• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapter 3
 

Chapter 3

on

  • 778 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
778
Views on SlideShare
778
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Some real examples of operations
      • Formal operations:
        • If you wanted to wake up this morning to call someone in New York at 10 am Eastern, what time would you have to wake up here in HI?
      • Concrete operations
    • 16 9 18 8
    • 15 11 13 10.5
    • Social Development, Chapter 3: Recent Theories
      • 1. Ethology
      • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • 3. Ecological Theory (Bronfenbrenner)
      • 4. Vygotsky
      • 5. Social Information-Processing Theory
    • 1. Ethology
      • Ethology
        • Study of evolutionary bases of behavior and development
        • Assumes natural selection
      • Assumes that we have some preprogrammed behaviors, instincts and FAPs
        • E.g., infant cries
          • Useful because it signals needs
          • When needs are met, infant survives and bonds are formed
    • 1. Ethology
      • Critical periods:
        • short time during which organism is sensitive to environmental influences
        • e.g., first and second language acquisition
      • Sensitive periods:
        • Time that is optimal for developing a certain capacity
        • E.g., attachment
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Study of how genotype interacts with environment
        • Interested in variation among members of a species
      • Genotype
        • Sets of genes
      • Phenotype
        • Observable characteristics
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Emphasis on heritability
        • Amount of variation in a trait or a class of behavior that is attributable to hereditary factors
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Methods for estimating hereditary influences
      • 1. Selective breeding
        • Tryon (1940): Maze-dull vs. maze-bright rats
        • Selectively mated
          • Differences became progressively greater
      • Family studies
        • Kinship: twins, adoption
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Methods for estimating contributions of genes and environment
      • 1. Concordance rates: percentages of pairs of people in which both members display the trait
      • 2. Gene influences (heritability)
      • H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Example of heritability
      • H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2
      • H (IQ) = (.86 - .60) X 2 = .52
      • So, much of IQ is attributable to environment.
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Heritabililty
      • Estimates are always between .00 and +1.00
      • Heritability estimates apply to populations and NEVER to individuals.
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Another example: Schizophrenia
      • concordance rate for identical twins = .46
      • fraternal = .14
      • This indicates that there is some genetic basis.
      • However, people inherit predispositions for illnesses or disorders. Environment plays a big role.
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • Nonshared environmental influences
      • NSE = 1 - r (identical twins reared together)
        • For IQ, NSE is 1 - .86 = .14, small
      • SHARED environmental influence
        • SE = 1 - (H + NSE)
        • For IQ, SE = 1- (.52 +.14) = .34, moderate
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
      • What other characteristics are heritable?
        • Introversion/extroversion
        • Empathic concern
      • What can heritability studies tell us?
        • Tells us about differences among individuals and relationship to differences in genes
        • Impt. to remember that heritable traits can be modified by the envt.
        • Heritable is NOT a synonym for inherited…
    • 3. The ecological perspective
      • Bronfenbrenner
      • Considers contexts of development and their inter-influences
        • Ecological systems theory
        • Bioecological theory
    •  
    • Bronfenbrenner’s Model
      • Microsystem
        • Immediate settings and people
      • Mesosystem
        • Connections among microsystems
      • Exosystem
        • Social systems that influence children
      • Macrosystem
        • Larger context of culture
      • Chronosystem
        • Historical time; changes in environment that influence development
    • 4. Lev Vygotsky
      • The sociocultural perspective
        • Human dev. occurs a particular context that influences it.
        • Personality and cognition evolve from social interactions.
      • Culture provides tools, beliefs, values.
      • Cognition is inherently social
    • 4. Lev Vygotsky
      • Key components:
        • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
          • What a child can do with help today, he will be able to do by himself tomorrow.
        • Scaffolding
          • Finding the ZPD
      • Research by Maynard (2002) indicates that children are good at scaffolding by the age of 8 years. Scaffolding begins around age 6.
    • 4. Lev Vygotsky
      • Other aspects of Vygotsky’s theory
      • Collaborative learning
        • Novices participate in activities with the help of others
      • Private speech
        • Child uses language to guide activities
        • E.g., talking to self to help self do a task
    • 5. Social Information Processing
      • Premise:
        • Humans are active processors of social information who generate explanations for others’ behavior (causal attributions)
      • Attributions are made to internal or external causes
      • People question intentionality of behavior
      • In individual psychology, interpretations are often more important than what actually happened.
    • 5. Social Information Processing
      • Inferring dispositional attributes
      • Trait: stable over time and across situations
        • E.g., friendliness, integrity, intelligence
      • Even toddlers assume intentionality, but error is thinking that most behavior is intentional
        • Deliberate acts vs. accidents
      • Young children’s understanding of trait stability