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Chapter 3

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  • 1. Some real examples of operations
    • Formal operations:
      • If you wanted to wake up this morning to call someone in New York at 10 am Eastern, what time would you have to wake up here in HI?
    • Concrete operations
  • 2. 16 9 18 8
  • 3. 15 11 13 10.5
  • 4. Social Development, Chapter 3: Recent Theories
    • 1. Ethology
    • 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • 3. Ecological Theory (Bronfenbrenner)
    • 4. Vygotsky
    • 5. Social Information-Processing Theory
  • 5. 1. Ethology
    • Ethology
      • Study of evolutionary bases of behavior and development
      • Assumes natural selection
    • Assumes that we have some preprogrammed behaviors, instincts and FAPs
      • E.g., infant cries
        • Useful because it signals needs
        • When needs are met, infant survives and bonds are formed
  • 6. 1. Ethology
    • Critical periods:
      • short time during which organism is sensitive to environmental influences
      • e.g., first and second language acquisition
    • Sensitive periods:
      • Time that is optimal for developing a certain capacity
      • E.g., attachment
  • 7. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Study of how genotype interacts with environment
      • Interested in variation among members of a species
    • Genotype
      • Sets of genes
    • Phenotype
      • Observable characteristics
  • 8. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Emphasis on heritability
      • Amount of variation in a trait or a class of behavior that is attributable to hereditary factors
  • 9. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Methods for estimating hereditary influences
    • 1. Selective breeding
      • Tryon (1940): Maze-dull vs. maze-bright rats
      • Selectively mated
        • Differences became progressively greater
    • Family studies
      • Kinship: twins, adoption
  • 10. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Methods for estimating contributions of genes and environment
    • 1. Concordance rates: percentages of pairs of people in which both members display the trait
    • 2. Gene influences (heritability)
    • H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2
  • 11. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Example of heritability
    • H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2
    • H (IQ) = (.86 - .60) X 2 = .52
    • So, much of IQ is attributable to environment.
  • 12. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Heritabililty
    • Estimates are always between .00 and +1.00
    • Heritability estimates apply to populations and NEVER to individuals.
  • 13. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Another example: Schizophrenia
    • concordance rate for identical twins = .46
    • fraternal = .14
    • This indicates that there is some genetic basis.
    • However, people inherit predispositions for illnesses or disorders. Environment plays a big role.
  • 14. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • Nonshared environmental influences
    • NSE = 1 - r (identical twins reared together)
      • For IQ, NSE is 1 - .86 = .14, small
    • SHARED environmental influence
      • SE = 1 - (H + NSE)
      • For IQ, SE = 1- (.52 +.14) = .34, moderate
  • 15. 2. Behavioral Genetics
    • What other characteristics are heritable?
      • Introversion/extroversion
      • Empathic concern
    • What can heritability studies tell us?
      • Tells us about differences among individuals and relationship to differences in genes
      • Impt. to remember that heritable traits can be modified by the envt.
      • Heritable is NOT a synonym for inherited…
  • 16. 3. The ecological perspective
    • Bronfenbrenner
    • Considers contexts of development and their inter-influences
      • Ecological systems theory
      • Bioecological theory
  • 17.  
  • 18. Bronfenbrenner’s Model
    • Microsystem
      • Immediate settings and people
    • Mesosystem
      • Connections among microsystems
    • Exosystem
      • Social systems that influence children
    • Macrosystem
      • Larger context of culture
    • Chronosystem
      • Historical time; changes in environment that influence development
  • 19. 4. Lev Vygotsky
    • The sociocultural perspective
      • Human dev. occurs a particular context that influences it.
      • Personality and cognition evolve from social interactions.
    • Culture provides tools, beliefs, values.
    • Cognition is inherently social
  • 20. 4. Lev Vygotsky
    • Key components:
      • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
        • What a child can do with help today, he will be able to do by himself tomorrow.
      • Scaffolding
        • Finding the ZPD
    • Research by Maynard (2002) indicates that children are good at scaffolding by the age of 8 years. Scaffolding begins around age 6.
  • 21. 4. Lev Vygotsky
    • Other aspects of Vygotsky’s theory
    • Collaborative learning
      • Novices participate in activities with the help of others
    • Private speech
      • Child uses language to guide activities
      • E.g., talking to self to help self do a task
  • 22. 5. Social Information Processing
    • Premise:
      • Humans are active processors of social information who generate explanations for others’ behavior (causal attributions)
    • Attributions are made to internal or external causes
    • People question intentionality of behavior
    • In individual psychology, interpretations are often more important than what actually happened.
  • 23. 5. Social Information Processing
    • Inferring dispositional attributes
    • Trait: stable over time and across situations
      • E.g., friendliness, integrity, intelligence
    • Even toddlers assume intentionality, but error is thinking that most behavior is intentional
      • Deliberate acts vs. accidents
    • Young children’s understanding of trait stability

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