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Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
 

Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)

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    Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab) Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab) Presentation Transcript

    • Genetic Code and Translation
    • Outline
      • The Breaking of the Genetic Code
        • Examples of two experimental approaches
      • Concepts and Terms related to genetic code
        • Wobble
        • Degeneracy
        • isoaccepting
      • Translation
        • prokaryote
        • eukaryotes
    • The Genetic Code and Translation
    • The Breaking of the Genetic Code
    • Experiments that “broke the genetic code”
      • 1. Cell Free experiments
        • Applied to the Homopolymer experiment
      • 2. Known RNA sequences and ribosomal bound tRNA
    • All these experiments used a cell free system. 1 2 3 4 ppt. protein 5 1. Overview
    • Cell free system 1 hot amino acid 19 cold amino acids translation 20X each a different “hot amino acid Application of experimental design +
    • 2. Known mRNA sequences + Ribosomal bound tRNA This is transfer RNA Anti-codon Amino acid Now link this idea to The genetic code table
    • Transfer RNA Amino Acid ribosome
    • Codon of mRNA Mix with Isolate ribosome bound tRNA Analyze amino acid 2. EXPERIMENT
    • Close up of a possible result:
    • Genetic Code Table 1968 Degeneracy & mRNA Wobble
    • Isoaccepting & tRNAs Different tRNAs accept same amino acid!
    • The process of translation
    • mRNA sequences We will approach our discussion of translation as a “Nonoverlapping Code”
    • Steps of Translation
      • 1. Binding of amino acids to tRNA
      • 2. Initiation
      • 3. Elongation
      • 4. Termination
      • 5. Peptide Release
      • 6. Protein modification
    • Step 1 Binding of amino acid to tRNA
    • It takes two steps to “charge” the tRNA Amino acid+ATP tRNA is charged Aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase
    • Up close view of “charged” tRNA
    • Step 2: Initiation of Translation IF3 Bacterial Initiation
    • 30S
    • 70S Note 3 ribosomal sites E P A E A
    • Kozak Eukaryotic Initiation key differences
    • 3. ELONGATION: look at the “EPA” sites Peptidyl transferase
    • Up close view of translation
    • Elongation continues on ribosomes
    • Termination and Release UAA UAG UGA Steps 4 and 5:
    • Animation of Translation http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter14/animations.html See chapter 15
    • 6. Lipoprotein Glycoprotein
    • Many antibiotics target prokaryotic translation.
    • Antibiotics and Translation
      • Tetracyclines
      • Chloramphenicol
      • Streptoymycin
      • Erythromycin
      • Bind and block bacterial ribosomes “A” site
      • Binds to large subunit; blocks peptide formation
      • Blocks initiation step
      • Blocks translocation step
    • Review: The Structure and Function of Proteins
    •  
    • Amino Acids-R groups
      • Nonpolar, aliphatic
      • Polar, uncharged
      • Aromatic
      • Positively charged
      • Negatively charged
    • Protein: Levels of structural organization
    •  
    • For your review: Summary of important steps involved in translation
    • 1. 2.
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5.
    • 6. Protein Modifications
    • Eukaryotic translation is very similar except:
      • More IF’s
      • Kozak sequence
      • 5’CAP
      • 3’poly-A tail
    •