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Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics
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Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics

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  • 1. CHAPTER 12 SECTION 4 Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics
  • 2.
    • The Mendelian inheritance pattern is rare in nature (too complex)
    • Other patterns include polygenic inheritance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and codominance.
  • 3. Polygenic Inheritance
    • A character that is influenced or affected by more than one gene is called a polygenic character.
    • Eye color, height, and skin color are examples of polygenic characters.
  • 4. Codominance
    • Genes that have three or more possible alleles are said to have multiple alleles.
    • Multiple alleles control the ABO blood groups (blood types) in humans.
    • Codominance is a condition in which both alleles for the same gene are fully expressed.
    • The genetics of human blood groups is an example of codominance.
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Comparing the types of dominance
  • 7. Environmental Effects
    • Phenotype can be affected by conditions in the environment, such as nutrients and temperature.
    • In humans, many characters that are partly determined by heredity, such as height, are also affected by the environment.
    • Many aspects of human personality and behavior are strongly affected by the environment, but genes also play an important role.
  • 8. Linked to Chromosomes
    • Many traits do not follow Mendel’s laws because he studied the simplest kinds of heredity where characters are determined by independent genes.
    • During meiosis, genes that are close together on the same chromosome are less likely to be separated than genes that are far apart.
    • Genes that are close together, as well as the traits they determine, are said to be linked.
    • Linked genes tend to be inherited together.
  • 9. Credits
    • Images and content from Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.