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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.
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chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/general/PPT/14disorders.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Psychological Disorders K. T. Hinkle Chapter 15
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
    • Axis I: Primary clinical problem
    • Axis II: Personality disorders
    • Axis III: General medical conditions
    • Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors
    • Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
  • DSM-IV Example Diagnosis
    • Axis I 296.23 Major Depression Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features 305 Alcohol Abuse
    • Axis II 301.6 Dependent Personality Disorder
    • Axis III none
    • Axis IV Threat of job loss
    • Axis V GAF=35 (current)
  • DSM-IV Example Diagnosis
    • Axis I 312.82 Conduct Disorder, Adolescent-Onset Type
    • 305.20 Cannabis Abused V62.3 Academic Problem
    • Axis II 317 Mild Mental Retardation
    • Axis III 345.00 Epilepsy, petit mal
    • Axis IV Problems related to interaction with the legal system
    • Axis V GAF=55 (on admission) GAF=65 (at discharge)
  • Explosion of Mental Disorders
    • Supporters of new categories answer that is important to distinguish disorders precisely.
    • Critics point to an economic reason: diagnoses are needed for insurance reasons so therapists will be compensated.
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Defining mental disorders
      • Several questions can help determine what behavior is abnormal:
        • Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture?
        • Does the behavior cause personal distress?
        • Is the behavior maladaptive?
        • Is the person a danger to self of others?
        • Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts?
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Prevalence of psychological disorders
      • Mental disorders have a lifetime prevalence rate of nearly 50%
      • Mental disorders represent a significant source of personal misery for individuals and lost productivity for society
    • Explaining psychological disorders
      • Biological perspective
        • Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infections
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Explaining psychological disorders (continued)
      • Biopsychosocial perspective
        • Agrees that physical causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors in the study, identification, and treatment of psychological disorders
        • Psychodynamic perspective
        • Originally proposed by Freud
        • Maintains that psychological disorders stem from early childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature
  • What Is Abnormal?
    • Explaining psychological disorders (continued)
      • Learning perspective
        • Psychological disorders are thought to be learned and sustained in the same way as any other behavior
      • Cognitive perspective
        • Suggests that faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can contribute to some types of psychological disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorder
      • An anxiety disorder in which people experience excessive anxiety or worry that they find difficult to control
      • This disorder affects twice as many women as men and leads to considerable distress and impairment
    • Panic disorder
      • An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurrent unpredictable attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
      • Panic attacks
        • An attack of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobias
      • An intense fear of being in a situation from which immediate escape is not possible or in which help is not immediately available in case of incapacitating anxiety
      • Agoraphobia
        • An agoraphobic often will not leave home unless accompanied by a friend or family member and, in severe cases, not even then
        • Women are four times more likely than men to be diagnosed with agoraphobia
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobias (continued)
      • Social phobia
        • An irrational fear and avoidance of social situations in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself by appearing clumsy, foolish, or incompetent
      • Specific phobia
        • A marked fear of a specific object or situation
        • A person has three times the risk of developing a phobia if a close relative suffers from one
  • Anxiety Disorders
    • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
      • An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from obsessions and/or compulsions
      • Obsessions
        • A persistent, recurring, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that invades consciousness and causes great distress
      • Compulsion
        • A persistent, irresistible, irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
  • Mood Disorders
    • Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in feeling or mood
    • Depressive disorders
      • Major depressive disorder
        • A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, and hopelessness
  • Mood Disorders
    • Bipolar disorder
      • A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between
      • Manic episode
        • A period of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked
      • Bipolar disorder is much less common than major depressive disorder
  • Mood Disorders
    • Causes of mood disorders
      • Biological factors such as genetic inheritance and abnormal brain chemistry play a major role in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
      • In one twin study, researchers found that 50% of the identical twins of bipolar sufferers had also been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared to only 7% of fraternal twins
  • Mood Disorders
    • Suicide and race, gender, and age
      • Whites are more likely to commit suicide than African Americans
      • Native American suicide rates are similar to those of whites; rates for Hispanic Americans are similar to those of African Americans
      • Suicide rates are far lower for both white and African American women than for men
      • Older Americans are at far greater risk for suicide than younger people
  • Schizophrenia
    • A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior
    • Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
      • Positive symptoms are the abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia
      • Hallucinations
        • A sensory perception in the absence of any external sensory stimulus; an imaginary sensation
  • Schizophrenia
      • Delusions
        • A false belief, not generally shared by others in the culture, that cannot be changed despite strong evidence to the contrary
      • Delusions of grandeur
        • A false belief that one is a famous person or a person who has some great knowledge, ability, or authority
      • Delusions of persecution
        • A false belief that a person or group is trying in some way to harm one
  • Schizophrenia
    • Types of schizophrenia
      • Paranoid schizophrenia
        • A type of schizophrenia characterized by delusions of grandeur or persecution
        • Paranoid schizophrenics often show exaggerated anger and suspiciousness
      • Disorganized schizophrenia
        • The most serious type of schizophrenia, marked by inappropriate affect, silliness, laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and bizarre behavior
        • Tends to occur at an earlier age than the other types
  • Schizophrenia
    • Types of schizophrenia (continued)
      • Catatonic schizophrenia
        • A type of schizophrenia characterized by complete stillness or stupor and/or periods of great agitation and excitement; patients may assume an unusual posture and remain in it for long periods
      • Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
        • A term for people who display symptoms of schizophrenia but who do not fit into other categories
  • Schizophrenia
    • Risk factors in schizophrenia
      • Schizophrenia develops when there is both a genetic predisposition toward the disorder and more stress than a person can handle
      • Schizophrenia is more likely to strike men than women
      • The earlier age of onset of the disorder among males appears to be independent of culture and socioeconomic variables
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Somatoform disorders
      • Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological rather than physical causes
      • Hypochondriasis
        • A somatoform disorder in which persons are preoccupied with their health and convinced they have some serious disorder despite reassurance from doctors to the contrary
      • Conversion disorder
        • A somatoform disorder in which a person suffers a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body (blind, deaf, or unable to speak)
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders
        • A disorder in which, under stress, one loses the integration of consciousness, identity, and memories of important personal events
        • Dissociative amnesia
        • A dissociative disorder in which there is a loss of memory of limited periods in one’s life or of one’s entire identity
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders (continued)
      • Dissociative fugue
        • A dissociative disorder in which one has a complete loss of memory of one’s entire identity, travels away from home, and may assume a new identity
      • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
        • A dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times; also called multiple personality
  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders (continued)
      • Dissociative identity disorder (continued)
        • The alternate personalities may differ radically in intelligence, speech, accent, vocabulary, posture, body language, hairstyle, taste in clothes, manners, and even handwriting and sexual orientation
        • There is the common complaint of “lost time”—periods for which a given personality has no memory because he or she was not in control of the body
    • Sexual disorders
      • Disorders that are destructive, guilt- or anxiety-producing, compulsive, or that cause discomfort or harm to one or both parties involved
      • Perhaps the most common of all of the sexual disorders are the sexual dysfunctions
      • Drug treatment for sexual dysfunctions in both men and women have proven successful
    Other Psychological Disorders
  • Other Psychological Disorders
    • Sexual disorders (continued)
      • Paraphilias
        • Disorders in which recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors involve nonhuman objects, children, other nonconsenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the individual or his/her partner
      • Gender Identity Disorders
        • Disorders characterized by a problem accepting one’s identity as male or female
        • An individual may feel so strongly that she or he is psychologically of the other gender that sex-reassignment surgery is sought
  • Other Psychological Disorders
    • Personality disorders
      • A continuing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes great distress or impaired functioning and differs significantly from the patterns expected in the person’s culture
      • Characteristics of personality disorders
        • People who suffer from other disorders, especially the mood disorders, are often diagnosed with personality disorders as well
        • People with personality disorders are extremely difficult to get along with