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Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
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Genetics

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  1. Basic Genetics Biology
  2. Gregor Mendel <ul><li>Austrian Monk </li></ul><ul><li>Studied pea plants </li></ul><ul><li>“Father of Genetics” </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed that plant characteristics occurred in two forms ex. Tall or short stems. </li></ul><ul><li>Performed crosses by taking pollen from one plant and putting it on the female part of a different plant. </li></ul>
  3.  
  4. Mendel’s Experiment <ul><li>He crossed a round and wrinkled peas </li></ul><ul><li>Results: All round offspring </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to the wrinkled trait? </li></ul><ul><li>He crossed the round offspring to get the next generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: 75% round, 25% wrinkled </li></ul>
  5. Law of Dominance <ul><li>An organism inherits two alleles for a trait (one from mom and one from dad) </li></ul><ul><li>One allele may hide the expression of the other: It is DOMINANT </li></ul><ul><li>The allele that is hidden is RECESSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>R=round (dominant) </li></ul><ul><li>r=wrinkled (recessive) </li></ul>
  6. Law of Segregation <ul><li>During gamete formation (meiosis) the pair of genes separates, so each gamete only has one allele for a trait. </li></ul>RR Round pea R R Sperm cells meiosis
  7. Vocab Review <ul><li>Phenotype - physical appearance of a trait Ex: widow’s peak, attached earlobes </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype - pair of alleles inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygous-two alleles are the same </li></ul><ul><li>RR or rr </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous-two alleles are different </li></ul><ul><li>Rr </li></ul>
  8. Punnett Square <ul><li>Tool used to PREDICT the outcome of a genetic cross. (hypothesis) </li></ul>Possible eggs Possible sperm Possible offspring
  9. Steps to follow to solve genetics problems <ul><li>Make a key for ALL the possible genotypes and phenotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out the parent’s genotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out the kinds of gametes each parent can make </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and fill in the Punnett Square </li></ul>
  10. Steps to follow to solve genetics problems (continued) <ul><li>5. List the genotypic ratios of the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>6. List the phenotypic ratios of the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>*these ratios can be fractions or percents </li></ul>
  11. Example Problem <ul><li>Mendel crossed a homozygous round and a wrinkled pea plant. Round is dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RR = round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rr = round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rr = wrinkled </li></ul></ul>
  12. <ul><li>2. Parent’s genotypes </li></ul><ul><li>RR and rr </li></ul><ul><li>3. Possible gametes </li></ul>R R r r
  13. 4. Punnett Square R R r r
  14. R R r r Rr Rr Rr Rr
  15. <ul><li>5. Genotypic Ratios: 4/4 Rr </li></ul><ul><li>6. Phenotypic Ratios: 4/4 round peas </li></ul>

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