Some real examples of operations <ul><li>Formal operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you wanted to wake up this morning to...
16  9  18  8
15  11 13  10.5
Social Development, Chapter 3: Recent Theories <ul><li>1.  Ethology </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Behavioral Genetics </li></ul><u...
1.  Ethology <ul><li>Ethology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of evolutionary bases of behavior and development </li></ul></ul...
1.  Ethology <ul><li>Critical periods:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short time during which organism is sensitive to environment...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Study of how genotype interacts with environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in varia...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Emphasis on  heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of variation in a trait or a class ...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Methods for estimating hereditary influences </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Selective breeding </li...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Methods for estimating contributions of genes and environment </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Concor...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Example of heritability </li></ul><ul><li>H = (r  identical  - r  fraternal ) X 2 </li></u...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Heritabililty </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates are always between .00 and +1.00 </li></ul><ul><...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Another example: Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>concordance rate for identical twins = .4...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Nonshared environmental influences </li></ul><ul><li>NSE = 1 -  r (identical twins reared ...
2.  Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>What other characteristics are heritable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introversion/extroversion ...
3.  The ecological perspective <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner </li></ul><ul><li>Considers contexts of development and their inter-...
 
Bronfenbrenner’s Model <ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate settings and people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meso...
4. Lev Vygotsky  <ul><li>The sociocultural perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human dev. occurs a  particular  context that...
4. Lev Vygotsky  <ul><li>Key components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
4. Lev Vygotsky  <ul><li>Other aspects of Vygotsky’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
5.  Social Information Processing <ul><li>Premise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are active processors of social informatio...
5.  Social Information Processing <ul><li>Inferring dispositional attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Trait: stable over time and...
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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Some real examples of operations <ul><li>Formal operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you wanted to wake up this morning to call someone in New York at 10 am Eastern, what time would you have to wake up here in HI? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete operations </li></ul>
  2. 2. 16 9 18 8
  3. 3. 15 11 13 10.5
  4. 4. Social Development, Chapter 3: Recent Theories <ul><li>1. Ethology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Behavioral Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ecological Theory (Bronfenbrenner) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>5. Social Information-Processing Theory </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Ethology <ul><li>Ethology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of evolutionary bases of behavior and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumes that we have some preprogrammed behaviors, instincts and FAPs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., infant cries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful because it signals needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When needs are met, infant survives and bonds are formed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Ethology <ul><li>Critical periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short time during which organism is sensitive to environmental influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., first and second language acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitive periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time that is optimal for developing a certain capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., attachment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Study of how genotype interacts with environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in variation among members of a species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets of genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observable characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Emphasis on heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of variation in a trait or a class of behavior that is attributable to hereditary factors </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Methods for estimating hereditary influences </li></ul><ul><li>1. Selective breeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tryon (1940): Maze-dull vs. maze-bright rats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively mated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences became progressively greater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Family studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship: twins, adoption </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Methods for estimating contributions of genes and environment </li></ul><ul><li>1. Concordance rates: percentages of pairs of people in which both members display the trait </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gene influences (heritability) </li></ul><ul><li>H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Example of heritability </li></ul><ul><li>H = (r identical - r fraternal ) X 2 </li></ul><ul><li>H (IQ) = (.86 - .60) X 2 = .52 </li></ul><ul><li>So, much of IQ is attributable to environment. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Heritabililty </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates are always between .00 and +1.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Heritability estimates apply to populations and NEVER to individuals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Another example: Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>concordance rate for identical twins = .46 </li></ul><ul><li>fraternal = .14 </li></ul><ul><li>This indicates that there is some genetic basis. </li></ul><ul><li>However, people inherit predispositions for illnesses or disorders. Environment plays a big role. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>Nonshared environmental influences </li></ul><ul><li>NSE = 1 - r (identical twins reared together) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For IQ, NSE is 1 - .86 = .14, small </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SHARED environmental influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE = 1 - (H + NSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For IQ, SE = 1- (.52 +.14) = .34, moderate </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Behavioral Genetics <ul><li>What other characteristics are heritable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introversion/extroversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathic concern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can heritability studies tell us? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about differences among individuals and relationship to differences in genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impt. to remember that heritable traits can be modified by the envt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritable is NOT a synonym for inherited… </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3. The ecological perspective <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner </li></ul><ul><li>Considers contexts of development and their inter-influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological systems theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioecological theory </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Bronfenbrenner’s Model <ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate settings and people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections among microsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social systems that influence children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger context of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical time; changes in environment that influence development </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. 4. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>The sociocultural perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human dev. occurs a particular context that influences it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality and cognition evolve from social interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture provides tools, beliefs, values. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition is inherently social </li></ul>
  19. 20. 4. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>Key components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What a child can do with help today, he will be able to do by himself tomorrow. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the ZPD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research by Maynard (2002) indicates that children are good at scaffolding by the age of 8 years. Scaffolding begins around age 6. </li></ul>
  20. 21. 4. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>Other aspects of Vygotsky’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novices participate in activities with the help of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child uses language to guide activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., talking to self to help self do a task </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. 5. Social Information Processing <ul><li>Premise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are active processors of social information who generate explanations for others’ behavior (causal attributions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attributions are made to internal or external causes </li></ul><ul><li>People question intentionality of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>In individual psychology, interpretations are often more important than what actually happened. </li></ul>
  22. 23. 5. Social Information Processing <ul><li>Inferring dispositional attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Trait: stable over time and across situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., friendliness, integrity, intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even toddlers assume intentionality, but error is thinking that most behavior is intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate acts vs. accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Young children’s understanding of trait stability </li></ul>
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