Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 2 2



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2
  • 2 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Psychological Disorders K. T. Hinkle Chapter 15
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
    • Axis I: Primary clinical problem
    • Axis II: Personality disorders
    • Axis III: General medical conditions
    • Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors
    • Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
  • DSM-IV Example Diagnosis
    • Axis I 296.23 Major Depression Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features 305 Alcohol Abuse
    • Axis II 301.6 Dependent Personality Disorder
    • Axis III none
    • Axis IV Threat of job loss
    • Axis V GAF=35 (current)
  • DSM-IV Example Diagnosis
    • Axis I 312.82 Conduct Disorder, Adolescent-Onset Type
    • 305.20 Cannabis Abused V62.3 Academic Problem
    • Axis II 317 Mild Mental Retardation
    • Axis III 345.00 Epilepsy, petit mal
    • Axis IV Problems related to interaction with the legal system
    • Axis V GAF=55 (on admission) GAF=65 (at discharge)
  • Explosion of Mental Disorders
    • Supporters of new categories answer that is important to distinguish disorders precisely.
    • Critics point to an economic reason: diagnoses are needed for insurance reasons so therapists will be compensated.
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Defining mental disorders
      • Several questions can help determine what behavior is abnormal:
        • Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture?
        • Does the behavior cause personal distress?
        • Is the behavior maladaptive?
        • Is the person a danger to self of others?
        • Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts?
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Prevalence of psychological disorders
      • Mental disorders have a lifetime prevalence rate of nearly 50%
      • Mental disorders represent a significant source of personal misery for individuals and lost productivity for society
    • Explaining psychological disorders
      • Biological perspective
        • Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infections
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Explaining psychological disorders (continued)
      • Biopsychosocial perspective
        • Agrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders
        • Psychodynamic perspective
        • Originally proposed by Freud
        • Maintains that psychological disorders stem from early childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Explaining psychological disorders (continued)
      • Learning perspective
        • Psychological disorders are thought to be learned and sustained in the same way as any other behavior
      • Cognitive perspective
        • Suggests that faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can contribute to some types of psychological disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
      • An anxiety disorder in which people experience excessive anxiety or worry that they find difficult to control
      • This disorder affects twice as many women as men and leads to considerable distress and impairment
    • Panic disorder
      • An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurrent unpredictable attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
      • Panic attacks
        • An attack of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobias
      • An intense fear of being in a situation from which immediate escape is not possible or in which help is not immediately available in case of incapacitating anxiety
      • Agoraphobia
        • An agoraphobic often will not leave home unless accompanied by a friend or family member and, in severe cases, not even then
        • Women are four times more likely than men to be diagnosed with agoraphobia
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobias (continued)
      • Social phobia
        • An irrational fear and avoidance of social situations in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself by appearing clumsy, foolish, or incompetent
      • Specific phobia
        • A marked fear of a specific object or situation
        • A person has three times the risk of developing a phobia if a close relative suffers from one
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
      • An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from obsessions and/or compulsions
      • Obsessions
        • A persistent, recurring, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that invades consciousness and causes great distress
      • Compulsion
        • A persistent, irresistible, irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
  • Mood Disorders
    • Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in feeling or mood
    • Depressive disorders
      • Major depressive disorder
        • A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, and hopelessness
  • Mood Disorders
    • Bipolar disorder
      • A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between
      • Manic episode
        • A period of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked
      • Bipolar disorder is much less common than major depressive disorder
  • Mood Disorders
    • Causes of mood disorders
      • Biological factors such as genetic inheritance and abnormal brain chemistry play a major role in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
      • In one twin study, researchers found that 50% of the identical twins of bipolar sufferers had also been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared to only 7% of fraternal twins
  • Mood Disorders
    • Suicide and race, gender, and age
      • Whites are more likely to commit suicide than African Americans
      • Native American suicide rates are similar to those of whites; rates for Hispanic Americans are similar to those of African Americans
      • Suicide rates are far lower for both white and African American women than for men
      • Older Americans are at far greater risk for suicide than younger people
  • Schizophrenia
    • A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior
    • Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
      • Positive symptoms are the abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia
      • Hallucinations
        • A sensory perception in the absence of any external sensory stimulus; an imaginary sensation
  • Schizophrenia
      • Delusions
        • A false belief, not generally shared by others in the culture, that cannot be changed despite strong evidence to the contrary
      • Delusions of grandeur
        • A false belief that one is a famous person or a person who has some great knowledge, ability, or authority
      • Delusions of persecution
        • A false belief that a person or group is trying in some way to harm one
  • Schizophrenia
    • Types of schizophrenia
      • Paranoid schizophrenia
        • A type of schizophrenia characterized by delusions of grandeur or persecution
        • Paranoid schizophrenics often show exaggerated anger and suspiciousness
      • Disorganized schizophrenia
        • The most serious type of schizophrenia, marked by inappropriate affect, silliness, laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and bizarre behavior
        • Tends to occur at an earlier age than the other types
  • Schizophrenia
    • Types of schizophrenia (continued)
      • Catatonic schizophrenia
        • A type of schizophrenia characterized by complete stillness or stupor and/or periods of great agitation and excitement; patients may assume an unusual posture and remain in it for long periods
      • Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
        • A term for people who display symptoms of schizophrenia but who do not fit into other categories
  • Schizophrenia
    • Risk factors in schizophrenia
      • Schizophrenia develops when there is both a genetic predisposition toward the disorder and more stress than a person can handle
      • Schizophrenia is more likely to strike men than women
      • The earlier age of onset of the disorder among males appears to be independent of culture and socioeconomic variables
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Somatoform disorders
      • Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological rather than physical causes
      • Hypochondriasis
        • A somatoform disorder in which persons are preoccupied with their health and convinced they have some serious disorder despite reassurance from doctors to the contrary
      • Conversion disorder
        • A somatoform disorder in which a person suffers a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body (blind, deaf, or unable to speak)
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders
        • A disorder in which, under stress, one loses the integration of consciousness, identity, and memories of important personal events
        • Dissociative amnesia
        • A dissociative disorder in which there is a loss of memory of limited periods in one’s life or of one’s entire identity
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders (continued)
      • Dissociative fugue
        • A dissociative disorder in which one has a complete loss of memory of one’s entire identity, travels away from home, and may assume a new identity
      • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
        • A dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times; also called multiple personality
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders (continued)
      • Dissociative identity disorder (continued)
        • The alternate personalities may differ radically in intelligence, speech, accent, vocabulary, posture, body language, hairstyle, taste in clothes, manners, and even handwriting and sexual orientation
        • There is the common complaint of “lost time”—periods for which a given personality has no memory because he or she was not in control of the body
    • Sexual disorders
      • Disorders that are destructive, guilt- or anxiety-producing, compulsive, or that cause discomfort or harm to one or both parties involved
      • Perhaps the most common of all of the sexual disorders are the sexual dysfunctions
      • Drug treatment for sexual dysfunctions in both men and women have proven successful
    Other Psychological Disorders
  • Other Psychological Disorders
    • Sexual disorders (continued)
      • Paraphilias
        • Disorders in which recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors involve nonhuman objects, children, other nonconsenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the individual or his/her partner
      • Gender Identity Disorders
        • Disorders characterized by a problem accepting one’s identity as male or female
        • An individual may feel so strongly that she or he is psychologically of the other gender that sex-reassignment surgery is sought
  • Other Psychological Disorders
    • Personality disorders
      • A continuing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes great distress or impaired functioning and differs significantly from the patterns expected in the person’s culture
      • Characteristics of personality disorders
        • People who suffer from other disorders, especially the mood disorders, are often diagnosed with personality disorders as well
        • People with personality disorders are extremely difficult to get along with