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Chapter 1 BTEC330120..


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  • 1. Introduction to Biotechnology BTEC3301
  • 2. What career opportunities are available?
    • Graduates work in
      • pharmaceutical companies and hospitals (e.g diagnostics)
      • medical Lab (e.g insulin, cloning)
      • agricultural industries and dept of Agriculture (crops and animals eg the broccoflower, Dolly the sheep, cloning)
      • in beverage and food production ( wine and dairy products)
      • in a range of public and private diagnostic, research laboratories covering
      • microbiology, hematology, bioremediation,
      • immunology, forensic science (suspect in crime scenes)
      • crop development, pest control (Biological control)
      • animal production, veterinary services,
      • molecular biology and protein engineering (e.g insulin, yeast for fermentation))
  • 3. What career opportunities are available?
    • The career options are expanding rapidly .
    • Advances in
      • genetic engineering,
      • protein engineering,
      • cell culture and
      • molecular biology have generated a virtually unlimited potential for altering the capabilities of living systems.
  • 4. What is Biotechnology?
    • Biotechnology is essentially
      • the use of living organisms (often minute microorganisms) and their products
      • for health, social or economic purposes.
    • Biotechnology is widely considered to be the growth technology of the 21st Century and this will lead to huge growth in the Biotechnology industry and exciting opportunities for graduates.
  • 5. …….. What is Biotechnology?
    • Applications of biotechnology are widespread, including the following:
    • diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.
    • improved production of therapeutic agents.
    • development of improved crop plant species.
    • development of improved pest/pathogen control processes.
  • 6. …….. What is Biotechnology?
    • development of biosensors for environmental pollutants.
    • development of improved waste treatment processes and methods for remediation contaminated sites.
    • production of transgenic organisms for production of new drugs, improved transplantation success and improved animal and plant
  • 7. …….. What is Biotechnology?
    • According to the Academic Standards for Science and Technology, Biotechnology is the ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services. 
  • 8. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • Long before the term "biotechnology" was coined for the process of using living organisms to produce improved commodities, people were utilizing living micro-organisms to produce valuable products.
    • History of Biotechnology (Refer pg 2 text bk.).
    • Our ancestors used microorganisms and used fermentation to make bread, cheeses, yogurt, alcoholic beverages etc.
  • 9. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • One of the most widespread and commonly understood applications of Biotechnology is the use of antibiotic Penicillin from the mold Penicillium (A.Flemming, 1928).
    • In 1940, penicillin became widely a available, scale-up and commercial production of antibiotics such as penicillin occurred.
  • 10. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • About two decades ago, biotechnology became much more of a science (rather than an art).
    • Since 1960, rapid development of our understanding of genetics and molecular biology has led to exciting new innovations and applications in Biotechnology.
  • 11. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • The secrets of DNA structure and functions have led to gene cloning and genetic engineering, manipulating the DNA of an organism.
    • Regions of DNA (called genes) were found to contain information that would lead to synthesis of specific proteins
  • 12. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • A natural gene in simple bacteria such as Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), a bacterium living in intestines that has become the model organism for much of biotechnology, if found in this bacterium, scientist can have this bacterium make a lot of the protein coded for by the gene, regardless its source.
  • 13. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • Through genetic engineering scientists can combine DNA from different sources and this process is called recombinant DNA technology (Chapter 3).
  • 14. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • Recombinant DNA technology has led to hundreds of applications including development of disease resistant crops with greater yield and nutrient value or genetically engineered bacteria able to degrade environmental pollutant (Discussed under bioremediation).
  • 15. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • Hence the mid-eighties and early-nineties, it became possible to transform (genetically modify) plants and animals that are important for food production. "Transgenic" animals and plants, including cows, sheep, tomatoes, tobacco, potato, and cotton have now been obtained.
  • 16. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • Recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering led to release of genetically altered organisms into the environment, this part of biotechnology is quite strictly regulated at government levels (Biotechnology regulation will be discussed).
  • 17. …… .. What is Biotechnology?
    • C ompleted in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. During the early years of the HGP, the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others.
  • 18. HGP Project goals were to
    • identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,
    • determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,
    • store this information in databases,
    • improve tools for data analysis,
    • transfer related technologies to the private sector, and
    • address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project
    • Biotechnology can be broadly defined as the application of biological systems or processes to the manufacturing, agricultural, health and service industries.
    • Biotechnology encompasses a wide range of science and business disciplines
  • 20. Areas of application of Biotechnology
    • The following lists the main areas and application of Biotechnology from which all others stem:
    • Fermentation Technology
    • This is, historically, the most important area in biotechnology. There has been extensive development in progress with new products such as medically important drugs, solvents, protein enhanced foods, etc.
  • 21. Areas of application of Biotechnology
    • Enzyme Engineering
    • This area is used for the catalysis of extremely specific chemical reactions to create specific molecular converters (bioreactors). Products formed include amino acids, high fructose syrup, semi-synthetic penicillins, starch and cellulose hydrolysis, etc.
  • 22. Areas of application of Biotechnology
    • Waste Technology
    • This has a long array of historical importance, but now emphasis is on the coupling of this field with the conservation and recycling of resources. Examples would include foods, fertilizers, and biological fuels.
  • 23. Areas of application of Biotechnology
    • Environmental Technology
    • Problems like pollution control, removing toxic wastes, recovery of metals from mining wastes and low grade ores, are just some of the categories that fall under this field.
  • 24. Areas of application of Biotechnology
    • Renewable Resources Technology
    • The use of renewable energy sources, in particular lignocellulose to generate new sources of raw material and energy - ethanol, methane, and hydrogen.
  • 25. Areas of application of Biotechnology………………
    • Each of these fields utilizes knowledge from Biochemistry, Genetics, Chemistry, Applied Microbiology, Chemical and Process Engineering, and Mathematics and Computer Technology .
  • 26. Products of Modern Biotechnology
    • Insulin:
    • The first product of modern biotechnology made use of insulin, a protein hormone produced in the pancreas that the body uses to regulate the concentration of blood sugar (glucose).
  • 27. To accomplish this, the piece of foreign DNA is first inserted into a plasmid a small circle of DNA which serves as a carrier. The new "recombinant" plasmid carrying the human gene is then reintroduced into another bacterial cell, as shown in the figure above.
  • 28. Types of Biotechnology
    • Microbial,
    • Agricultural,
    • Animal,
    • Forensic,
    • Bioremediation,
    • Aquatic and
    • Medical Biotechnology.
  • 29. Types of Biotechnology…………..
    • Selective breeding
    • Selective breeding for new genetic combinations
    • livestock, crops,
    • yogurt, cheese bread, beer.
  • 30. Types of Biotechnology…………..
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Genetic engineering makes it possible for organisms to get genes from different species – makes products useful in agriculture
  • 31. Types of Biotechnology…………..
    • Genetically Modified Foods
    • Genetically modified foods - produce plants that yield more food, produce new types of food, plants prone to diseases and severe weather; increase the disease resistance, size and growth rate of animals, in medicine and industry.
  • 32. Types of Biotechnology…………..
    • Environmental Biotechnology
    • Environment (bioremediation, heavy metal biotechnology, species preservation).
    • Gene Therapy
    • Gene therapy – replace defective genes with healthy ones (use of viruses).
  • 33.
    • Further Readings
    • Pg 9-12 (Types of Biotechnology)
    • Pg 17 (Jobs in Biotechnology)
    • Browse Web Links pg 21