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  • 1. Chapter Six Inheritance, Evolution, and Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 2. Basic Approach of Biological Perspectives
    • Personality is genetically determined
      • Human behavioral tendencies arise from evolutionary processes
    • Human behavior is the product of a complex biological organism
    • Underlying genetics and biology influence processes in personality
  • 3. Behavioral Genetics
    • Key Methodologies
      • Twin Studies:
        • Monozygotic Pairs Dizygotic Pairs
        • Genetically identical Not identical
        • Correlation MZ Correlation DZ
        • Difference x 2 = HERITABILITY
      • Adoption Studies: How adopted children resemble…
        • Biological Parents Adopted Parents
        • Genetically related Not related
        • Correlation BP > Correlation AP
    Suggests a genetic component
  • 4. Temperaments
    • Inherited personality traits present at birth
    • Genetically based
    • Wholly pervasive—affecting how and what people do
    • Three fundamental temperaments
      • Activity level—overall output of behavior
      • Sociability—preference for being with others
      • Emotionality—ease of being emotionally aroused
    • Other temperaments
      • Impulsivity and Intelligence?
  • 5. Inheritance of Traits
    • Evidence of heritability for a broad range of traits
      • Evidence: Average Correlations
      • MZ Twins DZ twins
      • ( r = .50) ( r = .30)
    • Evidence for genetic component for all of big five personality traits
  • 6. Temperaments and the Big Five
    • Big Five Temperaments
    • Neuroticism Emotionality
    • Extraversion Activity
    • Agreeableness Sociability
    • Openness Impulsivity
    • Conscientiousness Intelligence
    (-)
  • 7. Other Effects of Genetics
    • Genetics work through personality to effect:
      • Risk for divorce
      • Experiencing a serious life event
      • Levels of social support
      • Peoples attitudes on various topics
    • Suggestion of genetic basis of sexual orientation
    • Important question: Are the effects of personality and genetics distinct?
  • 8. Molecular Genetics
    • Much of human genome does not vary from person to person
    • Differences arise at locations where patterns of DNA proteins vary
    • Research has identified a gene location that relates to:
      • Novelty seeking
      • Anxiety
      • Harm avoidance
  • 9. Environmental Influences
    • Environmental effect may be underestimated
      • Judged as that which is not explained by genetics
      • Some environmental and genetic effects may have shared influence on an outcome (ex. intelligence)
      • If shared variance is attributed to genetics, environmental effect is underestimated
    • Environmental influences on personality operate primarily at the individual level
    • Sources of non-shared environmental influences
      • Peer, friends, social networks
      • Complementary but diverging roles within families
      • Parental preference
  • 10. Sociobiology
    • Social behaviors exist because they confer adaptive advantage
    • Example: Altruism
      • May confer a biological disadvantage at an individual level
      • May help others in same gene pool survive and reproduce (inclusive fitness)
      • Predicts altruism to members of kinship group
      • May form the evolutionary basis of cooperation
    Study of the biological basis of human social behavior
  • 11. Genetic Similarity Theory
    • An extension of the concept of altruism
    • We are more attracted to strangers who genetically resemble us
      • Evidence?
        • Sexually involved couples shared more genetic markers than randomly selected couples
        • Couples with children shared more genetic markers than those without
        • Male friend pairs share more markers than random pairs
      • How detected?
        • Similar facial, physical features
        • Smell
        • Cultural similarities
  • 12. Mate Selection and Competition
    • Females Males
    • Greater investment in offspring • Less investment in offspring
    • Generate fewer offspring • Can generate more offspring
    • Choosier in mate selection • Less discriminating
    • Wait for best male • Maximize sexual opportunities
    • Males = success objects • Females = sex objects
    • Attract males with: • Attract females with:
      • Fertility, youth, fitness, beauty Wealth, power, status, dominance
  • 13. Jealousy
    • Concerns according to evolutionary theory
    • Females Males
    • • Family support • Paternity
    • Jealousy results from:
    • Females Males
    • • Emotional bonds • Sexual infidelity
  • 14. Other Gender Differences
    • Strategies for mate retention:
    • Females Males
    • • Maximize attractiveness • Spend $ and give into wishes
    • • Strategies used more if husband • Strategies used more if wife
    • has high income is young or attractive
    • Approaches to communication:
    • Females Males
    • • Inclusive • Individualistic
    • • Sharing • Dominance-oriented
    • • Communal • Problem-solving
  • 15. Young Male Syndrome
    • May have evolutionary roots
    • Manifest by posturing, risk behavior or violence in response to sexual selection pressure
    • Elicited by specific situations
      • Single, unemployed, low-status (poor mating potential)
    • Evidence
      • Males more likely to commit murder
      • Men in prime mating age commit more murders
      • Most killings over status (“face”)
  • 16. Assessment
    • Little focus from behavioral genetics
    • Assessment from genes unlikely
      • Behavior probably involves many genes
      • Ethical implications?
  • 17. Behavior Genetics and Disorder
    • Schizophrenia
      • Rate of concordance in twins
        • MZ = 50%
        • DZ = 9%
    • Bipolar Disorder
      • Twin research suggests genetic contribution
      • Possible links to specific chromosomes (in Amish)
    • Alcohol Abuse
      • Possible link to gene for dopamine
    • Antisocial Behavior
      • Higher concordance rates among MZ twins on childhood behavior problems and adult crime
  • 18. Another View of Behavior Problems
    • Premise: Two evolutionary processes influence behavior
      • Biological evolution—slow
      • Cultural evolution—much faster
    • Problems arise when the behavioral tendency from biological evolution conflicts with current cultural environment