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    Fragile X Syndrome.doc Fragile X Syndrome.doc Document Transcript

    • Carlgren 1 Fragile X Syndrome Matts Carlgren Mrs. Reimer Genetics 12BH November 1, 2006
    • Carlgren 2 Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a family of genetic conditions which can impact individuals and families in various ways. These genetic conditions are related in that they are all caused by gene changes in the same gene, called the FMR1 gene (March of Dimes); it is the most common inherited cause of mental impairment. In 1943, two scientists named Martin and Bell were the first to show that a particular form of mental retardation (later known as Fragile X Syndrome or Martin-Bell Syndrome) was X-linked (genetic disorders that are due to mutations on the X chromosome). In 1969, Herbert Lubs developed the chromosomal test for Fragile X in order to accurately identify affected patients. Testing was not done widely or extensively until the late 1970’s (March of Dimes). FXS is the most common cause of inherited mental impairment. It is a single gene disorder carried by either a mother or a father. This impairment can range from learning disabilities to more severe cognitive or intellectual disabilities (sometimes referred to as mental retardation). FXS is the most common known cause of autism or "autistic-like" behaviors (Fast). Symptoms also can include characteristic physical and behavioral features and delays in speech and language development. Fragile X Syndrome is X-linked due to a mutation in the FMR1 gene. In 1991 the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene that causes Fragile X was identified; it is the gene that contains the genetic information for how to synthesize FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). Fragile X Syndrome occurs when FMRP is missing. Scientists are not sure what the real function of FMRP is but their guess is that it revolves around protein synthesis. It is not essential for survival but evidently does play a major role in
    • Carlgren 3 how humans function. Consequently, if FMRP really has no vital contribution to cells then its absence should not create any symptoms related to FXS (Jewell). Fragile X Syndrome is not an infectious disease like the common cold, tuberculosis, or athlete's foot. Diseases like these are caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Infectious diseases are often passed from one person to another through personal contact. Fragile X Syndrome is not caused by a problem with nutrition. A person's diet may contribute to heart disease, the formation of gallstones, or heartburn. Nutritional diseases are often caused by someone eating too much of or too little of a particular nutrient. Instead, Fragile X Syndrome is transmitted from parent to child through the genetic information (DNA) that is present in the sperm and eggs. A change or mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the Fragile X Syndrome. Chromosomes are packages of genes that are passed from generation to generation. Most individuals have 46 chromosomes, two of which are sex chromosomes (an X and a Y). Females are made up of two X chromosomes while males contain an XY combination. Genes are given names to identify them and the gene responsible for Fragile X Syndrome is called the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene. The mutation is in the DNA (the chemical that makes up genes), of the X chromosome. Since females have more X chromosomes than males they are more likely to be carriers although not necessarily affected by it. The gene appears in three forms that are defined by the number of repeats of a pattern of DNA called CGG repeats. Individuals with less than 60 CGG repeats have a normal gene. Individuals with 60-200 CGG repeats have a permutation, meaning they carry an unstable mutation which can expand in future generations when associated with other potential Fragile X carriers. Individuals with over
    • Carlgren 4 200 repeats have a full mutation which causes Fragile X Syndrome (Hagerman). The full mutation causes the gene to shut down a methylate region of the FMR-1 gene. Premuations display few or no symptoms of FXS while the full mutation significantly magnifies symptoms. Normally, the FMR-1 gene produces an important protein called FMRP. When the gene is turned off, the individual does not make fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The lack of this specific protein is believed to cause Fragile X Syndrome. Technically, Fragile X Syndrome is an X-linked dominant condition with reduced penetration (referring to its partially recessive nature). FXS is an "X-linked" condition, meaning that the gene is on the X chromosome. Since a woman has two X chromosomes a female with a permutation (CGG count between 55 to about 200) or full mutation (CGG count exceeding 200) has a 50% chance of passing on the X with the mutation in each pregnancy (see chart on Pg.10). . If she has a premutation, and it is passed on (to either males or females), it can remain a premutation or it can expand to a full mutation (March of Dimes). If she has a full mutation and it is passed on (to either males or females), it will remain a full mutation. In many X-linked conditions only males who inherit the abnormal gene are affected due to unknown reasons, however in Fragile X Syndrome females can also be affected. Additionally, in other X-linked conditions all males who carry the gene are affected, however in Fragile X Syndrome, unaffected males can carry the gene in the premutation form and have no symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome. Males with the premutation will pass it on to all of their daughters and none of their sons (they pass their Y chromosome on to their sons) (March of Dimes). Since it is an inherited genetic disease, FXS is already evident at childbirth.
    • Carlgren 5 FXS is a rather common inherited cause of mental retardation. It is estimated that 1 in 3600 males have the mental disability caused by Fragile X. For some reason it is less common for females to receive FXS (1 in every 4000 to 6000 cases) and its effects are slightly milder than that of males (Hagerman). FXS is also known as the most common single gene cause of autism. Between 2-6 percent of all children diagnosed with autism are reportedly linked with the Fragile X gene mutation. Concurrently, approximately one-third of all children diagnosed with fragile X syndrome also have autism (Autism Society). The majority of males with Fragile X Syndrome will have a significant intellectual disability. The spectrum ranges from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation and autism. Autism is defined as being a complex developmental disability that usually appears early in children (three years of age), which is the result of a neurological disorder that hinders functions of the brain, most noticeably in areas of social interaction and basic communication skills. Although the behaviors of people with FXS or autism compare and contrast, these diseases are genetically expressed by the protein FMRP and autistic status appears to be associated with developmental outcome. Other clinical abnormalities associated with Fragile X Syndrome include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders (Autism Society). In addition, males with FXS have a variety of physical and behavioral characteristics. However, no male has all of these characteristics. Physical features such as enlarged ears, a long face with prominent chin, and large testicles (in post pubertal males) are common. Connective tissue problems may include ear infections, mitral valve prolapse (clinical syndrome of the heart where two flaps, the left atrium and the left ventricle, don’t close
    • Carlgren 6 evenly allowing a small amount of blood to leak back into the left atrium), flat feet, double-jointed fingers, hyper flexible joints and a variety of skeletal problems. Behavioral characteristics in males include attention deficit disorders, speech disturbances, hand biting, hand flapping, autistic behaviors, poor eye contact, and unusual responses to various touch, auditory or visual stimulation (Fast). The characteristics seen in males can also be seen in females, though females often have milder intellectual disability and a milder presentation of the behavioral or physical features. Much less is known about girls with Fragile X Syndrome; only about half of all females who carry the genetic mutation have symptoms themselves and about a third of the females have a significant intellectual disability. Others may have more moderate or mild learning difficulties. Similarly, the physical and behavioral characteristics are often expressed to a lesser degree. A DNA test for Fragile X was developed in 1992. This blood test is accurate and can detect both carriers and fully-affected individuals. It can be ordered by any physician; the blood sample is then sent to a lab that offers the test. It usually takes several weeks to get the results. Because the symptoms of Fragile X can be quite subtle, especially in young children, and because it is so frequent in the general population, many medical specialists recommend that testing for Fragile X be considered for any individual with otherwise unexplained developmental delay or mental retardation. Most major medical centers in the United States offer the Fragile X test. It costs about $200 but may be covered by health insurance (Hagerman). For more information about testing, talk to your doctor or genetic counselor.
    • Carlgren 7 At this point of time there is currently no miracle cure available to get rid of the crippling effects of FXS. However, there are alternatives towards helping patients improve their lives by assisting them come to terms with their disability and overcome various obstacles. Management includes such approaches as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy. The expertise of psychologists, special education teachers, and genetic counselors may also be beneficial. Drugs may be used to treat hyperactivity, seizures, and other problems. Folic acid has been found to improve hyperactivity and attention deficits in some pre-adolescent males with fragile X syndrome. Establishing a regular routine, avoiding over stimulation, and using calming techniques may also help in the management of behavioral problems. Children with mitral valve prolapse in their heart valve may need to see a heart specialist and take medications before surgery or dental procedures. Children with frequent ear and sinus infections may need to take medications or have special tubes placed in their ears to drain excess fluid. Mainstreaming of children with fragile X syndrome into regular classrooms is encouraged because they do well imitating behavior. Peer tutoring and positive reinforcement are also encouraged. Doctors must first evaluate the different characteristics of the patients before administrating a long term treatment plan. Recent studies have focused on a number of critical areas. The role of FMRP's RNA partners, many of which have now been validated through in vitro assays, is of primary importance. Also being examined is the function the various domains of FMRP and its translation of polyribosome on the mRNA as a messenger ribonucleoprotein, basically an RNA-binding protein, which is still relatively unknown (Hagerman). Fragile X is also known as the most prominent cause of autism; hopefully when FXS has been
    • Carlgren 8 uncovered there could be more scientific advances that could help to lessen or even possibly get rid off the effects of autism (Jewell). National Fragile X Foundation (Scientific and Clinical Advisory Committee), and The Fragile X Research Foundation are the current research experts in this field of genetic disorders. There are many independent researchers (doctors, scientists, authors) that provide information to these foundations and that keep private information. Once all these contributors start to work like a team can most progress become evident. Although Fragile X Syndrome might appear to be a very rare genetic it is not too distant as one might think. Since there has been no grand or frequent exposure revolving essentially all genetic disorders, the public seem to think that it doesn’t really exist. Nevertheless, it is a very common and misunderstood Syndrome. Even if there is no cure it does not mean that people suffering from its debilitating affects can’t get better. With better research, medication, and individual therapy being provided, scientists have been able to assist patients in improving their standard of living by developing their motor skills and mental capacity. Another common misconception is that their IQ decays or goes in “reverse,” while the real truth is that they are moving forward just like us but at a much slower rate. Even though FXS puts one’s behavioral patterns of movement and physical characteristics off balance from what is considered normal, they should not be excluded from society. Without enough funding and attention, this relatively unknown cause of mental retardation might remain unsolved and continue to plague other people’s lives in the future as well.
    • Carlgren 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY Fast, Dale, "Solving the Puzzle of Fragile X." The National Fragile X Foundation. October 6, 2006. Saint Xavier University. October 27, 2006. <http://www.fragilex.org/html/home.shtml>. The official Fragile X Syndrome website. Everything one would need to know about the disease in both brief and extensive insight is covered here. Its content is aimed towards helping people or families that have Fragile X Syndrome by finding out valuable information about how to treat and cope with its effects. There are several possibilities of donating, contacting, fundraising, and becoming a member of the site. I used a lot of info from this site to explain what it is like to live with FXS and how it is defined in scientific terms. Hagerman, Paul J, “Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research.” Fragile X Syndrome. 2002. Johns Hopkins University Press. October 27, 2006. A book dedicated to treating and uncovering FXS. Since it happened to be a book, the information available exceeded any other source I had come upon. There were step by step procedures for diagnosis chapters and several different ways of treating FXS depending on the individuals need. There was so much to read about that the real challenge became narrowing down the info that I wanted do use in the research project. Jewell, Jennifer, "Fragile X Syndrome." eMedicine. September 13th, 2006. Undefined. November 1, 2006. <http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic800.htm>. Everything in this article on the web is set up in a power point format. The author wrote mostly about the clinical aspects of FXS. What I found most useful on this article were the gene facts behind the disease and the vast bibliography the author had chosen to collect all her resources. It was easily read and quickly tells the reader what they are dealing with within minutes of entering the website. Unknown Author, "Quick References and fact Sheet: Fragile X Syndrome." Professionals and Researchers. March, 2006. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. October 27, 2006. <http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/681_9266.asp>. Although informative, the title suggests that it is an easy overview of FXS. It’s the first site that I used in order to get familiar with the genetic disease. Cause, symptoms, and inheritance are the main topics discussed in the article. The website is dedicated to prevent and help genetic diseases in infants and the non-profit organization seems to have legitimized information. There is a close resemblance between this website and the National Fragile X Foundation except its content is much more to the point and shortened.
    • Carlgren 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY Unknown Author, “Defining Autism.” Autism Society of America. November 2006. Unknown. November 26, 2006. <http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer>. Although a different subject, the Autism Society of America website is a spin off compared to the National Fragile X Foundation research site; only difference is that it’s about autism. There’s donation links, contact links, and a FAQ link. The usual treatment, research, and characteristics of autism stuff are covered here as well. The site is well constructed, probably the official one for the research of autism, and FXS is also mentioned here as it is closely related to the website featured neurological disease.
    • Carlgren 11 OUTLINE Introduction I. Fragile X Syndrome Pg. 2-3 A. Name and Brief History B. How Is It Caused C. Proteins Affected Pg. 3 A. Specific Type of Mutation Pg. 4-6 A. Other Parts of Body Affected B. Treatments C. What to Do In Order To Mitigate effects of FXS Pg. 6-7 A. Ongoing Research to Identify Other Mutations Associated to FXS Pg. 7-8 A. The identified Causing Gene B. Research Conductors II. Conclusion III. Bibliography IV. Outline V. Diagram.
    • Carlgren 12 DIAGRAM Source: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/fragileX/sub5.htm This is the display of a punnet square involving the gene that causes Fragile X Syndrome. The simulation illustrates what could potentially happen if either a mother or a father were carrying the FMR1 gene and then passed it on to their offspring. In Diagram A, the father has the FMR1 gene which he then passes on to 50% of his offspring, two daughters. In Diagram B, the mother has the FMR1 gene which she passes on to 50% of her offspring, one girl and one boy.
    • Carlgren 13 Lyrics Hellhound On My Trail ©(1978) 1990, 1991 Lehsem II, LLC/Claud L. Johnson Administered by Music & Media International, Inc. I gotta keep movin I gotta keep movin Blues fallin down like hail Blues fallin down like hail Umm mmmm mmm mmmmmm Blues fallin down like hail Blues fallin down like hail And the days keeps on worryin me theres a hellhound on my trail hellhound on my trail hellhound on my trail If today was Christmas Eve If today was Christmas Eve and tommorow was Christmas Day spoken : Aow wouldn't we have a time baby All I would need my little sweet rider just to pass the time away huh huh to pass the time away You sprinkled hot foot powder mmmm mmm around my door all around my door You sprinkled hot foot powder all around your daddy's door hmm hmm hmm It keep me with ramblin mind rider every old place I go every old place I go I can tell the wind is risin the leaves tremblin on the tree tremblin on the tree hmmm hmmm hmm mmm All I needs is my sweet woman and to keep my company hey hey hey hey my company
    • Carlgren 14 You gotta’ stay away You gotta’ stay away Fragile X is on my trail Fragile X is on my trail Umm mmmm mmm mmmmmm Fragile X is on my trail Fragile x is on my trail It’s no threat even if you inhale There’s a genetic disease on my trail Fragile X is mostly male Fragile X is mostly male I can not change the DNA I can not change the DNA Even if tomorrow was chistmas day spoken : Aow the FMR1 gene is nasty baby All I’d need is some understandin’ To get along huh huh So we all get along You give me pills mmmm mmm to change my body Chemicals in my body You give me psychotic therapy Try to open a subconscious door hmm hmm hmm But it don’t change my thinkin’ And I sure still act slow An I sure still act slow I can tell that I’m not normal So what if I like to grin I like to grin hmmm hmmm hmm mmm All I need is some understandin’ And a friend to keep me warm hey hey hey hey My fragile heart BIG TIME GAMBLER (E. Harrington)
    • Carlgren 15 I'm a big time gambler That's why I'm always on the move I'm a big time gambler That's why I'm always on the move Always tryin' my best to win But somehow or other always lose Started gamblin' Friday night Just as soon as I got paid But before the game was over I lost every dime I made I say I'm a big time gambler I've got Las Vegas in my veins And when it comes to races Bettin' on horses is my thing (that's why I've always got the blues) Like most big time gamblers You know they've always got the blues Just like most big time gamblers You know they've always got the blues You know they never stop gamblin' Until they lose their socks and shoes I’ve got autistic behaviors That’s why I move in a groove I’ve got autistic like behaviors That’s why I move in a groove Always doin’ my own dance How come you dont gimme’ a chance Started huntin’ Friday night But all women look in fright But before I charm them over I lose every dame in sight I say I might be a little special, Mother say its allright Too bad your hearts don’t ring or sing When you see me shaking that darn thing Like most X-Linked Cases Folks think I’m insane Just like most X-Linked Cases Folks think that I’m insane I’d better move out of this place I’d better find me the next comin’ train THE BLUES AIN'T NOTHING BUT??? (White - Williams)
    • Carlgren 16 Oh the blues ain't nothin' but a woman wanna see her man (2x) Cause she wants some lovin', you women will understand Oh the blues ain't nothin' but a low down heart disease (2x) Just lovin' your man, he's so hard to please Oh the blues ain't nothin' but a woman lovin' a married man (2x) Can't see him when she wants to, got to see him when she can Oh the blues ain't nothin' but a good woman feelin' bad (2x) Always downhearted, blue, disgusted and sad Oh the blues ain't nothin' but a feelin' that will get you down (2x) Fallin' out with your man, you feel like leaving town Fragile X’s ain’t nothin’, but syndromes make them bad (2x) I’d try to tell you why, but no one would understand Fragile Hearts ain’t nothin’, but heart diseases make me sad (2x) If I got me some medication, I truly would be glad Fragile minds ain’t nothin’, but ESL tests make me mad (2x) My given name is bobby, but I always spell it brad Fragile friends aint nothin, but u don’t make them cry (2x) Always trust them baby, they would leave you if you lie Fragile genes ain’t nothin, but doctors let you down (2x) Next time they telling you something , go ahead and leave that town Master of Puppets-By Metallica End of passion play, crumbling away I'm your source of self-destruction Veins that pump with fear, sucking darkest clear Leading on your deaths construction
    • Carlgren 17 Taste me you will see More is all you need Dedicated to How I'm killing you Come crawling faster Obey your Master Your life burns faster Obey your Master Faster Master of Puppets I'm pulling your strings Twisting your mind and smashing your dreams Blinded by me, you can't see a thing Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master Needlework the way, never you betray Life of death becoming clearer Pain monopoly, ritual misery Chop your breakfast on a mirror Taste me you will see More is all you need Dedicated to How I'm killing you Come crawling faster Obey your Master Your life burns faster Obey your Master Faster Master of Puppets I'm pulling your strings Twisting your mind and smashing your dreams Blinded by me, you can't see a thing Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master
    • Carlgren 18 Master, Master, where's the dreams that I've been after? Master, Master, you promised only lies Laughter, laughter, all I hear or see is laughter Laughter, laughter, laughing at my cries FIX ME Hell is worth all that, natural habitat Just a rhyme without a reason Neverending maze, drift on numbered days Now your life is out of season I will occupy I will help you die I will run through you Now I rule you too Come crawling faster Obey your Master Your life burns faster Obey your Master Master Master of Puppets I'm pulling your strings Twisting your mind and smashing your dreams Blinded by me, you can't see a thing Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master Just call my name, 'cause I'll hear you scream Master Master Caster of Plaster Everyone betrays, hushing me away they’re my source of self destruction People stare with fear, draining all my tears looking at my face construction
    • Carlgren 19 Poke me you will see you don’t know how I feel You’re a dreadful fool Karma laughs at you Try thinking faster My heads like plaster who’s the evil caster relay my Syndrome Catacomb Fragile X Syndrome is pulling my strings Twisting my mind and blocking my dreams Marked with X’s I’m labeled with things Call me a name, I’ll make you scream Fragile Fragile dare call me names and I'll make you scream Fragile Fragile Needless to say, My IQ’s in delay Friends and foes becoming clearer Pain monstrosity, mental misery eating chalk in front of teachers Poke me you will see you don’t know how I feel You’re a dreadful fool Karma laughs at you Try thinking faster My heads like plaster Who’s the evil caster relay my Syndrome Catacomb Fragile X Syndrome is pulling my strings Twisting my mind and blocking my dreams Marked with X’s I’m labeled with things call me a name, I’ll make you scream Fragile Fragile dare call me names and I'll make you scream Fragile Fragile
    • Carlgren 20 Fragile, Fragile, I get confused by seeing argyle Fragile, Fragile, my parents give me sighs Laughter, laughter, all I hear or see is laughter Laughter, laughter, laughing at my life FIX ME The world is full of hate, some discriminate I bite my shirt without a reason I drift from day to day, I’m like you in many ways why can’t we exist together? I would appreciate if I could initiate a new task to undertake It’s my turn to humiliate Try thinking faster My heads like plaster Who’s the evil caster relay my Syndrome Catacomb Fragile X Syndrome is pulling my strings Twisting my mind and blocking my dreams Marked with X’s I’m labeled with things call me a name, I’ll make you scream Fragile Fragile dare call me names and I'll make you scream Fragile Fragile Effort in Use of Resources In order to rewrite the song Master of Puppets by Metallica, I needed to efficiently use whatever resources available to stay true to the material as well as blend in
    • Carlgren 21 some of my own creativity. Only with the help of both human and digital assets in my repertoire was I able to successfully produce new material fitting of a genetic disease. Hopefully my attempts at introducing Fragile X Syndrome in front of a live audience will prove to pay off as a major accomplishment to be proud of. The first source that I set out to pursue was the actual song I initially set out to perform. I had all of Metallica’s music on CD’s, sheet music for guitar, but no lyrics. I searched the internet for Master of Puppets and found the actual lyrics on Metallica’s official website. This was a tremendous adversary for covering and establishing new lyrical content to my new writing on. Along side with my Research paper, I made sure that each chorus, verse, and interlude had the same flow and rhythmic punch as the original while still being changed literally. Meticulously, I made sure the song made sense and could be presented without offending anyone while also containing an edgy feel to its message. Since I am going to play guitar on both the recording and the live performance I sought to find some interactive material to play along with (this way I could play along with a back up track, resembling that o the rest of my band). After doing some research online I found a midi playing software program called Guitar Pro 5. Guitar Pro was designed to be used as a replacement for sheet music. One can go online to download “tabs” (notes based on a number system) or create new innovative tracks with hundreds of digital instruments to experiment with. What makes the program even better is its function of playing the midi score while reading the notes with the help of instruments creating distinct sounds which mimic their contemporary models. It’s definitely a key element for being able to keep track of my playing and see how much faster I can get (the
    • Carlgren 22 program has tons of features like simplified scales, tempo speed, metronome, alternate tuning, instrument effects and volume, and so on). Without this program it would have taken a much longer time to improve my skills on the guitar, due to master of puppets’ demanding rhythm section and diverse style. Computers were never designed to give any feedback to struggling musicians, which is why I decided to contact Scott Myrene as my third source. Scott is the bassist of a rock band called The Boss Martians and has provided with insightful feedback on my material. Scott was the one to tell me to practice with a metronome and play along with songs so that I can play by myself without any assistance. He has analyzed my lyrics, inspected my guitar playing, and asked questions on where all my work is headed. He’s acted as a director by organizing my thoughts and concentrating on the substance that matters and what not. With his aid I have been assured that my accomplishments within this research project are at top notch level so that I don’t have to worry about imperfections. EXTENDED BIBLIOGRAPHY Ellis, Karen, “Science through Music.” Educational Playground. 2006. 1997 Educational Cyber playground. December 14, 2006. http://www.edu- cyberpg.com/IEC/iecscience.html
    • Carlgren 23 A huge Online Based site full of links to all kinds of things related to cyber stuff, mostly science and music though. It’s very informative, including detailed lessons on how to integrate science, math, physics, etc into a song and make it work right. It’s so vast that I only browsed through the science/history in music link. Overwhelming information. Williams, Lynda, “How To Make Science Karaoke.” Science Entertainment. December 2006. Science Entertainment. December 14, 2006. http://www.scientainment.com/khowto1.html Big Science music site written by a physics/go go girl teacher. Has the usual music links, song spoofs, and how to create your own science songs (even has categories for different subjects in school). What really stands out in this site though is the online and interactive karaoke machine on the website. It shows u how o make the songs digitally step by step and how to make a PowerPoint presentation on a song in which it is incorporated into the presentation. Unknown Author, “About Cakewalk.” Cakewalk. November 28, 2006. 12 Tone Systems. December 14, 2006. http://www.cakewalk.com/About/default.asp This is the Official website for a home studio program called Cakewalk. It’s compatible with a pc and has such a vast variety of instruments, effects, samples of songs, and interactive downloadable material that is updated as much as possible (on the site itself). There is also an online manual for every version of cakewalk (I have home studio 2) with contact info incase a customer has questions concerning their product.