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  • 1. Career View 1 CAREERS AND EMPLOYMENT INFORMATION SERIES Career View ISSUE NO 17 • DECEMBER 2000 Genetics and Molecular Biology Science fact is infinitely more positive and only slightly less amazing than science fiction. Life, as we know it, is a Greetings from the function of the genetic codes that all living things carry in Career Development & nearly every cell of their structures. The science of Employment Service of genetics is nothing less than understanding the most Victoria University intimate secrets of life. Career View is published by An explosion of knowledge and increased successes in Career Development and molecular biology has meant that many problems Employment to provide information considered formidable just a decade or so ago are now on careers and employment to being or on their way to being solved. Molecular students, graduates and friends in biologists have contributed to an ever increasing the community. understanding of the origin of the human species; to the creation of genetically engineered new drugs; and to the Topics cover a wide range of areas sequencing of the entire genome of a variety of species, from information on how degrees including disease-causing micro-organisms, agriculturally and courses relate to employment important plants, and the human organism itself. opportunities, to life/work planning, graduate destination information and current issues or material relevant to What is Genetics and Molecular Biology? Genetics is the science of heredity. structure and function of biological the employment scene. By understanding the mechanisms which molecules and how these relationships govern the way genetic information is contribute to the operation and control of In this issue of Career View we look received and expressed by individual biochemical processes. Molecular at the exciting and fascinating area of organisms during their life and also how biology is, by its very nature, Genetics and Molecular Biology. We it is passed onto succeeding generations, reductionist. That is, it deals with ever scientists are increasingly able to smaller pieces (ie molecules) of the whole explore the wide range of employment understand the biochemical processes of (ie cell). Molecular biology concentrates opportunities available to students in all living things. on the interplay between genes and this field and we profile four recent Geneticists study what genes are, how biochemical function and allows us to graduates who share with us their they are duplicated and transferred, and determine the precise role of DNA-based how they change by mutation and information (genes) in the activity of all experiences on work and study. selection during evolution. Genetics is a living things. component of virtually every area of The ultimate goal of molecular biology biology and can be found in many is to understand the five basic cell subfields within biology including; behaviour patterns – growth, division, evolution, behaviour genetics, specialisation, movement and interaction developmental biology, cytogenetics, – in terms of the various molecules that population genetics, clinical and are responsible for them. That is, molecular genetics. molecular biology wants to generate a Molecular biology encompasses the complete description of the structure, molecular aspects of biochemistry, function and inter-relationships of the genetics and cell biology. It seeks to cell’s macromolecules, and thereby to explain the relationships between the understand why living cells behave the way they do. © VUW Career Development and Employment
  • 2. Career View 2 Of principal interest are the • review your goals at each new phase These issues include: macromolecules and macromolecular of study • the opportunities that may be open complexes of DNA, RNA and protein • maintain other interests, socialise to NZ from the use or avoidance of and the processes of replication, and a build up a balanced lifestyle. genetic modification technologies transcription and translation. The new • the international legal obligations NZ Skills and Personal Qualities Required: experimental technologies involved in faces with regard to genetic Whatever their job title, people manipulating these molecules are modification working in this area are fundamentally central to modern molecular biology • the Crown’s responsibilities under the scientists. They carry out their work and have tremendous practical Treaty of Waitangi in relation to according to well-established scientific applications in the development of new genetic modification principles and procedures. They need: and safe products such as therapeutics, • when, how and for what purpose is vaccines and foodstuffs, and in the • a good understanding of scientific genetic modification, and its products, diagnosis of genetic disease and in gene methodology being used in NZ at present therapy. Significant discoveries emerge • ability to interpret experimental data • the public interest in genetic from research laboratories nearly every • ability to use a range of laboratory modification as it relates to human day and newspaper articles frequently equipment health, biomedical, food safety and herald exciting announcements of the • knowledge of various techniques of consumer choice identification of disease-causing genes, molecular analysis • the public interest in environmental or promising biotechnology products, or • organised work habits issues; biodiversity, biosecurity and new agricultural processes. • practical understanding of hazardous the health of ecosystems substances In recent years, molecular biology has • the public interest in economic issues; • clear written communication, witnessed an information revolution as research and innovation, business particularly in writing up a result of the development of rapid development, primary production experimental results or data DNA sequencing techniques and the and exports. • willingness to work after hours and corresponding progress in computer- People working in genetic research will weekends at critical phases of based technologies, which are allowing need to think through their position on experiments us to cope with this information deluge such matters. • practical understanding of statutory in increasingly efficient ways. The term and regulatory responsibilities that was coined to encompass computer • understanding and commitment to Where Do Geneticists and applications in biological sciences is Molecular Biologists Work? ethical codes bioinformatics. Increasingly geneticists • an understanding that some work • Research Organisations and molecular biologists use extremely may involve live animals Most molecular biologists work in some sophisticated computer applications to • a working knowledge of relevant sort of research environment. Because ‘mine’ the massive amounts of data that funding criteria and application the economy of New Zealand is based are being generated, so that procedures. on primary production, much of the computational biology is an emerging research is focused on agriculture, and fast-growing specialization. As in any job, personal qualities are horticulture, forestry and fishing. Also, important. Scientists need to: because some genes do exactly the same What Do You Need to • be curious job in animals and humans, and plants Become a Geneticist or a • be imaginative for that matter, work on animals can also Molecular Biologist? • be self-motivated and able to work have applications for human health. independently Research on the fertility of possums, for To be involved in high level research • adapt to a cooperative team example, can have implications for and to set independent research goals environment when required fertility in humans. Research which has you will need, at least, a PhD and • be patient and methodical a lot of ‘spin-off’ applications is likely to preferably post doctoral experience. • maintain determination and persistence be viewed favourably by funding Masters and Bachelors graduates • have an analytical and logical turn of agencies. generally work at levels that support the mind research goals of higher level scientists, Funding arrangements have a direct • learn how to express complex ideas so there is less opportunity to engage in impact on the availability of jobs and the in simple terms original research projects. However, types of research carried out. Scientific • cultivate a questioning, ‘what if’ responsibilities will vary from project research is very expensive. Much of the attitude to information and ideas to project. money for it comes from the • where possible build up international Academic qualifications are critical government and can be subject to networks of people whose work and can demand long years of study. changes in government policy. Although interests them. It is important to: there are also other sources of funding, Issues: there are three main government • take, and enjoy, biology, chemistry Genetics can be a controversial area of funding agencies - Foundation for and maths at school research, as exemplified by the issues Research, Science and Technology • talk to course supervisors when raised at the hearings of the Royal [FoRST], Health Research Council and choosing papers at university Commission on Genetic Modification The Royal Society of New Zealand - • keep ‘tuned in’ to current research (2000). who ‘purchase’ research from various that interests you research organisations. Organisations © VUW Career Development and Employment
  • 3. Career View 3 who want to set up research projects will Environmental Science & Research Ltd Board, which involves additional exams. often apply to these funding bodies to (ESR), employ molecular biologists. They After three years full-time employment it grant them money from the Public Good have large staff numbers and, in general, is possible to apply to sit the Human Science Fund. These applications include prefer a minimum qualification of a BSc Genetics Society of Australasia details of the number of people who will (Hons). The range and diversity of examinations. This is encouraged as it need to be employed to carry out the research projects and contracts allows for provides a professional standard for both research and the length of time the considerable varieties of research interests. countries. project will take. Often jobs are directly Some CRIs, such as AgResearch, have Molecular laboratories are located at tied to a particular project. They are summer student scholarships. Wellington, Christchurch and Auckland subject to funds being available and • The main functions of Universities are Hospitals. There technicians, technologists might last only for the length of the to research and teach. In order to carry and scientists work with genetic project. Many jobs in scientific research out these responsibilities, universities information that cannot be observed are contract-based positions. Some become major employers of science microscopically. They are particularly funding is available for study purposes. graduates, both as technicians and as looking for changes and deletions in FoRST administers a range of teaching faculty. Some universities have genes. The main technique used in this scholarship and fellowship grants for set up separate subsidiaries or joint analysis is polymerase chain reaction post-graduate research and provides venture arrangements in order to develop which allows specific regions of DNA to access to other funding sources. and market the commercial applications be repeated exponentially and so gives a Generally, research organisations will of their research programmes . Some better quantity of material to work with. assist senior students gain access to universities and other research The genetic material can be examined on funding information. organisations offer consultancy services ‘check gels’ to see if there are any There are increasing levels of and advanced degree students deletions or abnormalities collaboration between various research sometimes contribute to these. • Government Agencies, such as the groups, industry groups, producer • Specialised Research Organisations Environmental Risk Management boards, private investors and so on. tend to focus on a particular area of Authority (ERMA), the Health Research Sometimes one organisation might research, such as the Malaghan Institute Council and the Intellectual Property contract out part of a research project to for Medical Research, or the Cawthron Office, also employ people with a another. Joint ventures are becoming Institute which focuses largely on marine background in genetics or molecular more common. Overall the boundaries studies, the Wool Research Institute and biology. These are not research between pure research and its commercial the NZ Dairy Research Institute. organisations and tend to deal with applications are becoming less distinct. statutory and regulatory matters, so the • Private Research Organisations are not Most research organisations prefer a plentiful and may only employ small work is based on the analysis of Bachelor of Science (BSc) with Honours as numbers of staff. Some have links to documents. Hierarchies of responsibility a minimum qualification because of the international companies. Private still tend to be linked to degree status. practical laboratory experience the degree companies tend to be closer to ERMA, for example, usually employs provides. Familiarity with equipment commercial ventures and may work in BSc and Masters graduates as such as centrifuges, knowing how to make partnership with industry for specific Applications Officers. The work is basic reagents, how to use polymerase economic outcomes. Small teams tend to administrative, but still technical. Their chain reaction (PCR) equipment, how to require versatility and perhaps a broader reports are passed on to Scientific handle hazardous substances and how knowledge base, so double degrees may Advisers, who typically have PhDs, for to access large databases are some of the be valued. Productivity is a strong value. evaluation and review before the necessary skills. Research experience There may be considerable interface with decision is passed on to the applicant. gained during Masters and PhD degrees clients and good presentation skills are The Health Research Council employs are critical for more responsible positions. necessary. Portfolio Administrators whose work, However a straight BSc graduate may be though grounded in research • Hospitals have a range of laboratory employed for basic laboratory duties. experience, demands a lot of consultation services including cytogenetic Most employers recognise the ability of with different groups. They gather laboratories and molecular laboratories. people to learn new skills on the job and information from a wide range of Cytogenetics analyses the chromosome will reward initiative with increasing sources in order to write recommendations and principally involves the diagnosis of responsibility. Certainly any kind of and policy documents on what health chromosomal abnormality, often at the practical laboratory experience will research is both relevant and necessary. pre-natal stage. It is also a diagnostic enhance a graduate’s prospects. The Intellectual Property Office recruits technique for leukemias and some solid However there will probably always be at the BSc level, looks for people with cancer tumours. Much genetic diagnosis something of a divide between a research other practical interests, such as car these days uses molecular techniques technician/assistant and a research maintenance or building, and expects such as PCR and sequencing to screen for scientist. much on-the-job training. They value mutations in genes. Many technicians • Crown Research Institutes (CRIs) are innovation and adaptability. The work working in cytogenetics have a Bachelor large government organisations, each of involves the interpretation of case law so of Medical Laboratory Science but a BSc which covers a particular area of research the language used in reports must be graduate in molecular biology would still activity. Most, such as AgResearch, Crop very considered and precise. Employees be employed. Both types of graduates and Food Research, Forest Research, need to appreciate indigenous would need to apply for Registration with HortResearch and the Institute of intellectual property rights under the the Medical Laboratory Technologists © VUW Career Development and Employment
  • 4. Career View 4 Treaty of Waitangi. Other Government children are. It is important to be non- BSc majoring in biochemistry and Agencies have different functions and judgemental and be able to discuss quite physiology. different requirements. complicated information in an The material covered in the physiology • Patent Attorneys employ graduates of understandable way. They discuss and biochemistry courses satisfied my all levels, although it is recognised that a inheritance, risk, testing options and curiosity - from the structure and the Masters or PhD brings higher levels of reproductive options. Both the practical function of the heart and kidneys right specialised knowledge. A law degree is an and emotional implications, along with down to the intricacies of cellular signalling optional extra. Apart from formal other issues, need to be considered. An systems and the way DNA works. I also qualifications, patent attorneys need very understanding of molecular and cytogenetic really enjoyed being surrounded by people good people skills as they need to techniques is helpful as the counsellors who shared my interests. communicate comfortably with order, interpret and explain test results. As my studies at university inventors, business managers and Vacancies occur very rarely in NZ. In progressed, I learned it was going to be regulatory authorities. The work Australia some genetic counsellors are very difficult to gain entry into forensic involves the interpretation and criticism attached to a government health science straight from university. I also of patent specifications, and effectively department and some are employed by learned that there were a great many staking out a conceptual and support and educational groups. more career paths in science than I ever geographical claim over the rights. • Forensic Science is conducted out of imagined. Being focused on how I might Patent attorneys are largely trained on the Institute of Environmental Science gain employment after I completed my the job. They must pass a series of six and Research Ltd. (ESR). Again, degree degree, I put a lot of work into getting qualifying examinations, typically over levels relate to different levels of information that might be helpful. I a period of two or three years. Vacancies responsibility, but there’s considerable visited the Career Development and are often advertised on web sites as the crossover. It’s an interdisciplinary, Employment Service, spoke to a forensic job market is international and ‘magpie’ science with lots of on-the-job scientist and took the opportunity to go recruitment is on a world wide basis. training. The work involves DNA to all sorts of talks presented by people Patents relating to animal remedies are profiling and DNA database from all sorts of organisations. It became probably the most common in New management, much of it relating to police apparent that I would be more Zealand. Intellectual Property is an investigations. Typically, DNA is marketable if I had either two degrees in aspect of mainstream commercial law. A extracted from recovered cellular different fields or a postgraduate technical qualification is secondary to material, such as blood. Specific genes qualification. So, in 1997 I completed an being a qualified solicitor. Nevertheless (loci) are targeted and amplified using Honours degree in biochemistry and setting up clients with their licences, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The molecular biology. approvals and business structures in a fragments are sorted according to size While my goal was always to become biotechnology venture is much easier if and a DNA profile is determined from a forensic scientist, I had to make the you know the science. the sample. This is then compared with a most of any opportunity to apply for • Analytical Laboratories are sometimes control sample using very carefully jobs I was now qualified for. Despite attached to research organisations or may controlled statistical analysis. having excellent grades and a first class be stand alone operations. Generally the • Various biotechnology organisations honours degree, finding a job was not work is of a routine nature, perhaps offer Consultancy Services, either as a easy! I applied for many positions and series tests, and BSc graduates can core business or as part of a wider soon realised that getting your foot in usually learn the required skills on the operational strategy. the door was not just what you know, job. However expensive equipment and/ • Sales and Marketing positions with but who you know, what they’re looking or hazardous substances may be pharmaceutical and biotechnology for and what practical experience you involved so attention to detail and a companies are sometimes appropriate have. responsible attitude is important. for molecular biology graduates. I was fortunate to be offered a job as • Genetic Counsellors require a degree in Embryologist at Fertility Associates in a biological science, though not necessarily Wellington five months after finishing molecular biology, as well as post graduate Graduate Profiles my studies. My success was a matter of experience in a research or diagnostic having the right knowledge base and laboratory. A Masters degree would be Toni Wilkinson practical experience, combined with a considered as giving greater experience. Embryologist, Fertility Associates personality the clinic was looking for. In addition they train through the Human I made up my mind In this role I work with a small close- Genetics Society of Australasia to become in the fourth form knit team of embryologists, doctors and certified Genetic Counsellors. This that I was going to nurses to provide treatment and support involves two parts. Part 1 requires two be a forensic for people experiencing infertility. The years correspondence study or a one-year scientist. I was work is fairly exclusive due to this residential course in Australia. On gaining intrigued with the country’s small population and I have Part 1, they would be considered eligible workings of the had to learn many of the practical for a position with a genetic service and human body and aspects ‘on the job.’ would complete Part 2 (a further two years) on the job. Genetic counsellors science was a tool My study of biochemistry, molecular talk with people who have, or are at risk that could unravel biology and physiology at university not of having, a genetic disease - or their this mystery. In 1994 I embarked on a only gave me a broad knowledge base © VUW Career Development and Employment
  • 5. Career View 5 for my work, but also helped me encouraging, all of which provided an After moving to Wellington I obtained develop important personal skills, excellent learning environment. an Industrial Research Fellowship at especially during my Honours year. I’ve Since graduating from Victoria Victoria University, which was a salaried learned the importance of keeping an University, I’ve noticed there have been position and there I worked on research open mind, questioning everything, plenty of employment opportunities for into the genetic basis of facial eczema. being thorough and setting high people with my kind of qualifications. After about two and a half years I decided standards, even when it means leaving The genetics / molecular biology / to enrol in a PhD at Victoria University, my comfort zone! biochemistry based industries have following on from my initial studies I think the study of molecular biology plenty of exciting developments and involving facial eczema in sheep. I provides a good foundation for many opportunities on offer. People who are particularly enjoyed the ‘writing up’ different career paths, especially when considering studying for a career in period of my PhD, especially having the combined with other areas of study such genetics and molecular biology have a time to follow things up in the library as law or business. I think it is very rewarding time ahead of them. and being able to link my findings to important to have a broad base on historical events. I graduated with my I’ve been fortunate enough at which to build a career and it is equally PhD in 1994. AgResearch to utilise all the skills I important to keep in touch with the gained through study at Victoria and I’d At the end of my PhD I didn’t really sorts of skills employers are interested in. advise those who seriously want to make know what I was going to do next. I don’t think that grades alone are a career in genetics to do postgraduate I decided to simply ask around. There’s a enough to get a foot in the door. Your study. It’s good for personal development, big chunk of serendipity at work in my subject areas, versatility, skills, it encourages a good work ethic and, not career. Perhaps I’ve just been in the right experience and personality type all surprisingly, applicants with a postgraduate place at the right time, but through a contribute to getting a head start. degree are looked on favourably by series of conversations with different employers. You won’t look back if you do! people, each of whom must have liked something about me and/or my work, I Lauren Collins came to my present position in cancer Laboratory Technician, TB Ian Hermans research - even though I didn’t have the Molecular Biology, AgResearch Research Fellow, Malaghan required background in immunology. When I was getting Institute of Medical Research I’m currently working on basic tumour towards finishing I started out at university intending to immunology. We’ve been developing high school, I do a Bachelor of vaccines against tumours, with some of wanted to make a Forestry Science this work just now moving on to clinical career choice that degree but during trials. My position is funded by a Cancer would provide the Intermediate Society grant and will finish next year. At plenty of opportunities year a series of basic some point I’d like to work for a period for employment, but lectures on cell overseas to establish better international which would also be biology and DNA contacts. Building and maintaining constantly expanding completely captured relationships with other scientists can help and developing -and interesting. There my imagination. As uncover future employment was always much talk about molecular a consequence I opportunities. biology and biochemistry being ‘the way changed course and Over the years I think I have evolved of the future’ and with all the media graduated with a Bachelor of Science into an applied scientist - I’m always reports of exciting developments and degree in Biochemistry with First Class looking for a medical application in my discoveries I was convinced this Honours. Although biochemistry work. Science is a logical subject and pathway would be fulfilling. presents a reductionist view of biology through my studies and subsequent Both the techniques and methods I by taking everything down to molecules experience, I’ve been trained to approach learned, and the literature I researched, and genes, which doesn’t appeal to it with well reasoned arguments and can provided me with a strong base from everyone, I particularly liked working make rational decisions in my everyday which I could develop into my present with nature’s “codes”, which are almost work. I’ve also managed to squeeze in a position. Those skills have been essential mathematical in their order. I continued lot of extra-curricular activities along the for me to work competently in areas to take as many papers that involved way, including having a family. My including protein expression, DNA molecular biology and basic genetics as current work is most enjoyable and meets manipulation and microbiological work. possible. Overall, I suppose, these my long-held interest in medical research. Also, the independence and control I had subjects suited the ’rational’ side of my I also get great satisfaction from the over my work as a student, particularly personality, and the fact that they had a knowledge that I am contributing to the at Honours level, was very rewarding potential medical application appealed. good of society. and helped me to develop a mature work Having completed my Bachelor’s method which has been very beneficial. degree I was a bit ambivalent about To be able to work independently and science. For various reasons I decided not without much supervision is essential in to pursue a PhD at that stage. Nevertheless research. Socially, I found the people I I continued with biochemistry and worked with as well as my fellow graduated with a Masters degree, from students were enthusiastic and Otago University. © VUW Career Development and Employment
  • 6. Career View 6 Karen Wilson techniques to those I learnt during my protein expression can be the result of Postdoctoral Research Associ- PhD. However most of the people I work environmental factors and developmental with are molecular biologists, so I am processes, but genetic differences also ate, Institute of Biotechnology, really glad that I know something about contribute, and need to be considered University of Cambridge that too. when I design my experiments. I also find I arrived at Victoria Although I’m mostly interested in my knowledge of genetics and molecular University in 1989 proteins, a knowledge of molecular biology useful for understanding many of intending to do a genetics is absolutely necessary when the issues that are talked about on the Medical you’re trying to understand development. news these days; genetic engineering, Intermediate and Developmental processes are regulated, at cloning, fertility techniques, possible cures become a doctor. least in part, by the co-ordinated for cancer and other diseases and It soon became activation or inactivation of specific genes environmental issues. Whatever branch of apparent that was and the resultant synthesis of proteins, so biology you are interested in, studying not going to work obviously I need to have an genetics will help you understand it better out and in my understanding of the signalling processes and may lead to a really excellent job second year I enrolled in a BSc majoring that turn genes on and off. Differences in like mine! in biochemistry and molecular biology, and I took botany as well. Genetics and molecular biology were a requirement for my degree programme. I loved plant Genetics and Molecular Biology at Victoria physiology and biochemistry and was The School of Biological Sciences offers two Bachelor’s degrees, the Bachelor of able to continue on to a PhD that Science (BSc) and the Bachelor of Biomedical Science (BBMedSc). Within the BSc combined these disciplines. you can study in three broad areas, or majors: Cell and Molecular Biology, My PhD project was a study of changes Ecology, Biodiversity and Marine Biology. A major in Cell and Molecular in protein expression during natural Biosciences covers: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Genetics senescence (yellowing and death due to and Molecular Biology, and Physiology and Pharmacology. ageing) in white clover leaves. Clover is an Cell and Molecular Biology is concerned with the description of living cells, important forage plant in New Zealand tissues and organisms in terms of their constituent molecules. It covers all pasture, so this research was useful as well aspects: from the ways in which very large molecules act, to the molecular as interesting and challenging. I looked causes of disease, to the chemical basis of ecological interaction, to the molecular- at changes in the structure of leaves as genetic relationships between different families of organisms. they aged with the electron microscope, in addition to examining changes in the The Bachelor of Biomedical Science degree offers many courses which share overall pattern of protein expression by material with those required for the BSc major of Cell and Molecular Biology so two-dimensional electrophoresis and that you can understand the organisms you study at the molecular, cell tissue assessing changes in the expression of and whole organism levels. However, in the BBMedSc, the focus is on human specific proteins with Western blotting health and function and the chemicals and organisms that impact upon them. (an antibody technique). I used mass There are three streams in the BBMedSc: Human Molecular Genetics, Medicinal spectrometry to identify some of the Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, and Molecular Pathology. proteins that showed interesting Students can continue their studies by pursuing a BSc with Honours. This changes. In the process of analysing and degree takes a year of study and provides an end-point to BSc study by enabling writing up my results I became familiar students to undertake a programme including supervised but independent with a wide range of computer software. research, providing students with skills that can help them progress to higher To develop my communication skills I degrees such as the Master of Science (MSc) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The was encouraged to present my results at MSc is suitable for entry into some areas of professional science, teaching and seminars in the School of Biological (with appropriate qualifications) science research management. A PhD degree is Sciences. I also had the opportunity to normally required for a career as a professional scientist. attend conferences in New Zealand and Australia. It was really exciting to meet ’grown-up’ scientists and hear them talk about their work. This experience stood me in good stead when I had to do presentations of my work for job Special thanks to: Career View is published by interviews! Associate Professor John Andrews - Head of Career Development and Employment School, Dr Darren Day and other academic Victoria University of Wellington I recently completed my thesis and staff of the School of Biological Sciences; Te Whare Wananga o te Upoko o te Ika a Maui have started work as a post doctoral Lauren Collins, Toni Wilkinson, PO Box 600, Wellington research associate at the Institute of Ian Hermans, Karen Wilson and all those Tel: 64-4-463 5390 or 64-4-463 5393 Biotechnology at the University of people who contributed to this publication. Fax: 64-4-463 5234 Cambridge. I am involved in a project on control of the cell cycle in ISSN 1172-4315 Arabidopsis. My aspect of the project involves protein analysis with similar © VUW Career Development and Employment