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Full proposal.doc Full proposal.doc Document Transcript

  • ASARECA Competitive Grant System (ASARECA-CGS) - Project Head Contract - SECTION 1 FORM OF GRANT CONTRACT FOR SERVICES Grant Contract for: Characterization of production traits, establishment of genetic potential and improvement of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in east and central Africa ASARECA Project Reference Number: A-AARNET Project 4 FS-B This grant contract (the Contract) dated 12th October 2005 is made BETWEEN (1) International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) situated at Old Naivasha Road P.O. Box 30709 Nairobi Kenya AND (2) ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) situated at International Livestock Research Institute Old Naivasha Road P.O. box 30709 Nairobi Kenya. Herein referred to as "the Supervisor" AND (3) Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) situated at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Lanet Research Centre, P.O. box 3840-2100 Nakuru Kenya. Herein referred to as "the Contractor" WHEREAS A. The project activities to be undertaken by the Contractor are funded through the ASARECA Competitive Grant System (CGS) and have been prepared, approved and commissioned in line with the ASARECA CGS guidelines and procedures; FS-B / HC-1
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract B. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has had assigned to it a Grant Contract with ASARECA Reference No.: ASARECA-CGS_A-AARNET-ILRI_004 and dated 15th August 2005 under the terms of which International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) will facilitate the implementation of ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) CGS Funding Stream – B projects; C. ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) is one of ASARECA’s research networks operating in collaboration with the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) in the sub-region, being responsible for supervising the implementation of this Project; D. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) on behalf of ASARECA wish to engage the Contractor to provide the services described in Section 3 of this Contract ("Project Specification”) on the terms of this Contract; E. The Contractor, having represented to ASARECA and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) that they have the professional skills, personnel and technical resources, has agreed to provide the Services and to deliver the Outputs on the terms and conditions of this Contract. IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows:- 1. Documents The Contract comprises the following documents: Section 1 Form of Contract (this document) Section 2 Conditions of Contract Section 3 Project Specifications (including Financial Specifications) Section 4 General Administration 2. Previous Communications The Contract constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all previous communications between the parties, whether oral or written, in relation to the Services. 3. Payment In consideration of the provision of the Services and the Outputs, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) shall make to the Contractor such payments and in such manner as provided in Section 3 (Project Specifications) within a financial limit of Euro 18,675 Eighteen thousand six hundred and seventy five Euros. 4. Commencement of the Services The Services to be performed under the terms of the Contract will commence 01 November 2005 and continue for a period of 26 months expiring on 31 December 2007 unless terminated earlier in accordance with the provisions of the Contract. 5. Acknowledgement The Contractor shall confirm acceptance of the terms of this Contract by signing and returning to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and ASARECA- Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) one duplicate copy each, enclosed herewith. FS-B / HC-2
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract For and on behalf of Name: Bruce Scott International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Position: Director, Partnerships and Communication Signature: Date: For and on behalf of Name: Dr Jean Ndikumana ASARECA-Animal Agriculture Research Network (A-AARNET) Position: Regional Coordinator Signature: Date: For and on behalf of Name: Robert Irungu Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Position: Centre Director Signature: Date: FS-B / HC-3
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract SECTION 2 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT INDEX 1. Context of Contract Offer 2. Definitions 3. Amendments 4. Indemnity 5. Personnel 6. Staff Costs 7. Procurement of Equipment 8. Responsibility for Equipment 9. Financial Limit and Financing Arrangements 10. Invoicing Instructions (Requests for Project Advances) 11. Payments 12. Variations 13. Rights of Access and Audit 14. Annual Work Plans and Technical Reports 15. Collaboration between Parties 16. Publication of Results 17. Intellectual Property Rights 18. Confidential Information 19. Publicity 20. Retention of Rights 21. Independent Contractor 22. Sub-Contractors 23. Assignment to others 24. Suspension/Termination 25. Force Majeure 26. Settlement of Disputes 27. Compliance with Laws and Regulations 28. Severability of the Provisions of this Contract FS-B / HC-4
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract SECTION 2 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT 1. Context of Contract Offer 1.1 This Contract is construed in accordance with International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) position as a not-for-profit international research organisation. 2. Definitions 2.1 The definitions set out in this Clause supplement the definitions in Section 1. FS-B / HC-5
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract (i) "ASARECA" means The Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa. (ii) “Sub-region” means the geographic area encompassed by the ten member countries of ASARECA, namely Burundi, DR Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. (iii) “NARS” means the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs), Universities, and any other organisations in the NGO and private sectors involved in agricultural research for development in the sub-region. (iv) "the Contractor" means the person, institution or company with whom the Contract is placed. (v) "the Contract" and “the Head Contract” means any contract between International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Supervisor and the Contractor which expressly incorporates these Conditions of Contract. (vi) "Equipment" means any material or equipment purchased on a reimbursable basis for use in providing the services. (vii) "Publication" means any methods, whether written, oral or visual, by which information relating to the Services is communicated to persons other than the Contractor, Sub-contractors, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and ASARECA (viii) "the Project" means the Project as defined in Section 3. (ix) "Contractor's Premises" shall mean the Contractor's registered office or other location agreed in writing between International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Contractor at and from which the Contractor shall perform the Services. (x) "Sub-Contractor" means any party to whom part of the Services have been sub-contracted by the Contractor (xi) "Completion Date" shall mean the date specified in Section 1 as the date by which the Contractor is obliged to complete the performance of the Services. (xii) "Intellectual Property Rights" shall mean copyright, design rights, topography rights, trade marks and service marks (whether registered or not), plant breeders rights, patents, registered designs, and applications therefore and any similar proprietary rights (in any part of the world). (xiii) "Technical Information" shall mean any invention, designs, and other information including (but not limited to) maps, plans, photographs, drawings, tapes, statistical and technical data, published and unpublished results and reports, computer programmes, know-how, processes, specifications, data books and data bases, table, memoranda and all other documentation and information arising as a result of the provision of the Services under the Contract whether by way of a Sub-Contract or otherwise including the results of any work performed by an employee or other person engaged to perform the Services. (xiv) "Improvements" shall mean all improvements, modifications or adaptations to any part of the technical information which might reasonably be of developmental or commercial interest to either party and which may be made or acquired by either party. FS-B / HC-6
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 3. Amendments 3.1 No variation in the terms or scope of the Contract shall be valid or binding unless previously expressly agreed in writing by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Supervisor and the Contractor in the form of a letter entitled "Amendment to Contract". International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor take no responsibility for work outside the Project Specifications as set out in Section 3. 4. Indemnity 4.1 The Contractor shall exercise reasonable skill, care and diligence in the performance of the Contract and in accordance with appropriate professional standards and indemnify and keep indemnified International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor in respect of any loss, damage or claim howsoever arising out of or related to negligence or breach of Contract by the Contractor or the Contractor’s Sub-Contractors in relation to the performance or otherwise of the Services to be provided under the contract. 4.2 The Contractor agrees to indemnify International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor in respect of any loss to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor arising out of or in connection with any claim made against International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor either by any person engaged or employed by the Contractor or by any third party as a result of the Contract. 5. Personnel 5.1 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be responsible for the employment of any person employed or otherwise engaged by the Contractor, or employed or otherwise engaged by a third party for, or through, the Contractor whether as an employee or a consultant. In particular International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be responsible for the costs of employing any such person, including any costs incurred by the Contractor in terminating the person's employment or engagement. 5.2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be entitled to instruct or direct the Contractor on matters relating to the employment of any person referred to in 5.1 above and in particular on the selection of such persons and their conditions of employment. The Contractor shall not be bound to act in accordance with any view or opinion expressed by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor on such matters, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor, and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be liable for any loss or claim howsoever arising as a result of the Contractor acting on the basis of any such view or opinion. 5.3 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be responsible for the acts and omissions of persons engaged by the Contractor whether or not in the course of performing the Services and for the health, safety and security of such persons and their property. 5.4 The Contractor agrees to indemnify International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor in respect of any loss to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor arising out of or in connection with any claim made against International Livestock Research FS-B / HC-7
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor either by any person employed or engaged by the Contractor or by any third party as a result of this Contract so far as it relates to the employment or engagement of such personnel. 5.5 For the avoidance of doubt, nothing in Clauses 5.1 to 5.4 shall either: (i) alter the Contractor's obligation to exercise reasonable skill, care and diligence in the performance of the Contract which obligation shall include the provision of suitably qualified and experienced personnel to carry out the Services; or (ii) limit International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s right to require that the Contractor carries out the Services in accordance with the terms of the Contract. 5.6 The Contractor shall not be entitled to substitute personnel named in Section 3A, Box 6 unless International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor give written consent to such substitution in advance of his or her appointment. International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s consent to any such substitution shall not be unreasonably withheld but shall be conditional upon the provision of a suitable replacement. 5.7 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall not be liable to meet any costs arising from the replacement by the Contractor of Contract personnel. 6. Staff Costs 6.1 Where any of the Services are undertaken in another country, subsistence is payable only for each day actually spent on these Services in the other country where the Services are being undertaken. 6.2 Where any of the Services are undertaken in another country, the Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining all necessary clearances from the government of that country and any co-operating organisations concerning the transfer and operation of equipment and personnel to that country. Any delays caused and any costs incurred in connection with obtaining such clearances shall be entirely at the Contractor’s risk. 7. Procurement of Equipment 7.1 The Contractor may use its own procurement policies and practices for the procurement of Equipment on a reimbursable basis required for the satisfactory performance of the Contract and in accordance with what is approved in the Section 3 of the Contract, and with careful attention to value for money. 7.2 The Contractor shall maintain a secure Asset Register of all Equipment purchases including, but not limited to, the purchases made by Sub- contractors, and shall provide International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor with an updated copy as part of the consolidated Annual Reports. 7.3 The Contractor shall ensure that Sub-Contractors in their turn abide by the foregoing should they be required to place purchase orders for equipment. 7.4 All Equipment purchases should be completed within the first 12 months of the operation of this Contract. 8. Responsibility for Equipment 8.1 The Contractor shall use all reasonable endeavours to ensure that Equipment FS-B / HC-8
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract is used in a proper and workmanlike manner. If any equipment or part thereof is not in good condition, or has been lost, then proper compensation shall be due to ASARECA. The amount of such compensation shall be agreed between the Contractor and ASARECA and shall be deducted from the sums otherwise due to the Contractor, or if such sums are not sufficient to make proper compensation, then the Contractor shall make prompt payment to ASARECA of the proper compensation or such part thereof that the sums otherwise due to the Contractor cannot meet. 8.2 From the time of purchase to the end of the project the Contractor shall be liable in respect of loss or damage and all claims or demands in respect of any or all of such Equipment or any part thereof, including but not limited to claims by third parties suffering injury or death as a result of the use or misuse thereof, and the Contractor shall indemnify and keep indemnified International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor in respect of any such liability so incurred. 8.3 At the end of the implementation of the project any Equipment paid for under this Contract is automatically and without further notification transferred to the Contractor or Sub-Contractor who has utilised the Equipment during project implementation. 9. Financial Limit and Financing Arrangements 9.1 The financial limit under this Contract is stated in the Form of Contract, the components of which are set out in Section 3 (budget table). No expenditure may be incurred in excess of this limit. No re-allocations between the budget line items as specified in Section 3 and between participating organisations are permitted without the prior written authority (“Amendment of Contract”) of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 9.2 Where advances are applicable, the Contractor must submit all completed Financial Declarations (see Guidelines for Project Management) and a Consolidated Request for Project First Advance (see Guidelines for Project Management) which must be accompanied by the fully signed Contract and Sub-Contracts. The Consolidated Request for Project First Advance should cover 9 months of forecast expenditures and should be submitted as two hardcopies and as electronic file. 9.3 On receipt of the completed Financial Declarations and the Consolidated Request for Project First Advance, and providing that Head Contract and Sub-Contract formalities are satisfactorily completed, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) will make payment of the first advances to the Contractor and the Participating Organisations, in accordance with the information provided in each Financial Declaration. 9.4 Thereafter, funding advances will be paid by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) to the Contractor and each Participating Organisation before the end of the 9-months period covered by the respective previous advance. The amount advanced will be reduced by the project balance available as at the end of the 6 months reporting period. The following conditions have to be met in order to release funds: (i) The Contractor has submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor the Consolidated Monthly Balance Report (see Guidelines for Project Management) latest 2 weeks after each month as electronic file. FS-B / HC-9
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract (ii) The Contractor has submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor the 6-Monthly Consolidated Project Financial Report including original supporting documents (see Guidelines for Project Management) covering the first 6 months of the last advance period. (iii) The Contractor has submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor a Consolidated Request for Project Advance (see Guidelines for Project Management) for 9 months beginning from the end of the 6 months expenditure period certified by the internal audit. 10. Invoicing Instructions (Requests for Project Advances) 10.1 6-Monthly Consolidated Project Financial Reports (see Guidelines for Project Management) have to be submitted by the Contractor latest 1 month after each 6-monthly expenditure period as two hardcopies and as electronic file. 10.2 All original vouchers and supporting documents for project expenditure (including those of the Sub-Contactors) have to be presented by the Contractor together with the Consolidated Financial Reports for audit purposes. 10.3 Consolidated Requests for Project Advances (see Guidelines for Project Management) have to be submitted by the Contractor latest 1 month after each 6-monthly expenditure period as two hardcopies and as electronic file. 10.4 All Project Financial Reports, Supporting Documents and Requests for Project Advances must be marked for the attention of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor addressed to: Dr Jean Ndikumana ILRI Old Naivasha Road P.O. Box 30709 Nairobi Kenya 10.5 All Requests for Project Advances are to be presented in Euro and will be paid in Euro. 10.6 Requests for Advances in excess of the approved project budget for the Contractor and each Participating Organisation will not be paid. 10.7 Any Requests for Advances not presented in accordance with sections 10.1 to 10.6 above will be returned to the Contractor which will delay the payment. Failure of the Contractor to submit Consolidated Requests for Project Advances to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor by the stated deadline will delay payment. 10.8 All original supporting documentation (incl. invoices, vouchers and receipts) and copies of contracts will be maintained at International Livestock Research Institute’s offices on behalf of the Sub-contractor and made available to the ASARECA external auditor. 11. Payments 11.1 Subject to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the FS-B / HC-10
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Supervisor being satisfied that the Contract is being, or has been, carried out to its satisfaction, sums duly approved shall be paid by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) within 30 days of receipt of a Consolidated Request for Project Advance. 11.2 Payment shall be made in Euro to the participating organisations, in accordance with the information provided in each Financial Declaration. 11.3 Expenditure arising in another currency shall be reimbursed at the rate of exchange realised on the transaction concerned as substantiated by a bank slip (see Guidelines for Project Management for further instructions). 11.4 If for any reason International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor are dissatisfied with the performance of the Contract, an appropriate sum may be withheld from any payment otherwise due. In such event International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall identify the particular services and/or participating organisation with which they are dissatisfied together with the reasons for such dissatisfaction, and payment of the amount outstanding will be made upon remedy of any unsatisfactory work or resolution of outstanding queries. 11.5 Should International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor determine within one year of payment for a particular service that the service has not been completed satisfactorily International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) may, without prejudice to any other remedies, recover or withhold from further payments an amount not exceeding that previously charged for that service, until such times that the unsatisfactory service is remedied to International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s satisfaction. 11.6 Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) reserves the right to retain the overhead component of the final advance payment pending International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s receipt and approval of the final report as described in Section 4 of this Contract. 12. Variations 12.1 Subject to the provisions of Clause 3.1, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor shall have the right to order any variation to the Services. Such variations may include additions, deletions, substitutions, or any other alterations including changes in the Scope of Work. Variations shall not vitiate or invalidate the Contract and the Contractors obligations under Sub-Contracts. 12.2 The Contractor shall, upon receipt of an order for variation, promptly advise of any effect thereof on the provisions of the Contract, the performance of the Services, or upon the Scope of Work. Should the variation result in an increase or decrease in the Contract Price, the Contractor shall promptly prepare and submit to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor for their agreement an estimate of the increase or decrease, utilising for such purpose any prices and rates which may be contained in Section 3 of the Contract with details as required for each participating organisation. 12.3 If it appears to the Contractor that the Services are not likely to be completed by the Completion Date, or that the amount of any category of expenditure specified in the Contract is or is likely to be exceeded, the Contractor shall FS-B / HC-11
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract immediately notify International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor of that fact, together with the reasons for the delay or increase in expenditure, and give an estimate of the additional time and/or expenditure required to complete the Services together with any specific details for each participating organisation. 12.4 If satisfied that the Services are not likely to be completed by the Completion Date or within the financial limit specified International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may, in their absolute discretion and without prejudice to any other rights they may have under the Contract: (i) vary the Services or any part of it so that the Services may be completed without exceeding the financial limit; (ii) extend the Completion Date; (iii) increase any category of expenditure specified in the Contract; or (iv) terminate the Contract, in which event the provisions of Clause 24 shall apply. 13. Rights of Access and Audit 13.1 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor reserve the right at any time to visit the Contractor or any of its Sub- Contractors, giving reasonable notice of its intention, and the Contractor shall give International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s representatives full access to the relevant personnel, offices, documents, papers, computers, computer software and data relating to the Services. 13.2 ASARECA assumes the right to audit the financial records of the Contractor at International Livestock Research Institute’s or the Contractor’s premises in relation to expenditures funded by ASARECA under the Contract at any time until the expiry of twenty-four (24) months following the settlement of the final account. Any incorrect payments made shall be adjusted in accordance with the findings of the said audit. The Contractor shall make all relevant books and accounts available and give the auditors all reasonable assistance. 14. Annual Work Plans and Technical Reports 14.1 The Contractor must submit Consolidated Annual Work Plans including annual expenditure forecasts (see Guidelines for Project Management) latest by 30 October for the next calendar year, covering each Participating Organisation. Consolidated Annual Work Plans have to be submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor (1 copy each) and as electronic file. 14.2 The Contractor shall provide the following reports: (i) a Consolidated Inception Report (3 months after the project’s start date); (ii) Consolidated Semi-annual Reports covering the first 6 months of a calendar year (latest by 31 August); (iii) Consolidated Annual Reports covering a calendar year (latest by 28 February); (iv) a Consolidated Final Report covering the entire project duration (by the formal end date of the project). All consolidated reports shall include relevant information from, and are prepared on the basis of the Participating Organisations’ individual reports to FS-B / HC-12
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract the Contractor. The report formats provided by ASARECA have to be used (see Guidelines for Project Management). All reports have to be submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor (two copies each) and as electronic file. 15. Collaboration between Parties 15.1 The Contractor through the Principal Investigator/Project Team Leader shall be responsible for implementation of the project, and will retain ultimate responsibility for the delivery of all project outputs. 15.2 The Contractor shall, if so invited by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor, serve on any committee set up by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor to consider the conduct and progress of the Services. If so required by ASARECA, the Contractor shall attend meetings to report upon the progress and conduct of the Services. 15.3 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) will facilitate Project implementation with the provision of administrative and logistical services, financial services and scientific/technical backstopping support. 15.4 The Supervisor will monitor and support implementation of the Project and will report to ASARECA CGS management. 15.5 The Participating Organisations shall facilitate their staff to undertake project activities as elaborated in Section 3 by providing the necessary administrative, financial, and logistical services. 16. Publication of Results 16.1 The Contractor shall not, without the prior written consent of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor, publish any information related to the Services or the results of the Services. 16.2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor will not unreasonably withhold their consent to the publication of information relating to the Services and will make every endeavour to respond promptly. 16.3 Any publication shall contain an express acknowledgement of the Contractor's use of funds from ASARECA, as follows: “This publication is a product of a project funded by the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA). The views expressed are not necessarily those of ASARECA." 16.4 The Contractor shall provide International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor with three copies of such a publication and shall subsequently supply as many copies as International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor may reasonably request. 17. Intellectual Property Rights 17.1 The Contractor shall have the right to copyright, disclose and use the Technical Information and the Improvements received, collected or developed under this Contract, except as indicated in Clause 18 under Confidentiality. 17.2 To the extent that the Contractor holds a Contract with International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor and through this, holds a contract with a Sub-Contractor, it shall take all necessary steps to ensure that all Intellectual Property Rights in any part of the Technical FS-B / HC-13
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Information or the Improvements created by the Sub-Contractor shall be available for full and unrestricted use by the Contractor and ASARECA. 17.3 With effect from the date of this Contract, the Contractor recognises ASARECA’s non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty free, world-wide licence without limit of time to use, transfer or otherwise deal with the Intellectual Property Rights in the Technical Information and the Improvements and to manufacture, produce and sell any product incorporating part or all of the Technical Information or the Improvements for use by ASARECA and its member NARS. 17.4 Subject to Clause 17.1 above the Contractor undertakes not to enter into any agreement, understanding, or arrangement with a third party which will or could affect the use of, ownership or validity of all or any of the Intellectual Property Rights in the Technical Information or the Improvements or the licensing pursuant to this Clause 17 except with the prior written consent of ASARECA. 17.5 The Contractor undertakes to disclose to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor, and through them to ASARECA, all Technical Information and Improvements and all Intellectual Property Rights therein as soon as reasonably practicable after becoming aware of the same. 17.6 The Contractor is required to: (i) keep copies of datasets resulting from any research for access and use by other bona fide researchers including ASARECA; (ii) notify ASARECA, latest at the time of submission of the project’s Final Report of the existence of a dataset and how ASARECA can access it; (iii) hold datasets in a form accessible to ASARECA; where possible this should be in electronic format and accessible through the internet to the Contractor’s web site listing all holders of the basic data and information; (iv) facilitate access by ASARECA to the research datasets and information generated under the project; (v) exchange or provide data for research purposes as ASARECA requests. 17.7 Access to and use of datasets under Clause 17.6 shall be provided by the Contractor free of charge. Any photocopying or postal costs may be charged by the Contractor ‘at cost’ and be paid for by the requesting party. 18. Confidentiality 18.1 During the course of this Contract, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor may provide the Contractor with certain information, data or material in writing or other tangible form that International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor regards as confidential or proprietary in nature. Such information will be clearly marked “CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION”. 18.2 The Contractor undertakes that it will not at any time divulge any such confidential information in relation to International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s affairs. The Contractor shall take all necessary actions to ensure that all such information is treated as confidential by its employee's and Sub-Contractors. FS-B / HC-14
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 19. Publicity 19.1 The Contractor shall not make any communication to the press, or any public media, about the Services or the results of the Services without the prior written agreement of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 20. Retention of Rights 20.1 Clauses 16, 17, 18 and 19 of the Contract shall continue in force following the completion or termination of the Contract. 21. Independent Contractor 21.1 In the performance of the Contract the Contractor shall be an independent contractor and not an agent of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor. The Contractor shall have no authority to enter into contracts or incur any expenditure (save as otherwise provided by these Conditions of Contract) on behalf of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 22. Sub-Contractors 22.1 The Contractor shall not Sub-Contract any part of the Services without the agreement of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 22.2 The Contractor has to use the format provided by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) or the Supervisor for CGS Project Sub-Contracts. Any Sub-Contract must bind the Sub-Contractor to observe the conditions of this Contract, so far as they are applicable to and capable of performance by the Sub-Contractor. 22.3 Any amendments relating to Sub-contracts shall be jointly agreed by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Supervisor and the Contractor. 23. Assignment to Others 23.1 The Contractor shall not, without the written consent of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor, assign or transfer or cause to be assigned or transferred, whether actually or as the result of take-over, merger or other change of identity or character of the Contractor, any of its rights or obligations under the Contract or any part, share or interest therein. Upon any such assignment or transfer, this Contract may forthwith be terminated by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 24. Suspension/Termination 24.1 Without prejudice to International Livestock Research Institute’s and the Supervisor’s rights under Clauses 24.2 and 24.3, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may at any time by notice in writing require the Contractor to suspend work under the Contract for such period as International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may in their reasonable discretion determine in order to allow International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor or their representatives to carry out an investigation into any technical, financial or other matter relating to the Contract. 24.2 Subject to International Livestock Research Institute’s and the FS-B / HC-15
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Supervisor’s rights under sub-paragraph 24.3 below, if in the opinion of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor it appears desirable that this Contract should be terminated for reasons not associated with poor performance by the Contractor, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may at any time inform the Contractor of their decision by written instruction to that effect. In the event of the Contract being so terminated, the Contractor shall take such steps as are necessary to bring the Services to an end, (including terminating any Sub- contracts placed by the Contractor alone) in a cost effective, timely and orderly manner. The Contractor shall submit an account in writing which shall state the amount claimed taking into account all fees and costs properly incurred or committed by the Contractor in relation to the Contract or its termination which cannot be recovered. Always provided that payments are within the financial limit and not subject to dispute, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) shall: (i) pay all fees, expenses and other sums due and outstanding under the terms of this Contract up to and including the date of termination. (ii) reimburse all reasonable expenses necessarily incurred by the Contractor after the date of termination in winding up the Contract. 24.3 This Contract may be terminated by International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor by notice in writing to the Contractor if at any time the Contractor commits any breach of their obligations hereunder or, where the Contractor is a firm, any partner in that firm shall at any time become bankrupt, or shall have a receiving order or administration order made against them or shall make any composition or arrangement with or for the benefit of their creditors or shall make any conveyance or assignment for the benefit of their creditors or if the Contractor being a company, an order is made for or a resolution is passed for the winding up of the Contractor otherwise than a members voluntary winding up for the purpose of amalgamation or reconstruction (subject to the prior written approval of International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor) or a receiver or administrator is appointed of the whole or any part of the undertaking of the Contractor, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may forthwith terminate the Contract. In that event, payments due to the Contractor shall be made for fees and expenses properly incurred up to the date of termination, less any outstanding balance of any advance made. No other payments shall be made. 25. Force Majeure 25.1 If the performance of the Contract by either party is delayed, hindered or prevented or is otherwise frustrated by reason of force majeure, which shall mean war, civil commotion, fire, flood, action by any government or any event beyond the reasonable control of the party affected, then the party so affected shall promptly notify the other party in writing specifying the nature of the force majeure and of the anticipated delay in the performance of the Contract and as from the date of that notification International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor may at their discretion either terminate the Contract forthwith or suspend the performance of the Contract for a period not exceeding 6 months. If at the expiry of such period of suspension any of the reasons for the suspension still remain, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Supervisor and the Contractor may either agree a further period of suspension or treat the Contract as terminated. In the event of the Contract being terminated by reason of force majeure, the Contractor shall FS-B / HC-16
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract take such steps as are necessary to bring the Services to an end, (including terminating any Sub-contracts placed by the Contractor) in a cost effective, timely and orderly manner. The Contractor shall submit an account in writing which shall state the amount claimed taking into account all fees and costs properly incurred or committed by the Contractor in relation to the Contract or its termination which cannot be recovered. Always provided that payments are within the financial limit and not subject to dispute, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) shall: (i) pay all fees, expenses and other sums due and outstanding under the terms of this Contract up to and including the date of termination; (ii) reimburse all reasonable expenses necessarily incurred by the Contractor after the date of termination in winding up the Contract. 26. Settlement of Disputes 26.1 Should the Contractor and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor be unable to reach agreement on the meaning or interpretation of any of the terms set out hereto or any other matters arising out of the Contract, the matter in dispute shall be referred to an arbitrator to be agreed between the parties. 26.2 This Contract is governed by the law of Kenya. 27. Compliance with Laws and Regulations 27.1 The Contractor shall at all times comply with all laws, rules and regulations of government and other bodies having jurisdiction over the country in which the Services of the Contractor are undertaken and which are from time to time in force during the period of performance by the Contractor of its obligations under the Contract. The Contractor shall not engage in activities, which could be regarded as objectionable to such authorities. 28. Severability of Provisions of this Contract 28.1 Each provision of this Contract is severable and distinct from the others and, if any provision is or at any time becomes to any extent or in any circumstances invalid, illegal, or unenforceable for any reason, it shall to that extent or in those circumstances be deemed not to form part of this Contract but (except to that extent or in those circumstances in the case of that provision) the validity, legality and enforceability of that and all other provisions of this Contract shall not be affected or impaired, it being the parties’ intention that every provision of this Contract shall be and will remain valid and enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by law. FS-B / HC-17
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract SECTION 3 PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS ASARECA Secretariat P.O. Box 765, Entebbe Uganda. Programme 1: Improving livestock productivity Project 4 [FS – B] : Characterization of production traits, establishment of genetic potential and improvement of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in east and central Africa 18 February 1999
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Title: Characterization of production traits, establishment of genetic potential and improvement of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in east and central Africa. Theme: Improving Livestock productivity Sub-theme: Enhancing utilization of Animal genetic resources Team Leader: Douglas Indetie, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 3840, Nakuru, Kenya. Tel: 254-51-851217/850052 E-mail: douglasindetie@yahoo.com Other Team members 1. Emma Sendalo, Animal Diseases Research Institute, Dar- es – Salaam, Tanzania E-mail: emmasendalo2@yahoo.com Sachindas_30@hotmail.com 2. Suleiman Kaganda, Agricultural Research institute, Ukiriguru, Mwanza, Tanzania E-mail: skaganda2001@yahoo.co.uk 3. Tecle Abraham, Department of Livestock Resources, Asmara, E-mail: tecle001@yahoo.com 4. Eugenia Nyiransengimana, ISAR Rubona, Rwanda. E-mail: nyiransengimana@yahoo.fr Starting Date: August 2005 Project Duration: 3 Years 19
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 1. Background Throughout history, Africa has been colonized by many species of livestock domesticated for food production and agriculture. Human and natural selection under the wide range of environments in Africa has been responsible for the evolution of a large number of small ruminant and cattle genetic resources (breeds, strains and populations) with very specific adaptations: resistance to specific local diseases, tolerance to heat and ability to reproduce and survive on poor quality and irregular feed supply. It is estimated that the variation at the breed or strain level represents as much as 50% of the total genetic variation in domestic animal species (Rege 1994). Thus, the present tendency towards one or a limited number of breeds per species in livestock production courts disaster because it limits farmers options to select and develop breeds adapted to a range of environments. Differences exist in herd/flock productivity, as measured by off take rates between agro-ecological zones. Off take ratios for goat species predominantly found in the arid and semi-arid zones has been estimated at 28.5% compared to cattle which have an average off take of 10.8% meaning small ruminants are a useful source of livelihood for the semi-arid zones (Winrock, 1992). There are several factors placing indigenous animal genetic resources at risk. Increasing human population has led to intensified settlement in pastoral areas reducing the land available for livestock. Neglect of traditional livestock production systems arising from the commercialisation of agriculture and change in traditional farming systems is threatening the security of some of the least studied breeds/strains (Frisch, 1984), in addition, famine and civil conflict have decimated localized populations. Unfortunately, as genetic erosion increases, information on genetic uniqueness of some of those populations is still lacking. There is not even information on the number and population sizes of breeds and strains under threat. Often populations have names of countries or communities that own them and the distribution between various populations may not be very clear. Some phenotypically diverse types have the same names across several countries and ecological zones (e.g. the Red Maasai sheep and the Small East African goat refer to homozygous populations found in several countries of East Africa) while some phenotypicaly similar animals have different names in different countries. Additionally information on phenotypic and performance characteristic are lacking for the majority of indigenous breeds in Africa (Rege 1997), while such breeds currently face threats from newly introduced breeds, unplanned crossbreeding and cultural value changes. Some breeds will disappear and indeed some have disappeared before they are adequately described. Little is known of the genetic makeup of this animal wealth and hence the risk to its survival. Immediate characterization and recommendation for conservation are essential if biodiversity is not to be reduced or lost altogether. Genetic characterization and description of environments in which indigenous sheep and goat are kept is important in identifying unique adaptive and productive characteristic of these animal genetic resources. Genetic characterization is the measure of genetic uniqueness among individuals in a population (Rege 1996) with the aim of determining the genetic diversity of animal species, breeds or types. The two approaches that are used in Genetic characterization are trait or population based (Meghen, et al. 1994) and differ only in experimental design and analysis. The discovery of polymerised chain reaction (Sakai et al 1998) has enabled the amplification of DNA through the use of DNA markers, which help to distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous individuals. 20
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 2. Justification There are a total of 163 million sheep and goats in the ASARECA member countries 42% of which are found in the arid and semi arid rangelands. The livestock production systems in East and Central Africa are basically traditional relying on indigenous breeds that have low overall productivity but quite adapted to the harsh environments in the region. The human population of sub-Sahara Africa has grown on average at 2.5%with the urban increase toping the 4.7% mark with an average Gross domestic product of 2.3% meaning that food production is not keeping pace with population growth (Delgado, et al. 1999) resulting in a persistent food shortages. Against these dynamics, are the predicted massive changes in the consumption of livestock products in the developing world, termed as “the livestock revolution” (Delgado, et al. 1999). The annual meat consumption has increased to 5.3% from 1982 to 1993 and this consumption is bound to increase further as incomes and urbanization progresses. The growth in production has however, not matched the increasing demand forcing the countries of the region to rely on imports (FAO 2002). Therefore Intensification and efficient form of livestock production will have to be adopted if demand for meat is to be satisfied in the region. Small ruminants have not been adequately evaluated for their genetic potential in their adapted environments. The existing genetic and phenotypic variation observed for both meat, milk and diseases resistance has not been fully documented. The variation shows a clear potential for genetic improvements through selection (Indetie, et al. 1999). Description of the environment extends the value of characterization and may identify possible areas of potential impact on productivity. The characterization process will enable the formulation of conservation strategies for breeds and strains identified as being at risk and will allow for the development of these breeds and strains for improved and sustainable productivity through efficient utilization. Currently, the science of molecular genetics offers several macrosattelite markers based-techniques that are used to estimate the genetic diversity and relationships between populations and within breeds. Marker assisted selection (MAS) can accelerate the rate of genetic progress by increasing accuracy of selection and reducing the generation intervals, given that MAS allows for selection decisions to be made very early in the life of the animals (Smith and Simpson 1986). The benefits of these techniques are greatest for traits with low heritability, and those that are expensive or difficult to measure indirectly using the conventional methods. 21
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 3. Project Objective and Purpose The project objective is to increase income and improved livelihoods of sheep and goat farmers in the target area. The purpose is to improve sheep and goat productivity and competitiveness of this component of the livestock sector in the targeted area. This project is expected to contribute to: 1. Establishment of a baseline database on morphometrics, productive, reproductive, adaptive traits and determination of population sizes and trends, thus assessing the threats to such breeds, in specific production systems in Tanzania, Kenya, Eritrea and Rwanda. 2. Establishment of levels of genetic diversity among sheep and goats and determination of relationships between the different populations in the region through the use of DNA microsattelite techniques as a prerequisite to decision making on conservation and sustainable use strategies for selected/prioritized breeds 3. The establishment of open nucleus breeding schemes (ONBS) as sustainable options for genetic improvement of indigenous sheep and goats in these countries, including help building of farmer- driven institutions that allow for exchange of genetic materials within the region. 4. Community-driven rankings of production and adaptive traits, established and used to develop breeding objectives and innovative improvement programmes of indigenous sheep and goat genetic resources applying these promoted; 5. Capacity building in livestock survey, breed improvement programme designs and applied molecular genetics sciences and techniques. 6. Assessment of the economic values of indigenous sheep and goats breeds for meat and milk, documentation of the valuation procedures and use of these to to establish appropriate breeding objectives. 22
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 4. Expected outputs Result 1: Demand driven technologies for characterization of production traits,establishment of genetic potential and improvement of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats generated and promoted; Result 2: Regional and national capacity for IAR4D in livestock genetic resources characterization strengthened; Result 3: Regional and national capacity for IAR4D in livestock genetic resources characterization strengthened Result 4: Availability of information and genetic improvement schemes for targeted indigenous sheep and goat breeds enhanced Other information to be derived from the project include population size and trends, phenotypic and genetic relationships between, and characteristics of indigenous sheep and goat genetic resources and production systems under which they are raised and on relative economic values, genetic potentials and characteristics of targeted indigenous sheep and goats. 5. Beneficiaries 1. Agro-pastoralists and pastoralists keeping goats will benefit from the information provided by the baseline production data and also from the germplasm of selected indigenous goats to adopt better improvement programs and hence, increase goat productivity. 2. Rural and peri-urban residents, especially women due to increased productivity and income from indigenous sheep and goat farming, including export and employment opportunities for and from these genetic resources. 3. Consumers of goats’ meat and milk in urban centres will benefit through constant supply and favorably priced and better quality sheep and goats products. 6. Material and Methods The focal point of implementing the project will be at the implementing institutions centers with collaboration from farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya, Tanzania, Eritrea and Rwanda. Collaborators from livestock extension staff will assist in their specific areas for monitoring and evaluation for on-farm observations. Each country will sample at least two goat and sheep populations from which the base population or founders for the open nucleus breeding schemes (ONBS) will be derived. Surrounding cooperating farmers would be mobilized and trained to adopt the ONBS and routine on-farm monitoring of their herds and flocks performance on a set of agreed breeding objectives. Survey methods, sampling and data collection A cross sectional survey will be conducted to obtain baseline data on physical and production traits of indigenous goats in agro-pastoral and pastoral areas. The survey will include baseline data on the economics of the production systems where goats and sheep are kept. Pilot pre-testing surveys will be undertaken before the main survey to identify any flaws and rectify the same. Various survey methodologies and analytical tools will be employed. These will include PRA’s, focussed group discussion (FGD), timeline or historical events, key informant’s interviews amongst others. Questionnaires and checklists of various forms will be used to collect both quantitative and qualitative information. The questionnaires may be shared for the region. 23
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Sampling Technique and Frame During the baseline survey, purposively sampling of the major small ruminant producing regions to obtain baseline data on production traits and economics of production of the indigenous sheep and goats, trait preferences and rankings of traits will be undertaken. Participatory approaches, where farmers, local extension and project research staff will all be involved right from the beginning of the study. The sampling frame would be such that only households keeping a minimum of 5 sheep or goats will be included. The information to be recorded will include; personal profiles of the farmer, animal, type of production system and economics of the enterprise. In addition, weather, resource (feed, water, land, range etc.) utilization, herd structure, disease, off-take and land tenure system will be important information to be captured. Genetic Distancing between indigenous goat flocks In order to establish the relative genetic relatedness between breeds and populations within the targeted sheep and goat breeds, blood samples will be taken from at lease 30 unrelated individual animal from each species, and of varying age groups. DNA will then be extracted from such samples and, genotyping and genetic distancing analyses performed at ILRI’s molecular genetic laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya using established standard procedures. A set of 20-24 high polymorphic, easy to score microsatellite markers, which are not closely linked, will be selected from currently available markers. DNA-based molecular makers will be used to calculate the genetic distance between each pair of populations. The marker data will first be used to calculate several coefficients of similarity(s) for each pair of breeds. The genetic distance values will be computed and used to cluster the populations sampled, applying the single linkage clustering method. A multivariate analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (of microsatellite allele frequencies), will be applied to investigate the nature of relationships/differences amongst sets/groups of sheep and goat breeds, populations and strains. Monitoring of sheep and goats on-farm Farmers will be trained on improved husbandry methods, and assisted in establish community-based cooperative Open Nucleus Breeding Schemes (ONBS). The ONBS will comprise selected (best performing) individual animals from the willing participating member farmers. Dissemination procedures for genetically improved sheep and goats stock to participating farmers will be agreed upon and implemented on a within and between ONBS basis. Data on the performance of sheep and goats, such as live weights, reproductive performance, off- take rates, and mortality will be monitored periodically on the nuclei hers/flock as well as on the cooperating/participating farmers’ herds/flocks. The farmer would decide who to host the nuclei on their own, but upon the advice of the research team. Improved, and as similar as possible husbandry practices will be practiced and promoted at both the nuclei and participating farmers’ flocks/herds. Genetic evaluation Once the breeding programmes are put in place with clear objectives for the nucleus herds and participating farmers’ flocks, the genetic evaluation of the all the animals using commonly agreed selection criteria upon use of accurate computation and ranking procedures will form the basis of ranking the animals in these herds. The top-best (<1%) mainly males, would be retained in the nuclei for breeding and the next top best distributed to the participating farmers for breeding. Genetically ranked poor female members of the nuclei would be periodically be replaced by top ranked individuals from the participating farmers. This would then be repeated for each selection cycle. Data collection at the research centres Depending on country and project site, nuclei herds/flocks may be maintained in research stations instead of, or to augment the farmer-owned nuclei. Data collected at in such herds/flocks will consist of monthly live weights, physical linear characteristics on the sheep and goats of various ages, coat colours, pedigree data of each animal 24
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract in the nucleus amongst others. Derived measurements of the various parameters will be computed. Reproductive, disease and abnormal observations will be recorded too. 7. Specific activities to achieve the expected outputs 7.1. Activities to achieve Result 1: Breed Survey and Database establishment 1. Hold farmers and stakeholder workshops to introduce the project and select and agree on project sites 2. Develop questionnaires to collect information on indigenous AnGR 3. Identify and train enumerators 4. Conduct baseline surveys on population structures, size, trends for small ruminant genetic resources, their trait values 5. Collect blood samples from small ruminants for DNA analyses and genotyping 6. DNA extraction and molecular genetic analyses (genotyping and genetic distancing etc.). (see also 7.3.2) 7.2. Activities to achieve Result 2: Setting up of open nucleus breeding schemes (ONBS) 1. Training (mobilizing) of farmers and field staff on the principles and practice of ONBS 2. Recruitment of members and founders for the ONBS 3. Assembling and quarantining of base population from the participating farmers 4. Develop breeding objectives and selection indices for indigenous sheep and goats. 5. Monitoring and technical backstopping of the breeding plans among farmers. 6. Genetic evaluation and dissemination of improved genetic material to participating farmers. 7. Feedback information sharing workshops 7.3. Activities to achieve Result 3: 1. Farmer training sessions and workshops. 2. Capacity building and strengthening tailor-made workshops for participating scientist and extension staff and ILRI-based PhD and MSc graduate fellowships (2 PhD’s, 3 Masters, technician training). 3. Stakeholder meetings, advocacy and technical backstopping to farmer groups and formation of breed associations 7.4. Activities to achieve Result 4 Synthesis of the results from analyses of survey data, phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization data and packaging these into regional sheep and goat breed catalogues. 25
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 8. Work plan Period Activities Output August-Dec 2005 1. Hold farmers and stakeholder workshops to introduce Baseline information and the project and select and agree on project sites breed catalogue prepared 2. Develop questionnaires to collect information on indigenous AnGR 3. Identify and train enumerators 4. Conduct baseline surveys on population structures, size, trends for small ruminant genetic resources, their trait values 5. Collect blood samples and preserve for DNA analyses and genotyping later 6. DNA extraction and molecular genetic analyses (genotyping and genetic distancing etc.); (see also 7.3.2) January 2006 – 7. Training (mobilizing) of farmers and field staff on the December 207 principles and practice of ONBS ONBS established and 8. Recruitment of members and founders for the ONBS breeding programmes for, and 9. Establish structures (shelters/sheds etc) for the ONBS economic evaluations of small stock ruminant breeds established 10. Assembling and quarantining of base population from the participating farmers 11. Develop breeding objectives and selection indices for indigenous sheep and goats. 12. Monitoring and technical backstopping of the breeding plans among farmers. 13. Genetic evaluation and dissemination of improved genetic material to participating farmers. 14. Capacity building and strengthening tailor-made workshops for participating scientist and extension staff and ILRI-based PhD and MSc graduate Capacity building Continuous (2006- fellowships (2 PhD’s, 3 Masters, technician training) Dec 2007) 15. Stakeholder meetings, advocacy and technical backstopping to farmer groups and formation of breed associations Synthesis of the results from analyses of survey data, phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization data and packaging these into regional sheep and goat breed Regional breed catalogue catalogues. June –Dec 2007 26
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 9. References 1) Delgado, C.L. (1999). Sources of growth in smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of vertical integration of smallholder with processing and Marketing of high-value added items. Agrekon, 38:165-189 2) Frisch J.E. (1984). Genetic attributes required for efficient cattle production in the tropics. In: Ch. 28 of Beef cattle Science hand book, vol.20. F.H. Baker and M.E. Miller, eds. Winrock International Project, Westview Press USA. 3) Indetie, D., Karimi, S., Wandera, F., Lebbie, S. and Mwai O. (1999). Phenotypic characterization of Red Maasai sheep in Kajiado and Baringo Districts of Kenya. In: proceedings of the Animal production Society of Kenya, Naivasha, Kenya. 4) Mehgan, C., Machug, D. E., Bradley, D. G. (1994). Genetic characterization of West African cattle, world Animal Review. 98:59-66. 5) Rege, J.E.O. (1997). The contribution of indigenous livestock to the economies of African countries, with particular reference to Eastern and Southern Africa. In proceedings of, ‘livestock Development policies for Eastern and Southern Africa’, Mbabane, Swaziland. 6) Rege, J.E.O., Yapi-Gnamore, C.V., Tawor, C.L. (1996). The indigenous domestic ruminant genetic resources of Africa, Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa conference in Animal Agriculture 1996, Pretoria, South Africa. 7) Smith, C. and Simpson, S.P. (1996). The use of genetic polymorphism in livestock. Journal of animal breeding and genetics, 103:205-217. 8) Winrock International. (1992). Assessment of animal agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock International and Institute for Agriculture Development, Arkansas, USA. 27
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 10. Logical Framework Intervention Logic Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of verification Assumptions Project Objective: Increased income and improved livelihoods of sheep and goat farmers in target area. Project Purpose:  5% increase in productivity of Government statistics and  Adequate social, Sheep and goat productivity and competitiveness of sheep and goats in target area by reports economic and political the livestock sector in targeted area improved. 2007 stability in the project NGOs reports area  2% increase in market share of  Trade and market Project reports conditions does not sheep and goats by 2007 compromise gains  Minimal disruption from biophysical and environmental catastrophies Intervention Logic Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of verification Assumptions Results 1.1. At least one technology for characterization  Government  Commitment and capacity Result 1: Demand driven technologies for of production traits generated by 2007 Statistics and to adopt new technologies, 28
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract characterization of production traits, 1.2. Genetic potential established for at least 5 reports innovations and policies establishment of genetic potential and genetic breeds in the region by 2006  NGOs reports exists in project areas; improvement of indigenous breeds of 1.3. At least 4 breeding schemes for small  NARS annual sheep and goats generated and ruminants are generated and promoted in reports  Efficient and effective promoted; the project area by 2007.  A-AARNET annual national services, input- reports output and financial markets Result 3: Regional and national capacity for  Project reports systems exist in the project IAR4D in livestock genetic 3.1 At least 5 research scientists and 5 graduate  Data bases and area; resources characterization students trained in methodology for breed catalogues strengthened; characterization of animal genetic resources  Publications by 2007  Effective mechanisms for widespread technology, innovation and knowledge Result 4: Availability of information and uptake exist and are genetic improvement schemes for accessible in the project 4.1 At least 4 information packages and 4 targeted indigenous sheep and area. breed catalogues for indigenous sheep and goat breeds enhanced goat breeds prepared for use by 2007 29
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract Intervention Logic Budgets and Inputs Assumptions Activities: US$ Result 1: 1.1 Site selection and sensitisation workshops 12,000 1.2 Design test and harmonize survey instruments and train scientists 4,000 1.3 Conduct baseline surveys, collect and preserve blood samples 12000 1.4 DNA extraction and analysis* 6000 1.5 ONBS development, monitoring and evaluation 32,000 1.6. Dissemination of genetic material 4,000 1.7. Stakeholders workshops (in country) 8000 Result 3: 8,000 3.1 Training of enumerators 4000 3.2 Training on principles of ONBS Result 4: 8000 4.1 Prepare photographic and full description catalogue of targeted breeds* US $ 90000 Total 30
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract 11. Budget Activity/input Kenya Tanzania Rwanda Eritrea Total US$ Year1 1.1 Site selection and sensitisation workshops 1000 1000 1000 1000 4000 1.2. Design test and harmonize survey instruments 1000 1000 1000 1000 4000 and train scientists 3.1 Identification, recruitment and training of field 2000 2000 2000 2000 8000 enumerators 1.3. Conduct baseline surveys, collect and 3000 3000 3000 3000 12000 preserve blood samples 1.4 DNA extraction and molecular genetic analysis 1500 1500 1500 1500 6000 and reporting Totals US $ 8500 8500 8500 8500 34000 Total € 7055 7055 7055 7055 28220 Year2 3.2 Mobilizing farmers and training on principles 1000 1000 1000 1000 4000 and practices of ONBS 1.5 ONBS development, monitoring and 8000 8000 8000 8000 32000 evaluation 1.6 Dissemination of genetic material 1000 1000 1000 1000 4000 Totals US $ 10000 10000 10000 10000 40000 Total € 8300 8300 8300 8300 33200 Year3 1.7. Stakeholders workshops (in country) 2000 2000 2000 2000 8000 4.1 Synthesis of results and preparation of 2000 2000 2000 2000 8000 catalogue of targeted breeds* Totals US $ 4000 4000 4000 4000 16000 Total € 3320 3320 3320 3320 13280 Grand Totals US $ 22500 22500 22500 22500 90000 Grand Total € 18675 18675 18675 18675 74700 *ILRI to facilitate these activities and student fellowships Appendix 1: Research Protocol 31
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract The following is an outline of the sequence of activities to guide the process of data collection in order to harmonize the approach to be used at all sites. Details of specific aspects may be obtained from a report by ILRI to FAO: The design, execution and analysis of breed surveys – a case study in Zimbabwe. A. Survey design: 1. Determine the extent of coverage for selected populations of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in terms of regions, districts, sub-districts, villages and households through meetings with stakeholders, using reports and ancillary population statistics or otherwise. 2. Determine the production systems by which sampling shall be stratified and ensure that they are adequately represented in terms of districts and sub-districts. 3. Determine the number of units to be sampled at each level of clustering. Allocation of sampling units proportional to size (total number of units) is recommended for districts, sub- districts and villages using random selection. Target sample sizes of 10-20% households per village with larger sampling fractions at sub-district and district levels depending on cost implications. Ensure adequate representation within strata (production systems) including extra districts if necessary. 4. A strictly random sample of households at village level may not be feasible in practise. It is recommended that a transect sampling method be used where, for instance, every fifth household counting both left and right is sampled along a randomly selected transect until the required sample size is met. In some cases it may be necessary to draw convenience samples for ease of access. 5. Determine whether it is appropriate to stratify households by wealth status as it may become necessary to include extraneous samples to ensure representative sampling. All such variants of this sampling scheme should be carefully recorded. B. Questionnaire design and execution: 1. Design the questionnaire by modification and translation if necessary of the ILRI FAnGR survey questionnaires for sheep and goats. 2. Hold preparatory meetings with stakeholders to plan implementation logistics and create awareness. 3. Recruit and train enumerators 4. Carry out a pre-testing and review of the questionnaire and planning for the survey 5. Carry out the survey C. Data analysis and reporting 1. Data entry and verification will be carried out under supervision of investigators for each site using Breedsurv computer program designed at ILRI. Consult the A-AARNET Data Analyst for assistance with the use of the program and data processing. Electronic copies of all data files generated should be submitted to the project principal investigator as well as A- AARNET coordinating office. 2. Data Analysis at site level shall be carried out by site scientists in consultation with the principal investigator and if necessary, the A-AARNET Data Analyst. Overall data analysis across countries shall be carried out by the principal investigator and A-AARNET Data Analyst. 3. Site scientists will prepare research reports and provide copies to the principal investigator who shall compile a project report and submit it to the A-AARNET Coordinator. 4. Hold a feed-back workshop. The research design and protocol for on-station work will be determined after the analysis and reporting of existing as well as the survey data. SECTION 4 32
  • ASARECA-CGS_ A-AARNET_Feb 2001 Research Call_Project Sub-Contract GENERAL ADMINISTRATION A Project Action Points Checklist is provided with this Contract, to assist you in the management of the Project. The Clauses of Section 2 that must be met to comply with the routine procedures applying to this Contract are summarised in the Table below. Routine procedures required for this Contract to comply with Section 2 Clauses Required Format Clause No. & Procedure (see Guidelines for Project Deadline (for Details) Management) Financial: 9. Financing Arrangements Financial Declaration With Project Head Contract and Contractor Sub-Contracts 9. Financing Arrangements Financial Declarations Sub- With Project Head Contract and Contractors Sub-Contracts 9. Financing Arrangements Consolidated Request for With Project Head Contract and Project First Advance Sub-Contacts 9. Financing Arrangements Consolidated Monthly 2 weeks after the end of each Balance Reports month 9. Financing Arrangements 6 Monthly Consolidated 1 month after each 6-monthly 10. Invoicing Instructions Project Financial Reports expenditure period 9. Financing Arrangements 9-Monthly Consolidated 1 month after each 6-monthly 10. Invoicing Instructions Request for Project Advance expenditure period Technical: 14. AWPs and Reports Consolidated Annual Work By 30 October Plans 14. AWPs and Reports Consolidated Inception 3 months after Contract start Report date 14. AWPs and Reports Consolidated Semi-annual By 31 August Reports 14. AWPs and Reports Consolidated Annual By 28 February Reports 14. AWPs and Reports Consolidated Final Report By project end date Other: 7. Equipment Asset Register With Consolidated Annual Reports All documents relating to financial procedures have to be submitted in hard copies, financial reports and requests for advances should be submitted additionally in soft copies. Documents should be submitted to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. All technical documents (AWPs and technical reports) have to be submitted in hard copies and soft copies to International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Supervisor. 33