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  • 1. Genome Games Introduction Suitable for KS3/KS4 these games explore human genetics using familiar formats. Games similar to Pictionary, Taboo and Consequences introduce students to a variety of issues. Students will be encouraged to think about the ethical and social issues relating to the rapidly moving field of human genetics and the possible impact it may have on medicine, healthcare and individuals rights. Each game will give students the opportunity to discover more about the topic at hand, discuss related issues, form their own opinions and communicate what they think to other members of the group. The game activities focus on genetic terminology, ethical and social issues relating to the developments in human genetics. The resources are very flexible. They can be used in Citizenship or Science lessons. They can be used as starter or plenary activities. Each activity can be used on its own, or together in any combination. Some games can be used as a whole class activity, while other games work well with small groups. How long each game or session lasts is also flexible and can be adapted for any class. Contents Page Content 1 Intro/contents page 2.8 Glossary 9 Illustrate introduction 10 Illustrate KS3 cards 11-12 Illustrate KS4 cards 13 Taboo Introduction 14-16 Taboo KS3 cards 17-22 Taboo KS4 cards 23 Pairs introduction 24-26 Pairs cards 27 Cloned animals 28 Missing words introduction 29-31 Missing words sheets 32 Completed headlines 33-38 Missing words extra information www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 2. The Glossary This provides a useful reference tool for both students and staff and in particular is designed to include all the terms used in Illustrate and Taboo. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 3. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 4. Allele: One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome. (http://dictionary.reference.c Amino acid: Any of a class of 20 molecules that are combined to form proteins in living things. The sequence of amino acids in a prote Aryan race: A member of the Indo-European-speaking people first living in Iran and later entering India and conquering the people livin In Nazism and neo-Nazism, a non-Jewish Caucasian, especially one of Nordic type, supposed to be part of a master race. (http://diction See also Eugenics Asexual reproduction: Reproduction in which an organism produces one or more clones of itself, such as by fission or budding. (http:/ Biotechnology: The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specifi Blastocyst: See Blastula Blastula: An early embryo typically having the form of a hollow fluid-filled rounded cavity bounded by a single layer of cells. (http://www Cancer: Diseases in which abnormal cells divide and grow unchecked. Cancer can spread from its original site to other parts of the bod Carbon Copy: Also known as CC, Carbon copy was the first cloned cat. She was cloned by a team at Texas A&M University in Februa (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/genes/gene_safari/clone_zone/pet02.shtml) Carrier: An individual that carries one gene for a particular recessive trait. A carrier does not express the trait but, when mated with ano Cells: One of the tiny units that are the basic building blocks of living things, that carry on the basic functions of life either alone or in gr Chromosomes: One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have d www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 5. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 6. Clones: An exact copy made of biological material such as a DNA segment (e.g., a gene or other region), a whole cell, or a complete o Cloning: Using specialized DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single gene or other segment of DNA to obtain enou CopyCat: See Carbon Copy Cryogenesis: The science concerned with the production and effects of very low temperatures. (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/index. Designer babies: Popular press term for selecting which babies will be born on the basis of their genetics. s (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/genes/gene_safari/wild_west/designer_babies.shtml) Detective: A person, usually a member of a police force, who investigates crimes and obtains evidence or information. (http://dictionary Double helix: The coiled structure of double-stranded DNA in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration, with DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. The chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms. DNA bank: A service that stores DNA extracted from blood samples or other human tissue. (http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Hum DNA database: See DNA bank DNA detectives: See Detective DNA fingerprint: An individual's unique sequence of DNA base pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecu DNA fingerprinting: A method of identification (as for forensic purposes) by determining the unique pattern of a person's DNA. (http://w See also DNA fingerprint Dominant: A gene that almost always results in a specific physical characteristic, for example, a disease, even though the patient's gen Dolly: Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. She was created by scientists at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh in 1 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/genes/gene_safari/factfiles/dolly.html) Egg cell: A female gamete; an ovum. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) See also Gamete Embryo: An organism at any time before full development, birth, or hatching. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 7. Eugenics: The study of improving a species by artificial selection; usually refers to the selective breeding of humans. (http://www.ornl.g Evolution: Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on Extinct species/Extinction: The death of an entire species. (http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu/search/dict-search.html) Forensic: Relating to the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence in a court of law. (http Forensic evidence: See Forensic Forensic science: See Forensic Frankenstein: The fictional Swiss scientist who was the protagonist in a gothic novel by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley; he created a mon Fraternal twin: Either of two twins who developed from two separate fertilized eggs. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) Gamete: A mature sex cell that usually has half of the normal number of chromosomes and is capable of uniting with a gamete of the o Genes: The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain Gene pool: The collective genetic information contained within a population of sexually reproducing organisms. (http://dictionary.refere Gene therapy: An experimental procedure aimed at replacing, manipulating, or supplementing nonfunctional or misfunctioning genes w Genetic counselling: A short-term educational counselling process for individuals and families who have a genetic disease or who are Genetic engineering: Altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to enable them to make new substances or perform new func Genetic testing for disease: Analysing an individual's genetic material to determine predisposition to a particular health condition or to Genomes: An organism's genetic material. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) Genotype: The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms. (http://diction www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 8. Gregor Mendel: An Austrian monk and botanist who lived from 1822 to 1884; his breeding experiments on garden peas and subseque Hetrozygote: Possessing two different forms of a particular gene, one inherited from each parent. (www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm) Homozygote: Possessing two identical forms of a particular gene, one inherited from each parent. (www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm) Human Genome Project: An international research effort to map and identify the role of all genes in the human genome. (http://diction Hybrid: The offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of differ Identical twins: Twins derived from the same fertilized ovum that at an early stage of development becomes separated into independe Immortality: Living or lasting forever. (http://www.wordcentral.com/) Implantation: The process by which a fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) Inheritance: The process of genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) IVF: In vitro fertilisation. (Literally, "in glass") Fertilization outside the body in a laboratory; the term "test tube baby" is inaccurate since f Karyotype: A photomicrograph of an individual's chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, size, and shape of Locus: The position that a given gene occupies on a chromosome. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) Microscope: A piece of laboratory equipment that is used to magnify small things that are too small to be seen by the naked eye, or too Mutation: A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally Nucleus: The central cell structure that houses the chromosomes. (www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm) Petri dish: A shallow circular dish with a loose-fitting cover, used to culture bacteria or other microorganisms. (http://dictionary.referenc www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 9. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 10. Pharm animals: Popular press term for animals that have been genetically engineered to produce medicines in their milk or urine. (http Pharming: Popular press term for the production of genetically engineered animals that produce medicines in their milk or urine. (http:/ Phenotype: The visible characteristics of a plant or animal that result from the combined effects of the genes and the environment. (htt Protein: A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order; the order is determined by the base sequ Recessive: A gene which will be expressed only if there are 2 identical copies or, for a male, if one copy is present on the X chromosom Reproductive cloning: making a full living copy of an organism. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) RNA: Ribonucleic acid. A chemical found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells; it plays an important role in protein synthesis and other Saviour siblings: Popular press term for embryos selected to be born to help save a sibling suffering from a particular disorder. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/genes/gene_safari/wild_west/designer_babies.shtml) Selective breeding: Combining the desirable traits of at least two genotypes, in order to breed new varieties. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/ge Spare organs: In the future, it may be possible to create spare organs from stem cells for replacement in the case of damage or diseas (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/genes/gene_safari/clone_zone/human_cloning04.shtml) Sperm: A reproductive cell produced by the male of an animal species which, when united with an egg (of the same species), results in Stem cells: An undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types. (http://dictionary.reference.com/) Test tube: A clear, cylindrical glass tube usually open at one end and rounded at the other, used in laboratory experimentation. (http://d Test tube babies: Conceived by or developed from fertilization in laboratory apparatus or by artificial insemination. (http://dictionary.ref The term "test tube baby" is inaccurate since fertilization occurs in a small circular dish, not a test tube. (http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu/s www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 11. G Glo Therapeutic cloning: Can create cloned human cells, but not whole embryos beyond the 14-day stage. May be used to better underst (http://www.mrc.ac.uk/pdf_therapeutic_cloning.pdf) Transgenic: Of, relating to, or being an organism whose genome has been altered by the transfer of a gene or genes from another spe Transgenic animal: See Transgenic. Wildtype: The typical form of an organism, strain, gene, or characteristic as it occurs in nature, as distinguished from mutant forms that Xenotransplantation: See Xenograft Xenograft: Tissue or organs from an individual of one species transplanted into or grafted onto an organism of another species, genus www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 12. Illustrate In this game pupils get the opportunity to express their views visually. The players try to guess various words, phrases or biological techniques by drawing clues for each other. This game is an alternative method of expressing opinions and prompts discussion through images. Resources: Glossary Illustrate cards Format: 2-4 players as individuals or in teams can play this game. There are four categories on the cards, each represented by a symbol. Pupils can choose the category for the other players/team to draw:  Person/Animal www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 13.  Object  Process/Technique ? Difficult Players take it in turn to draw for their own team members. The drawer has one minute to sketch clues to their team but may not speak at anytime. If the team guess correctly within the time limit they win a point. A point is won if the team successfully guesses what the image is. The group should be encouraged to discuss images drawn and conceptual differences between individual players. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 14. Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Person/Animal  Dolly the Sheep  Extinct Species  Object  Nucleus  Test Tube  Process/Technique  Cloning  Biology ? Difficult ? Cancer ? Immortality Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Scientist  Spiderman  Identical Twins  Embryo  Chromosomes  Cells  IVF  Chemistry  Physics  Parents ? Mutation ? Future ? www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 15. Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Clones  Frankenstein  Test Tube Babies  Spare Organs  Genes  DNA  Sexual Reproduction  Genetic Engineering  Freezing ? Designer Babies ? Inheritance ? Environment Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Person/Animal  Pharm Animals  Saviour Siblings  Object  Nucleus  Genes  Process/Technique  Implantation  Inheritance ? Difficult ? ? Evolution Asexual Reproduction Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Scientist  Supermen  Test Tube Babies  Sperm  Genomes  Petri Dish  Xenotransplantation  IVF  Pharming ? Future ? Extinction www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz ? Mutation
  • 16. Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Gregor Mendel  Lab Rats  Copycat  Test Tube  Homozygote  Heterozygote  Reproductive Cloning  Selective Breeding  Therapeutic Cloning ? Genotype Illustr¦e ? Phenotype ? Playing God  Person/Animal  Object  Process/Technique ? Difficult www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 17. Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Aryan Race  Clones  Blastocyst  Chromosomes  Cloning  Cryogenesis ? Cancer ? Immortality Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Designer Babies  DNA Detectives  Dolly  DNA  Microscope  Egg Cell  DNA Fingerprinting  Forensic Science  Gene Therapy ? Dominant ? Recessive ? Forensic Evidence Illustr¦e Illustr¦e Illustr¦e  Extinct Species  Frankenstein  Identical Twins  Embryo  Spare Organs  Cells  Genetic Counselling  Genetic Engineering  Genetic Testing for Disease ? ? ? Stem Cells Human Genome Project Transgenic Animals www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 18. Taboo The object of this game is to successfully describe words – without actually using the word itself! The players get the opportunity to learn new words or phrases and improve understanding by explaining to others what they think the word is. Everyone in the group can discover, discuss and debate each other’s definitions. Resources: Glossary Taboo cards Bag or hat Format: This can be played with small groups of 2-6 playing in teams. They have one minute to describe as many words as possible to their team, without using the word itself. The first player removes a word from the bag/hat and describes it to their team. As soon as the team have guessed the word, the player moves onto the next one until the minute is up. Used cards do not go back in the bag. The next team then has a minute to define words to their team. Play returns to first team and continues until all the words have been used. The team with the most words guessed wins. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 19. Biology Clones www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 20. Dolly the Chemistry Sheep Frankenstein Parents Test Tube Babies www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 21. Identical Spiderman Physics Twins Extinct Designer Species Babies Future Lab Rats Scientist Mutation DNA IVF Embryo www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 22. Spare Organs Chromosomes Immortality Inheritance Cells Genes Environment Cancer Test Tube www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 23. Nucleus Genetic Engineering Cloning Freezing Asexual Reproductio Dominant n Forensic www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz Mutation Evidence
  • 24. Future Transgeni Aryan c Animals Race DNA Detectives Frankenstei n Saviour Siblings www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 25. Identical Supermen Twins Designer Pharm Babies Animals Extinct Phenotyp Species e www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 26. Gregor Scientist Lab Mendel Blastocys Rats t Recessiv e DNA Database Embryo Spare Organs CopyCat Egg Cell Chromosome s Extinction www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 27. Human Stem Genome Cells Project Playing God Petri Dish Hetrozygote Sperm Cryogenesi DNA s Fingerprinting www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 28. Genomes Evolution Homozygote Forensic Science Genetic Counselling Implantation Pharming Therapeutic Genotype www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz cloning
  • 29. Genetic Gene Testing for Therapy Disease Selective Breeding Genetic Reproductiv Engineering e cloning Xeno- Inheritance transplantatio n www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 30. Pairs This is a fun visual game where you match animals to their clones. The aim is to introduce students to the issues surrounding animal cloning. You could use this game as a stimulus for further discussion, asking the students to respond to the questions as they are revealed and leading, if desired to wider discussions about the issues surrounding cloning. Resources Cloned animal cards Cloned animal information Format: These resources can either be used for Pairs or Snap. Pairs is a memory game where the cards are turned face down, and players take turns to turn two over. If the images match they win the pair and then have to open up the question to the rest of the group for discussion. If not they are returned face down and the next player has their turn. The pictures on the cards are all animals that have been successfully cloned. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 31. Would human clones… …be less human? www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz Would you have… …a cloned pet?
  • 32. Are these cow clones… …unnatural? www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz How might creating animal clones… …be useful?
  • 33. Is there any animal… …we should never clone? Why? www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz Would cloned mice… …act and behave alike?
  • 34. Is Dolly the sheep… …a scientific achievement? www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz Are identical twins… …unique?
  • 35. Cloned animal information Tadpole First animal to be cloned. 1959. Sheep Dolly was the first successfully cloned mammal from an adult cell. 1996. Cows Cows, the second successful adult-animal clones, were created in Japan in 1998. Mice Cumulina was the first born mouse clone, born in Hawaii in 1998. Goats Goats were first cloned in Canada in 1999. Pigs Five healthy pigs were born to a British company in America in 2000. Cat Cc was the first cloned cat, born in 2001. Rabbits The first cloned rabbits born in France in 2002. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 36. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 37. Missing words This game has headlines taken from popular British press news stories on genetics. Pupils can work their way through and fill in what they think the missing word may be. Resources: Missing words template Missing words answers Extra information This is an excellent resource for providing a background to the possibilities of cloning and potential issues surrounding this technology. This resource can be used to both inform the students and lead to further discussion around the issues raised. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 38. Missing Words M Nine lives just the start for tomorrow’s _______ Times 17/04/04 Britain first to _______ human cloning Guardian 19/04/01 NHS to safeguard against ‘genetic __________’ Guardian 24/06/03 ________________ to be outlawed Guardian 19/04/01 Estonia sells its _________ pool Guardian 09/11/00 Taking ________ by stealth ‘should be outlawed’ Guardian 22/05/02 Children treated with __________ cells. BBC News 17/02/04 www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 39. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 40. Missing Words M Genetic _________ risk creating a new underclass Guardian 28/09/00 UK's first 'designer baby' born to help __________ Independent 19/06/03 Dolly boffin backs _________ of ___________ The Sun 19/02/04 _________________ funds ‘designer baby’ Femail 22/03/04 Baby _______ selection ruled out Femail news 12/11/03 Carbon kitty's $__________ price tag BBC News 28/04/04 www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 41. Missing Words M ____________ cheats seek genetic boost BBC NEWS 16/02/04 ____________ ‘should see gene tests’ BBC NEWS 30/01/04 ____________ aid to genetic study BBC NEWS 17/12/03 Scientists clone 30 ____________ embryos BBC NEWS 12/02/04 Test tube ______________ created BBC NEWS 29/01/02 Cloned sheep Dolly has ______________ BBC NEWS 04/01/02 Body parts cloning 'to go ___________’ BBC NEWS 30/07/00 www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 42. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 43. C Completed headlines Nine lives just the start for tomorrow’s cats Times 17/04/04 Britain first to ban human cloning Guardian 19/04/01 NHS to safeguard against ‘genetic underclass’ Guardian 24/06/03 Human cloning to be outlawed Guardian 19/04/01 Estonia sells its gene pool Guardian 09/11/00 Taking DNA by stealth ‘should be outlawed’ Guardian 22/05/02 Children treated with stem cells BBC News 17/02/04 Genetic test risk creating a new underclass Guardian 28/09/00 UK's first 'designer baby' born to help sick brother Independent 19/06/03 Dolly boffin backs cloning of babies The Sun 19/02/04 Taxpayer funds ‘designer baby’ Femail 22/03/04 Baby sex selection ruled out Femail news 12/11/03 Carbon kitty's $50,000 price tag BBC News 28/04/04 Athlete cheats seek genetic boost BBC NEWS 16/02/04 Insurers ‘should see gene tests’ BBC NEWS 30/01/04 Robotic aid to genetic study BBC NEWS 17/12/03 Scientists clone 30 human embryos BBC NEWS 12/02/04 Test tube kidneys created BBC NEWS 29/01/02 Cloned sheep Dolly has arthritis BBC NEWS 04/01/02 Body parts cloning 'to go ahead' BBC NEWS 30/07/00 www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 44. Nine lives just the start for tomorrow’s cats Cats really can have nine lives. Or ten or 11, or however many their owners choose, after a Californian firm bega Britain first to ban human cloning Human cloning will be banned in Britain - the first country to do so - in a move calculated to allay ethical fears abo NHS to safeguard against ‘genetic underclass’ The NHS is to have a crucial role in ensuring that advances in genetic testing do not lead to the neglect of an "un Human cloning to be outlawed The government is drawing up legislation to outlaw human reproductive cloning in an attempt to reassure the pub Estonia sells its gene pool Do you happen to have a few hundred million pounds ready? Do you want to buy a population of 1.3 million peop Taking DNA by stealth ‘should be outlawed’ Secretly taking DNA samples to establish blood relationships or to obtain other highly personal information shoul Children treated with stem cells Researchers in the US say they have been using stem cells to successfully treat genetic diseases in children. Th BBC News 17/02/04 www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 45. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 46. Genetic test risk creating a new underclass The United States equal employment opportunities commissioner, Paul Miller, has called for tougher safeguards UK's first 'designer baby' born to help sick brother Britain's first genetic "designer" baby has been born to a couple who are desperate to cure their young son who h Dolly boffin backs cloning of babies Prof says it will help beat disorders. The scientist who led the team behind Dolly the sheep yesterday said he su Taxpayer funds ‘designer baby’ The health service could pay up to £20,000 to create a "designer baby" to save the life of a child with a rare blood The decision has led to ethical concern over taxpayer's cash being used to fund a treatment which involves both Femail 22/03/04 Baby sex selection ruled out Moves to prevent couples being allowed to choose the sex of their baby for reasons other than medical concerns Carbon kitty's $50,000 price tag Cats can now have more than nine lives thanks to a Californian company that is the first US firm to go commercia Athlete cheats seek genetic boost The prospect that athletes will soon try to enhance their bodies with gene technology is raised by the results of a The scientist behind the research says his intention was to find new ways of treating muscle wasting diseases. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 47. Insurers ‘should see gene tests’ The results of tests for genetic diseases should Robotic aid to genetic study Two robots have been introduced to a research project that has been tracking the health of Bristol children. The Scientists clone 30 human embryos South Korean scientists have cloned 30 human embryos to obtain cells they hope could one day be used to treat Test tube kidneys created Scientists have used cloning technology to create fully functioning kidneys in the laboratory. They hope the break Cloned sheep Dolly has arthritis Dolly the cloned sheep has arthritis according to one of the scientists involved in her creation. Professor Ian Wilm Body parts cloning 'to go ahead' The government is to give the go-ahead to growing "spare body parts", from human embryos, it has been reporte www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz
  • 48. www.at-bristol.org.uk/cz