Chp 3
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Chp 3

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Chp 3 Chp 3 Presentation Transcript

  • Hereditary Influences on Development Chapter 3
  • Outline
    • 1. Genetic Principles
    • 2. Genetic Diseases
    • 3. Genes X Environment
  • Genetics
    • Each cell in the human body has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
    • Chromosomes are filled with DNA
      • = Genetic Blueprint
  • Genes
    • Specific segment of DNA , responsible for the production of a specific protein
    • Allele : Part of a gene; 2 alleles per gene
  • Genes
    • Work in pairs
      • Homozygous (Same)
      • Heterozygous (Different)
  • Basic Terminology
    • XX = Female
    • XY = Male
  • Genes
    • Genotype
      • Set of genetic traits a person inherits; the genetic blueprint
    • Phenotype
      • Set of traits a person actually displays
  • Genes
    • Dominant Genes
    • Recessive Genes
  • Genes
    • Example of Dominant and Recessive Genes (eye color, hair color)
  • Chromosome Abnormalities
    • An error occurs during cell division
    • Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21), an extra 21 st chromosome
    • Any changes in genetic info (extra or less) = Abnormality
  • Sex Chromosome Disorders
    • 1. Turner Syndrome X_
    • 2. Kleinfelter’s Syndrome XXY
    • 3. Fragile X xX or xY
  • Single Gene Defects
    • 1. Autosomal Recessive
    • Inherit recessive allele from both parents
        • E.G. PKU
    • 2. Autosomal Dominant
    • Only need to inherit 1 allele, from either parent
          • E.G. Huntington’s Disease
    • 3. Recessive genes on the X chromosome
      • Sex linked
      • E.g. Hemophilia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Think about yourself:
    • How sociable are you?
    • How athletic are you?
  • Models of Gene-Environment Interaction
    • Reaction Range (Gottesman)
    • Degree to which variations in the environment influence genotype
  • Behavioral Genetics
    • Robert Plomin
    • Studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits
  • Gene-Environment Correlations
    • Scarr and McCartney (1983)
    • 1. Passive
    • 2. Evocative
    • 3. Active
  • Behavioral Genetics
    • 1. Twin Studies
    • MZ vs DZ (Identical vs Fraternal)
    • Identical = 100% genetic similarity
    • Fraternal = 50% genetic similarity
  • Behavioral Genetics
    • Heritability = Proportions of variance due to variations in genotypes
  • Behavioral Genetics
    • 2. Adoption Studies
    • 3. Family Studies
      • E.G. Schizophrenia
  • Non-shared Environment
    • Unique environment in which each child (even in the same family) lives
    • Unique parent-child interaction
    • Different school experiences
    • Different peer group