction analysis Materials and Preparation: Adapted for middle school students from: See the Case of the Crown Jewels Background worksheet for teachers. Materials needed: Five scissors Five sets of envelopes labeled Suspect #1, Suspect #2, Suspect #3, Suspect #4, and Crime Scene DNA Instructions for each envelope (labeled DNA Instructions) Five rolls of tape Five poster-size charts as shown on the DNA Instructions sheet Background Information: See the Case of the Crown Jewels Background worksheet for teachers. Description of the Activities: Students will follow the instructions for the Case of the Crown Jewels activity to determine which of four suspects stole the jewels. Attention Getting Questions for Students: How many of you watch CSI? Today you will be the forensic expert and solve a crime. Extension Ideas: Have the students find article in the new paper where they use DNA to solve a crime. Discussion questions: This process is often referred to as DNA fingerprinting. Why do you think this term is used? Why use DNA as evidence? What purpose do restriction enzymes serve? Does a match of the suspect DNA fragments with the crime DNA fragments mean the suspect is guilty? Why or why not? 8
  • 9. Extension Activities 1. Genetic Timeline- Teachers can select from the genetic timeline events that are covered in the lesson plan to create a time line around their classroom. This activity will help the students realized that the scientific process takes years and is not accomplished over night. This activity could also be done by asking to students to create their own timeline of major events in the study of genetics. Website for Genetic Timeline: 2. Bikini Bottom Genetics- These worksheets are included in the module are a review for the students of genetic terminology and calculations. Website for Bikini Bottom Genetics: 4. Isolating DNA- See worksheets at end of lesson module. 5. Running a Gel- See worksheets at end of lesson module. 6. Haplotype Testing- Ancestor testing of the students so that they can learn about current technology used in molecular biology. Individual students will not receive their own results, instead the class will learn the percentages of students who’s ancestors came from a given area. 9
  • 10. Additional Background Information and Resources Additional background information: Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society, The Human Genome Project and Beyond, U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs: Unit Handouts: Lesson 1- Blueprint to you reading activity and worksheet What’s your DNA alias? Worksheet Lesson 2-Create-a-Kid or Create-a-Monster worksheets Lesson 3- “It’s all in the Genes” from Human Genetics, Concepts and Applications, 2nd Ricki Lewis, Human Genetics Survey worksheet, modified from: Lesson 4- Mini reading assignments from Human Genetics, Concepts and Applications, Second Edition, Ricki Lewis, Genetics Symposium worksheet (Modified from RosieMcKinney/index.html ) Lesson 5- Karyotyping definitions worksheet and presentation for teachers, Karyotyping scavenger hunt worksheet for students. Lesson 6- Case of the Crown Jewels Background worksheet for teachers adapted from: Definitions for key words: The Penguin Dictionary of Biology, 10th edition 10
  • 12. Name: Activity 1: From the Blueprint to You Worksheet What does DNA stand for? Draw a picture of DNA. What is a Genome? Between two humans how identical, is their DNA? How much variation allows for millions of possible differences? What are Proteins? Name the four nucleotide “bases” that make up DNA: What nucleotide is substituted for URACIL in mRNA? How many amino acids are there? Draw a picture of how proteins are made. Then describe the process in your own words. 12
  • 13. What is the Human Genome Project? How long did it take to sequence the entire human genome? Define the following and use each of these words in a sentence: Codon: Gene: mRNA: Protein: Ribosome: Transcription: Translation: tRNA: 13
  • 14. Create-A-Kid Teacher: Joan E. Bennett Subject: Human Diversity Grade Level(s): 7 8 9 10 Target Audience: Biology I, Life Science Materials Needed: white paper, colored pencils, markers Class Time: 45 minutes Brief Summary: Students flip a pair of coins to determine what genotype and what phenotype their child will have for 29 given traits. They then draw a picture of their kid based on their coin flip phenotypes. Student Objective(s): Students will learn the difference between a genotype and a phenotype. They will demonstrate that recombination of gametes (coins) will result in the formation of unique individuals. Integration (tying it all together): Discussion Questions: 1.) Does your child resemble anyone else's in class? Why or why not? 2.) Can you think of instances in your family or a friend where the offspring look very different from the parents? 3.) What do you think would happen to the variety of children if we made one parent homozygous dominant (or recessive) for all the traits? Description of Activities: 1.) Give each student a worksheet, a packet containing the 29 trait descriptions, and a piece of white paper. 2.) Help them determine the sex of their child by having them flip their 2 coins. A head/tail combination will represent a female and a head/tail combination will represent a male. 3.) Then demonstrate the first flip for face shape and show them how to draw that on their paper to begin creating their kid. 4.) Have them work in groups of two as they work through the 29 flips to create their child. 5.) Hang the finished pictures and discuss what this lab has shown them. Further Information and References: This lab was created by Barb Salvo from materials I obtained from a biotechnology workshop at University of Wisconsin, River Falls, WI 14
  • 15. Monster Lab Purpose To simulate the inheritance of alleles for physical traits and to combine those traits to create a monster Procedure 1. Make a table with the following columns: Trait Allele (mom) Allele (dad) Genotype Phenotype 2. Flip a coin to determine your person’s traits: Heads will be the dominate allele (Y, P ect) Tails will be the recessive allele (y,p ect) a. You need to flip the coin once for the mom’s allele and once for the dad’s allele because every genotype must have 2 alleles (1 from mom and 1 from dad) b. The phenotypes are determined by the genotype and are given with each trait as you go along 3. When you have finished filling out your table and determining all of your monsters traits, draw your monster. On the back of the paper, write your monster’s name, their likes and dislikes, and why you are proud of them. 4. Staple your Trait Table to your picture and hand them in. 5. Compare your monster to the rest of the classes. How similar is your monster to the rest of the class? Are any of the monsters exactly alike? 15
  • 16. Trait Table 1. Face Round = RR Oval = Rr Square = rr 2. Body Round = RR Oval = Rr Square = rr 3. Number of Arms Two- AA Four- Aa Six- aa 4. Number of Legs Two-AA Four- Aa Six- aa 5. Hair Type Curly = CC Wavy = Cc Straight = cc 6. Widow’s Peak Present = WW or Ww Absent = ww 16
  • 17. 7. Eyebrow Thickness Bushy = BB or Bb Fine = bb 8. Eyebrow Placement Not Connected = NN or Nn Connected = nn 9. Eye Color- You must flip the coin twice for mom and twice for dad. There are two sets of genes for eye color. The first pair is represented by the letter A and the second pair is represented by the letter B. Each parent contributes an A or a allele, and a B or b allele. AABB = Green AAbb = Purple AABb = Green Blue aaBB = Grey AaBB = Blue Aabb = Black AaBb = Red aabb = Orange aaBb = Pink 10. Eyes-Distance Apart Close together = EE Average Distance = Ee Far Apart =ee 11. Eyes- Size Large = LL Medium = Ll Small = ll 12. Eyes- Shape Almond = AA or Aa Round = aa 17
  • 18. 13. Eyelashes Long = LL or Ll Short = ll 14. Mouth Size Long = MM Average = Mm Short = mm 15. Lips Thick = TT or Tt Thin = tt 16. Nose Size Big = NN Medium = Nn Small = nn 17. Nose Shape Rounded = RR or Rr Pointed = rr 18
  • 19. 18. Hair Color-You must flip the coin twice for mom and twice for dad. There are 2 sets for hair color. The first pair is represented by the letter A and the second pair is represented by the letter B. Each parent contributes an A or a allele, and a B or b allele. AABB = Black AaBb = Slime Green AABb = Silver Aabb = Neon Green AAbb =Hot Pink aaBB = Dark Purple AaBB = Purple aaBb = Dark Green aabb = Blood Red 19. Has a Tail Tail- TT No Tail- Tt or tt 20. Horns One- HH Two- Hh Three – hh 19
  • 20. Allele Allele Trait (Mom) (Dad) Genotype Phenotype 1 Face Shape 2 Chin Shape 3 Hair Type 4 Widow's Peak 5 Eyebrow Thickness 6 Eyebrow Placement 7 Eye Color 8 Eyes-Distance Apart 9 Eyes-Size 10 Eyes-Shape 11 Eyelashes 12 Mouth Size 13 Lips 14 Dimples 15 Nose Size 16 Nose Shape 17 Earlobe Attachment 18 Hairy Ears 19 Freckles 20 Hair Color Trait Table for the Face Lab 20
  • 21. Allele Allele Trait (Mom) (Dad) Genotype Phenotype 1 Face Shape 2 Body 3 Number of Arms 4 Number of Legs 5 Hair Type 6 Widow's Peak 7 Eyebrow Thickness 8 Eyebrow Placement 9 Eye Color 10 Eyes-Distance Apart 11 Eyes-Size 12 Eyes-Shape 13 Eyelashes 14 Mouth Size 15 Lips 16 Nose Size 17 Nose Shape 18 Hair Color 19 Has a Tail 20 Horns Trait Table for the Monster Lab 21
  • 22. Human Genetics Trait Description Check the Total number traits that of students in you have your class who have this trait Tongue rolling Bent little fingers Widow’s peak Hitchhiker’s Thumb Hand clasping, left over right thumb Arm folding fold your arms across your chest/stomach…which one is on top? Free earlobe Chin cleft Hair on middle joints of fingers Short big toe Ear points Round face Curly hair P.T.C Taster Eye Color (blue?) From: Ass essment: Students will be assessed on their symposium presentation (3-5 minutes) and a written report about their assigned genetic disorder. So they will get two separate grades. 22
  • 23. How will this activity be graded? You will receive a letter grade from A to F. The following factors will be used to determine the grade: 1. Accuracy - How accurate was your presentation? Did you give any misinformation? Did you appear to know the information well? Did you answer questions accurately? Did you make the effort to insure that all terms were pronounced correctly? 2. Following directions - Did you stick to the time limits? Did you make your note card and use it properly? Did you include all the required information? 3. Delivery - Did you speak loudly and clearly? Were you too fast or too slow? Did you appear confident and poised? Did you have proper eye contact with the class? Were you enthusiastic? Did you avoid silliness? 4. Written Report- Did you summarize the information that you presented to the class? Is your report clearly written with an introduction, three main points, and a conclusion? 23
  • 24. Mini-Symposium Worksheet Background Information Name of genetic disorder: Other names for your genetic disorder: How is your genetic disorder inherited? What does a pedigree chart look like for someone affected by the disorder? Is the disorder found mostly in women or men? Is the disorder found in a specific ethnic or religious group? Description of Disorder How does your genetic disorder affect the victim? What is it like to have the disorder? What problems are associated with the disorder? Is the disorder life threatening? Is the disorder fatal for the person who has it? Detection Can anything be done for a person with the disorder? How is the disorder detected? Is there a genetic test? What are the treatments for the disorder? YOUR DISORDER WILL BE SELECTED FROM THE LIST BELOW 1. Sickle-Cell Anemia 2. Breast cancer 3. Thalassemia 4. Edward's Syndrome/Patau's Syndrome 5. Turner's Syndrome 6. Polycystic kidney disease 7. Klinefelter's Syndrome 8. G6PD (Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) Deficiency 9. Cooley's anemia 10. Gaucher's disease 11. Hemophilia 12. albinism 13. Familial Hypercholesterolemia 14. diabetes mellitus 15. Neurofibromatosis 16. diabetes insipidus 17. Marfan Syndrome 18. fragile X syndrome 19. Phenylketonuria 20. Parkinson's disease 24
  • 25. 21. Cystic Fibrosis 22. Alzheimers 23. Tay Sachs Disease 24. colorblindness 25. Down Syndrome 26. epidermolysis 27. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 28. alcoholism 29. Huntington's Disease 30. Burkitt lymphoma 31. Cri-du-chat Syndrome 32. Pituitary dwarfism syndrome 33. Galactosemia 34. Immune deficiency diseases (Boy in the bubble) 35. left Lip/Palate 36. Polydactyl 37. Osteogenesis Imperfecta 38. Sensorineural deafness 25
  • 26. 50 points Accuracy _/20 How accurate was the presentation? _/10 Did the student give misinformation? _/10 Did the student appear to know the information well? _/10 Did the student answer questions correctly? _/10 Were difficult words pronounced correctly? 25 points Following Directions _/10 Was the presentation within the time limit? _/5 Was a note card used? _/10 Did the student include all required information? 25 points Delivery _/10 Did the student speak loudly and clearly? _/5 Did the student make eye contact with the class _/5 Was the student enthusiastic? _/5 Did the student avoid silliness? 50 points Written Report Did the student summarize the information presented in _/20 class? Did the students report include: _/10 Introduction _/10 three main points _/10 conclusion Total points: Comments: 26