Disorders Unit Notes


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Disorders Unit Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Outline Studying Psychological Disorders Gender and Cultural Diversity Identifying Abnormal Behavior Culture and Schizophrenia Gender and Cultural Diversity A Cultural Look at Disorders Other Disorders Explaining Abnormality Dissociative Disorders Classifying Abnormal Behaviors Personality Disorders Substance-Related Disorders Research Highlights “Being Insane in Insane Places” Active Learning Testing Your Knowledge of Abnormal Behavior Anxiety Disorders Gender and Cultural Diversity Unreasonable Anxiety Gender, Culture, and Depression Causes of Anxiety Disorders Suicide Mood Disorders Understanding Mood Disorders Causes of Mood Disorders Schizophrenia Symptoms of Schizophrenia Types of Schizophrenia Causes of Schizophrenia
  2. 2. Chapter Summary/Lecture Organizer I. STUDYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS A. Identifying Abnormal Behavior • Abnormal behavior is identified as patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms. B. Explaining Abnormality • The belief that demons cause abnormal behavior was common in ancient times. • The medical model, which emphasizes disease and illness, replaced this demonological model. • During the Middle Ages, demonology returned and exorcisms were used to treat abnormal behavior. • Asylums began to appear toward the close of the Middle Ages. C. Classifying Abnormal Behaviors • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) categorizes disorders and provides detailed descriptions useful for communication among professionals. • Although an adequate diagnosis is needed for proper treatment, labels can also become self-fulfilling. II. ANXIETY DISORDER A. Unreasonable Anxiety • People with anxiety disorders have persistent feelings of threat in facing everyday problems. • In generalized anxiety disorders, there is a persistent free-floating anxiety. • In panic disorder, anxiety is concentrated into brief or lengthy episodes of panic attacks. • Phobias are exaggerated fears of specific objects or situations, such as agoraphobia, a fear of being in open spaces.
  3. 3. • In obsessive-compulsive disorder, persistent anxiety-arousing thoughts (obsessions) are relieved by ritualistic actions (compulsions) such as hand- washing. • In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a person who has experienced an overwhelming trauma, such as rape, has recurrent maladaptive emotional reactions, such as exaggerated startle responses, sleep disturbances, and flashbacks. B. Causes of Anxiety Disorders • Research on the causes of anxiety disorders have focussed on learning, biology, and cognitive processes. • Learning theorists suggest anxiety disorders result from classical and operant conditioning, as well as modeling and imitation. • The biological perspective suggests that genetic pre-dispositions, disrupted biochemistry, or unusual brain activity influence the development of anxiety disorders. • The cognitive approach emphasizes distorted thinking that magnifies ordinary threats and failures, resulting in anxiety disorders. III. SCHIZOPHRENIA - Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic mental disorder that afflicts approximately one out of every 100 people. A. Symptoms of Schizophrenia • The major symptoms are disturbances in perception (impaired filtering and selection, and hallucinations); language and thought disturbances (impaired logic, word salads, neologisms, and delusions); emotional disturbances (either exaggerated or blunted emotions); and behavioral disturbances (social withdrawal, bizarre mannerisms, catalepsy, waxy flexibility). • Delusions – disorganized and confused thinking B. Types of Schizophrenia • In reaction to problems with previous categorization of schizophrenia (paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, and undifferentiated), an alternative classification system has been proposed. • Schizophrenic symptoms involving distorted or excessive mental activity (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) would be classified as positive symptoms, whereas symptoms involving behavioral deficits (e.g., toneless voice, flattened emotions) would be classified as negative symptoms. C. Causes of Schizophrenia • Biological theories of the causes of schizophrenia emphasize genetics (people inherit a predisposition), disruptions in neurotransmitters (primarily dopamine), and abnormalities in brain structure or function (such as enlarged ventricles or low levels of activity in the frontal and temporal lobes). • Psychosocial theories of schizophrenia focus on stress as a trigger for initial episodes and for relapse. Family communication deviance also has been suggested. Studies of family environments suggest that high expressed emotionality may be linked to a worsening and relapse of schizophrenic symptoms.
  4. 4. • Explanations for schizophrenia get mixed research support. Biological theories cannot necessarily determine the direction of cause and effect relationships. Psychosocial theories have been unable to exactly determine how and why certain life events trigger schizophrenic episodes in some cases, but not in others. Overall, schizophrenia is probably a combination of interacting (known and unknown) factors. • Schizophrenia is the most culturally universal mental disorder in the world. There are numerous culturally general symptoms (such as delusions), but also four major differences across cultures: prevalence, form, onset, and prognosis. IV. MOOD DISORDERS A. Understanding Mood Disorders • Mood disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances of emotional states. • The hallmark of major depressive disorder is a pervasive feeling of deep sadness. • Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes similar to major depressive disorder alternating with episodes of mania in which speech and thinking are rapid, and the person may experience delusions of grandeur and engage in impulsive behaviors. B. Causes of Mood Disorders • Biological theories of mood disorders emphasize disruptions in neurotransmitters (especially dopamine and serotonin). Antidepressants are often effective in relieving major depression. Bipolar disorders are generally treated with lithium carbonate. • Recent research has also implicated certain brain areas that may trigger episodes of mood disorder. • There is also evidence for a genetic predisposition for both major depression and bipolar disorder. • Psychological theories of mood disorders emphasize disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, poor self-concept, and maladaptive learning. • Learned helplessness theory suggests that depression results from repeated failures at attempted escape from the source of stress. • Depression also has been shown to be related to seasons of the year. Most seasonal affective disorder (SAD) sufferers report problems with depression in the winter. Studies with controlled periods of light have been effective in relieving this type of depression. o Depression seems to involve several culture-general symptoms (such as sad affect and loss of enjoyment). o Women are more likely than men to suffer depressive symptoms in many countries. Some researchers explain this in terms of hormonal differences, but a large-scale study found cultural factors (such as poverty and discrimination) were strong predictors. Other researchers suggest women are socialized toward certain behaviors (such as passivity and dependence) that predispose them toward depression. C. Suicide
  5. 5. • Suicide is a serious problem associated with depression. By becoming involved and showing concern, we can help reduce the risk of suicide. V. OTHER DISORDERS A. Dissociative Disorders • In dissociative disorders, critical elements of personality split apart. This split is manifested in failing to recall or identify past experiences (dissociative amnesia), by leaving home and wandering off (dissociative fugue), or by developing completely separate personalities (dissociative identity disorder [DID] or multiple personality disorder). B. Somatoform Disorders • In somatoform disorders, there are physical symptoms without physical causes. • In the somatoform disorder called conversion disorder, the person converts an emotional conflict into a physical symptom such as blindness or paralysis. • In hypochondriasis, another somatoform disorder, a person is preoccupied with an extreme fear of illness and disease. • Conversion disorders were once known as hysteria or hysterical neurosis. C. Personality Disorders • Personality disorders involve inflexible, maladaptive personality traits. • The best known type is the antisocial personality, characterized by egocentrism, lack of guilt, impulsivity, and superficial charm. The person doesn’t seem to have a conscious and feels no remorse for hurting others, even loved ones. Some research has suggested this disorder may be related to defect in brain waves and arousal patterns, genetic inheritance, and disturbed family relationships. • Paranoid – excessively suspicious and guarded , unable to trust others and tends to be hostile • Narcissistic – exaggerated sense of privilege and grandiosity and expects to be catered to and admired by all C. Substance-Related Disorder • Substance-related disorder is diagnosed when use of a psychoactive drug interferes with social or occupational functioning and drug tolerance or withdrawal symptoms occur. • Learning theories point to maladaptive reinforcement in substance-related disorder. • Genetic inheritance patterns occur for abuse of alcohol. • Another factor is comorbidity, wherein those suffering from other types of disorders begin to abuse psychoactive drugs, particularly alcohol.