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Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)
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Ch 15 (this will be also discussed in lab)

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  • 1. Genetic Code and Translation
  • 2. Outline <ul><li>The Breaking of the Genetic Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of two experimental approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts and Terms related to genetic code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wobble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degeneracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>isoaccepting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prokaryote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eukaryotes </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. The Genetic Code and Translation
  • 4. The Breaking of the Genetic Code
  • 5. Experiments that “broke the genetic code” <ul><li>1. Cell Free experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to the Homopolymer experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Known RNA sequences and ribosomal bound tRNA </li></ul>
  • 6. All these experiments used a cell free system. 1 2 3 4 ppt. protein 5 1. Overview
  • 7. Cell free system 1 hot amino acid 19 cold amino acids translation 20X each a different “hot amino acid Application of experimental design +
  • 8. 2. Known mRNA sequences + Ribosomal bound tRNA This is transfer RNA Anti-codon Amino acid Now link this idea to The genetic code table
  • 9. Transfer RNA Amino Acid ribosome
  • 10. Codon of mRNA Mix with Isolate ribosome bound tRNA Analyze amino acid 2. EXPERIMENT
  • 11. Close up of a possible result:
  • 12. Genetic Code Table 1968 Degeneracy & mRNA Wobble
  • 13. Isoaccepting & tRNAs Different tRNAs accept same amino acid!
  • 14. The process of translation
  • 15. mRNA sequences We will approach our discussion of translation as a “Nonoverlapping Code”
  • 16. Steps of Translation <ul><li>1. Binding of amino acids to tRNA </li></ul><ul><li>2. Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Elongation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Termination </li></ul><ul><li>5. Peptide Release </li></ul><ul><li>6. Protein modification </li></ul>
  • 17. Step 1 Binding of amino acid to tRNA
  • 18. It takes two steps to “charge” the tRNA Amino acid+ATP tRNA is charged Aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase
  • 19. Up close view of “charged” tRNA
  • 20. Step 2: Initiation of Translation IF3 Bacterial Initiation
  • 21. 30S
  • 22. 70S Note 3 ribosomal sites E P A E A
  • 23. Kozak Eukaryotic Initiation key differences
  • 24. 3. ELONGATION: look at the “EPA” sites Peptidyl transferase
  • 25. Up close view of translation
  • 26. Elongation continues on ribosomes
  • 27. Termination and Release UAA UAG UGA Steps 4 and 5:
  • 28. Animation of Translation http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter14/animations.html See chapter 15
  • 29. 6. Lipoprotein Glycoprotein
  • 30. Many antibiotics target prokaryotic translation.
  • 31. Antibiotics and Translation <ul><li>Tetracyclines </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol </li></ul><ul><li>Streptoymycin </li></ul><ul><li>Erythromycin </li></ul><ul><li>Bind and block bacterial ribosomes “A” site </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to large subunit; blocks peptide formation </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks initiation step </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks translocation step </li></ul>
  • 32. Review: The Structure and Function of Proteins
  • 33.  
  • 34. Amino Acids-R groups <ul><li>Nonpolar, aliphatic </li></ul><ul><li>Polar, uncharged </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic </li></ul><ul><li>Positively charged </li></ul><ul><li>Negatively charged </li></ul>
  • 35. Protein: Levels of structural organization
  • 36.  
  • 37. For your review: Summary of important steps involved in translation
  • 38. 1. 2.
  • 39. 3.
  • 40. 4.
  • 41. 5.
  • 42. 6. Protein Modifications
  • 43. Eukaryotic translation is very similar except: <ul><li>More IF’s </li></ul><ul><li>Kozak sequence </li></ul><ul><li>5’CAP </li></ul><ul><li>3’poly-A tail </li></ul>
  • 44.  

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