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    Day 2 Day 2 Document Transcript

    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel Unit Name: Introduction to Genetics Lesson Plan Title: Unit Day #: Analyzing Gregor Mendel’s Experiments 2 State Standard(s): 3.4 Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.) 3.5 Describe how Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterns of inheritance (such as dihybrid crosses.) 3.6 Use a Punnett Square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses. Lesson Objective(s): The student will be able to: • Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits • Define allele • Assign symbols for dominant and recessive alleles for each of Mendel’s 7 characteristics with 2 contrasting traits • Distinguish between homozygous and heterozygous • Relate the terms homozygous and heterozygous to the process of fertilization • Contrast phenotypes and genotypes • Use Punnett Square to set up genetic crosses Required materials:  Computer with Internet access  Projection device  Subscription to EBSCO or other access to articles  Subscription to United Streaming or access to particular video clips  Subscription to explorelearning  Attached worksheet Anticipatory Set (Lead-In): Understanding Genetics (37:13) This two-part program provides students with a comprehensive introduction to the science of genetics. In Part One of this program, the principles of classical Mendelian genetics are presented. Part Two examines the principles of genetics in terms of modern molecular gene theory. Segment 4: The Genetic Work of Gregor Mendel (04:31) OR Biologix: Introduction to Classical Genetics and Monohybrid Crosses (29:06) Outlines the principles which form the basis of classical genetics. Demonstrates the experiments that Gregor Mendel conducted on pea plants and reveals the laws of inheritance. Uses probability and Punnett squares to predict the results of monohybrid crosses. Segment 3: Gregor Mendel's Research and Principles (04:30) Lesson Segment 1: Activity: 1
    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel Discussion/Lecture: Discuss Mendel’s seven characteristics that he used in experiments, discuss dominant and recessive traits using Mendel’s experimental data (Complete or discuss chart of traits in textbook) Textual Resources: Text: Modern Biology by, Holt, Rinehart and Winston © 2006: Textbook pages: 173-180 Quick, Data, and Math Labs: Calculating Mendel’s Ratios, Identifying Dominant and Recessive Traits Transparencies: C1: Three Steps of Mendel’s Experiment, C2: Mendel’s Crosses and Results, C3: Mendel’s Factors Visual Concepts CDROM: True Breeding, Parental Generation, First Filial Generation, Second Filial Generation Biology Interactive Tutor: Unit 5—Heredity Science Skills Workbook: Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Genetics Critical Thinking Workbook: Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Genetics Active Reading Guide: Section 1: Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Genetics Journals: (at and below grade level) Level The Genetic Revolution. National Geographic, Nov2004, Vol. 206 Issue 5, p32-33, 2p, 6c; 1 Reading Level (Lexile): 900; (AN 14831379) http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=14831379 Level Mendel's Peas: A Matter of Genius or of Guile. By: Miller, Julie Ann. Science News, 2/18/84, 2 Vol. 125 Issue 7, p108-109, 2p, 2bw; Reading Level (Lexile): 1180; (AN 8814285) http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=8814285 Level Genomics: Journey to the Center of Biology. By: Lander, Eric S.; Weinberg, Robert A.. 3 Science, 03/10/2000, Vol. 287 Issue 5459, p1777, 6p, 1 diagram, 4c, 1bw; Reading Level (Lexile): 1390; (AN 2982987) http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=2982987 Online Resources: Understanding Genetics (37:13) This two-part program provides students with a comprehensive introduction to the science of genetics. In Part One of this program, the principles of classical Mendelian genetics are presented. Part Two examines the principles of genetics in terms of modern molecular gene theory. Biologix: Introduction to Classical Genetics and Monohybrid Crosses (29:06) Outlines the principles which form the basis of classical genetics. Demonstrates the experiments that Gregor Mendel conducted on pea plants and reveals the laws of inheritance. Uses probability and Punnett squares to predict the results of monohybrid crosses. Lesson Segment 2: Activity: Review of fertilization and zygotes. Establish vocabulary words homozygous and heterozygous. Use worksheets that require filling in or genotypes and phenotypes (see attached Monster Genetics Activity or use other similar activity) 2
    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel Textual Resources: Text: Journals: (at and below grade level) Online Resources: BioLogicia Web Lab, Genotype to Phenotype http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/web_labs_genophenotype.htm BioLogicia Web Lab, Mendel’s Peas http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/web_labs_mendels_peas.htm Lesson Segment 3: Discussion/Lecture: Punnett Squares: demonstrate how to use a Punnett Square Practicing Punnett Squares Textual Resources: Text: Journals: (at and below grade level) Online Resources: Accommodations for Special Needs Students: ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES (TRADITIONAL/AUTHENTIC): Informal assessment of student participation Successful completion of Punnett Squares Successful completion of Monster Genetics Homework: Complete Genetics Worksheet (attached) Vocabulary: • Genotype • Phenotype • Allele • Heterozygous • Homozygous • Trait • Dominant • Recessive • Punnett Square 3
    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel BRAIN-COMPATIBLE STRATEGIES: Which will you use to deliver content? Use the following strategies to help in chunking the lesson. s Brainstorming/Discussion B Drawing/Artwork D Field Trips F Games G Graphic Organizers/Semantic Maps/Word Webs G Humor H Manipulatives /Experiments/Labs/Models MMetaphor/Analogy/Simile MMnemonic Devices MMovement MMusic/Rhythm/Rhyme/Rap MProject/Problem-based Instruction P Visualization/Guided Imagery i Writing/ Journals J Role-playing /Drama/Pantomime/Charades R Work Study/ApprenticeshipWStorytelling S Technology T Visuals V Reciprocal Teaching/Cooperative Learning Mentorship 4
    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel Monster Genetics Heredity is the passing on of traits from parent to offspring. Th genetic makeup of an individual is known as its genotype. The observable physical characteristics of an individual, which are the result of its genotype and its environment, are known as its phenotype. Some alleles are expressed only when the genotype is homozygous. These alleles are said to produce recessive phenotypes. Alleles that are expressed whether they are homozygous or heterozygous produce dominant phenotypes. An allele that codes for a dominant trait is represented by a capital letter, while an allele that codes for a recessive trait is represented by a lowercase letter. When some genes are heterozygous neither the dominant nor the recessive phenotype occurs. In this situation, called incomplete dominance, an intermediate phenotype is produced. In this investigation, you will observe how the results of different allele combinations produce certain traits. How are traits inherited? Which traits will your monster have? Materials: 2 coins Paper Markers or colored pencils Procedure: 1. Determine which partner will toss for female and which partner will toss for male. Remember that there are two genes per trait. 2. Have the partner who is representing the male flip a coin to determine the sex of the monster. If the coin lands heads up, the offspring is a female. If the coin lands tail up, then the offspring is a male. 3. For all the coin tosses you will now make, heads will represent the dominant allele and tails will represent the recessive allele. 4. You and your partner should now flip coins to determine the phenotype of the first trait, the shape of the face. 5. Continue to flip the coins for each trait listed in Figure 1. After each flip, record the alleles for the offspring in the appropriate box. 6. Using the recorded traits, draw the facial features of your monster. 5
    • Bridgewater State College Biology Blue Ribbon Panel Figure 1: Trait and Alleles TRAIT DOMINANT RECESSIVE ALLELES Face Shape (R/r) Round Oval Hair Color (B/b) Black Brown Hair Type (C/c) Straight Curly Widow’s Peak (W/ Present Absent w) Eyebrow size (T/t) Thick Thin Eye Color (Y/y) Yellow Red Eye Shape (A/a) Almond Round Iris Shape (T/t) Tiger Round Eye Lashes (L/l) Long Short Nose Shape (P/p) Pointy Rounded Nose Size (B/b) Big Small Nostril Shape (F/f) Flared Rounded Nose Warts (W/w) No warts Warts Lip Shape (T/t) Thin Thick Lip Color (R/r) Red Black Teeth Shape (P/p) Pointy Square Teeth Color (Y/y) Yellow Brown Chin Shape (P/p) Pointy Round Chin Dimple (D/d) No dimple Dimple Ear Size (L/l) Large Small Ear Shape (P/p) Pointy Rounded Ear Hair (H/h) Hairy No Hair Skin Color (O/o) Orange Purple Facial Warts (W/w) Warts No Warts Freckles(F/f) Freckles No Freckles Eyebrow Link (N/n) Not connected Connected Questions: 1. What does a single side of a double sided coin represent? 2. What is the probability, in percent, that a single coin toss will result in heads? In tails? 3. Why is the coin toss a good way to represent allele combinations that occur in nature? 4. For the traits explored in this lab, do all heterozygous pairs of alleles produce an intermediate phenotype? 5. Can you accurately determine an organism’s genotype by observing its phenotype? Explain your answer. 6. What are the possible genotypes of the parents of an offspring who has wavy hair (Hh)? 7. Would you predict that another pair of students in your class would have an offspring genetically identical to yours? Support you answer. 8. Do you think anyone in your class has all the same genetic traits that you have? Explain your answer? 9. How is this coin-toss model similar to the way in which traits are inherited in living things? How is this model different? 6