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chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
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chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt
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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Psychological Disorders K. T. Hinkle Chapter 15
    • 2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual <ul><li>Axis I: Primary clinical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Axis II: Personality disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Axis III: General medical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning </li></ul>
    • 3. DSM-IV Example Diagnosis <ul><li>Axis I 296.23 Major Depression Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features 305 Alcohol Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Axis II 301.6 Dependent Personality Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Axis III none </li></ul><ul><li>Axis IV Threat of job loss </li></ul><ul><li>Axis V GAF=35 (current) </li></ul>
    • 4. DSM-IV Example Diagnosis <ul><li>Axis I 312.82 Conduct Disorder, Adolescent-Onset Type </li></ul><ul><li>305.20 Cannabis Abused V62.3 Academic Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Axis II 317 Mild Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Axis III 345.00 Epilepsy, petit mal </li></ul><ul><li>Axis IV Problems related to interaction with the legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Axis V GAF=55 (on admission) GAF=65 (at discharge) </li></ul>
    • 5. Explosion of Mental Disorders <ul><li>Supporters of new categories answer that is important to distinguish disorders precisely. </li></ul><ul><li>Critics point to an economic reason: diagnoses are needed for insurance reasons so therapists will be compensated. </li></ul>
    • 6. What Is Abnormal? <ul><li>Defining mental disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several questions can help determine what behavior is abnormal: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the behavior cause personal distress? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the behavior maladaptive? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the person a danger to self of others? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. What Is Abnormal? <ul><li>Prevalence of psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disorders have a lifetime prevalence rate of nearly 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disorders represent a significant source of personal misery for individuals and lost productivity for society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explaining psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infections </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 8. What Is Abnormal? <ul><li>Explaining psychological disorders (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biopsychosocial perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally proposed by Freud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains that psychological disorders stem from early childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 9. What Is Abnormal? <ul><li>Explaining psychological disorders (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders are thought to be learned and sustained in the same way as any other behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests that faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can contribute to some types of psychological disorders </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 10. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Generalized anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An anxiety disorder in which people experience excessive anxiety or worry that they find difficult to control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This disorder affects twice as many women as men and leads to considerable distress and impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panic disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurrent unpredictable attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An attack of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 11. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Phobias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An intense fear of being in a situation from which immediate escape is not possible or in which help is not immediately available in case of incapacitating anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agoraphobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An agoraphobic often will not leave home unless accompanied by a friend or family member and, in severe cases, not even then </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women are four times more likely than men to be diagnosed with agoraphobia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Phobias (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An irrational fear and avoidance of social situations in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself by appearing clumsy, foolish, or incompetent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A marked fear of a specific object or situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person has three times the risk of developing a phobia if a close relative suffers from one </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 13. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from obsessions and/or compulsions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A persistent, recurring, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that invades consciousness and causes great distress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A persistent, irresistible, irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in feeling or mood </li></ul><ul><li>Depressive disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major depressive disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, and hopelessness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 15. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manic episode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A period of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder is much less common than major depressive disorder </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Causes of mood disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological factors such as genetic inheritance and abnormal brain chemistry play a major role in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In one twin study, researchers found that 50% of the identical twins of bipolar sufferers had also been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared to only 7% of fraternal twins </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Suicide and race, gender, and age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites are more likely to commit suicide than African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American suicide rates are similar to those of whites; rates for Hispanic Americans are similar to those of African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide rates are far lower for both white and African American women than for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Americans are at far greater risk for suicide than younger people </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Schizophrenia <ul><li>A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Positive symptoms of schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive symptoms are the abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sensory perception in the absence of any external sensory stimulus; an imaginary sensation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 19. Schizophrenia <ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A false belief, not generally shared by others in the culture, that cannot be changed despite strong evidence to the contrary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions of grandeur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A false belief that one is a famous person or a person who has some great knowledge, ability, or authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions of persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A false belief that a person or group is trying in some way to harm one </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 20. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Types of schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A type of schizophrenia characterized by delusions of grandeur or persecution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenics often show exaggerated anger and suspiciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most serious type of schizophrenia, marked by inappropriate affect, silliness, laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and bizarre behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to occur at an earlier age than the other types </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Types of schizophrenia (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catatonic schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A type of schizophrenia characterized by complete stillness or stupor and/or periods of great agitation and excitement; patients may assume an unusual posture and remain in it for long periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A term for people who display symptoms of schizophrenia but who do not fit into other categories </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Risk factors in schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia develops when there is both a genetic predisposition toward the disorder and more stress than a person can handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia is more likely to strike men than women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earlier age of onset of the disorder among males appears to be independent of culture and socioeconomic variables </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Somatoform disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological rather than physical causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypochondriasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A somatoform disorder in which persons are preoccupied with their health and convinced they have some serious disorder despite reassurance from doctors to the contrary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A somatoform disorder in which a person suffers a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body (blind, deaf, or unable to speak) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Dissociative disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A disorder in which, under stress, one loses the integration of consciousness, identity, and memories of important personal events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociative amnesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dissociative disorder in which there is a loss of memory of limited periods in one’s life or of one’s entire identity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 25. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Dissociative disorders (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociative fugue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dissociative disorder in which one has a complete loss of memory of one’s entire identity, travels away from home, and may assume a new identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociative identity disorder (DID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times; also called multiple personality </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 26. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Dissociative disorders (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociative identity disorder (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The alternate personalities may differ radically in intelligence, speech, accent, vocabulary, posture, body language, hairstyle, taste in clothes, manners, and even handwriting and sexual orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is the common complaint of “lost time”—periods for which a given personality has no memory because he or she was not in control of the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 27. <ul><li>Sexual disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders that are destructive, guilt- or anxiety-producing, compulsive, or that cause discomfort or harm to one or both parties involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most common of all of the sexual disorders are the sexual dysfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug treatment for sexual dysfunctions in both men and women have proven successful </li></ul></ul>Other Psychological Disorders
    • 28. Other Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Sexual disorders (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphilias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders in which recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors involve nonhuman objects, children, other nonconsenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the individual or his/her partner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Identity Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders characterized by a problem accepting one’s identity as male or female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An individual may feel so strongly that she or he is psychologically of the other gender that sex-reassignment surgery is sought </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 29. Other Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Personality disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A continuing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes great distress or impaired functioning and differs significantly from the patterns expected in the person’s culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of personality disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People who suffer from other disorders, especially the mood disorders, are often diagnosed with personality disorders as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People with personality disorders are extremely difficult to get along with </li></ul></ul></ul>

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