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LECTURE CONNECTIONS 15   |   The Genetic Code and Translation © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
15.3 Amino Acid Are Assembled into a Protein Through the Mechanism of Translation <ul><li>Translation takes place on ribos...
<ul><li>Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA charging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The specificity between an amino acid and its t...
tRNA charging requires energy, which is supplied by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
<ul><li>mRNA, small and large subunits of ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>A set of 3 proteins called the initiation factors: IF...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>The Shine – Dalgarno consensus sequence in bacterial cells is recognized by the small unit of ribosome. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Exit site E </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidyl site P  </li></ul><ul><li>Aminoacyl site A </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation fac...
Concept Check 3 <ul><ul><li>rRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein in the small subunit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protei...
<ul><li>Termination codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA </li></ul><ul><li>Release factors </li></ul>Termination
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>The three-dimensional structure of the ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Polyribosomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An mRNA wit...
 
 
Concept Check 4 <ul><ul><li>Those at the 5′ end of mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those at the 3′ end of mRNA </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Messenger RNA surveillance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect and deal with errors in mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N...
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Chapter 15- part 2

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  • Figure 15.15 An amino acid becomes attached to the appropriate tRNA in a two-step reaction.
  • Figure 15.16 (part 1) The initiation of translation requires several initiation factors and GTP.
  • Figure 15.16 (part 2) The initiation of translation requires several initiation factors and GTP.
  • Figure 15.16 (part 3) The initiation of translation requires several initiation factors and GTP.
  • Figure 15.16 (part 4) The initiation of translation requires several initiation factors and GTP.
  • Letter A
  • Figure 15.21 (part 1) Translation consists of tRNA charging, initiation, elongation, and termination. In this process, amino acids are linked together in the order specified by mRNA to create a polypeptide chain. A number of initiation, elongation, and release factors take part in the process, and energy is supplied by ATP and GTP.
  • Figure 15.21 (part 2) Translation consists of tRNA charging, initiation, elongation, and termination. In this process, amino acids are linked together in the order specified by mRNA to create a polypeptide chain. A number of initiation, elongation, and release factors take part in the process, and energy is supplied by ATP and GTP.
  • Figure 15.21 (part 3) Translation consists of tRNA charging, initiation, elongation, and termination. In this process, amino acids are linked together in the order specified by mRNA to create a polypeptide chain. A number of initiation, elongation, and release factors take part in the process, and energy is supplied by ATP and GTP.
  • Figure 15.21 (part 4) Translation consists of tRNA charging, initiation, elongation, and termination. In this process, amino acids are linked together in the order specified by mRNA to create a polypeptide chain. A number of initiation, elongation, and release factors take part in the process, and energy is supplied by ATP and GTP.
  • Figure 15.21 (part 5) Translation consists of tRNA charging, initiation, elongation, and termination. In this process, amino acids are linked together in the order specified by mRNA to create a polypeptide chain. A number of initiation, elongation, and release factors take part in the process, and energy is supplied by ATP and GTP.
  • Figure 15.22a,b Structure of the ribosome. (a) Low-resolution model of the ribosome, showing the A, P, and E sites where tRNAs, the mRNA, and the growing polypeptide chain reside. (b) High-resolution model of the ribosome.
  • Figure 15.22c Structure of the ribosome. Positions of tRNAs in E, P, and A sites of the ribosome shown in part b.
  • Letter A
  • Transcript of "Chapter 15- part 2"

    1. 1. LECTURE CONNECTIONS 15 | The Genetic Code and Translation © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
    2. 2. 15.3 Amino Acid Are Assembled into a Protein Through the Mechanism of Translation <ul><li>Translation takes place on ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>A ribosome attaches near the 5’ end of an mRNA strand and moves towards the 3’ end, translating the codons as it goes. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis begin at the amino end of the protein and the protein is elongated by the addition of new aa to the carboxyl end. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions between mRNA and the rRNA that hold the mRNA in the ribosome. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA charging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The specificity between an amino acid and its tRNA is determined by each individual aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are exactly 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA syntheses in a cell. Each synthetase recognizes a particular aa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of tRNAs by a synthetase depends on the differing nucleotide sequences of the tRNAs </li></ul></ul>The Binding of Amino Acids to Transfer RNAs
    4. 4. tRNA charging requires energy, which is supplied by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    5. 5. <ul><li>mRNA, small and large subunits of ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>A set of 3 proteins called the initiation factors: IF-1, IF-2 and IF-3 </li></ul><ul><li>initiator tRNA with N-formylmethionine attached to form fMet-tRNA fMet </li></ul><ul><li>Energy molecule: GTP </li></ul>The Initiation of Translation
    6. 10. <ul><li>The Shine – Dalgarno consensus sequence in bacterial cells is recognized by the small unit of ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kozak sequence in eukaryotic cells facilitates the identification of the start codon. </li></ul>The Initiation of Translation
    7. 11. <ul><li>Exit site E </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidyl site P </li></ul><ul><li>Aminoacyl site A </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation factors: Tu, Ts, and G </li></ul>Elongation
    8. 12. Concept Check 3 <ul><ul><li>rRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein in the small subunit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein in the large subunit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul></ul>In elongation, the creation of peptide bonds between amino acids is catalyzed by .
    9. 13. <ul><li>Termination codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA </li></ul><ul><li>Release factors </li></ul>Termination
    10. 19. <ul><li>The three-dimensional structure of the ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Polyribosomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An mRNA with several ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul>15.4 Additional Properties of RNA and Ribosomes Affect Protein Synthesis
    11. 22. Concept Check 4 <ul><ul><li>Those at the 5′ end of mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those at the 3′ end of mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those in the middle of mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All polypeptides will be the same length. </li></ul></ul>In a polyribosome, the polypeptides associated with which ribosomes will be the longest?
    12. 23. <ul><li>Messenger RNA surveillance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect and deal with errors in mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsense – mediated mRNA decay: eliminating mRNA containing premature termination codons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The posttranslational modifications of proteins </li></ul>15.4 Additional Properties of RNA and Ribosomes Affect Protein Synthesis
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