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  • 1. Biology for Technology Curriculum Standards DRAFT Tennessee Department of Education Second Reading of the State Board of Education May 2003 1
  • 2. Using the Biology for Technology Standards Students completing Biology for Technology should be prepared to take and pass the Science Gateway Exam, as is the case with students who have completed Biology I. For this reason the revised Biology for Technology standards have been closely aligned to the Biology I standards. The following is a description of the format of the Tennessee Biology for Technology Standards. Standard Number - Number and title of standard Standard - Sentence describing the title Learning Expectations - Listing of major instructional goals that are included within a standard Performance Indicators State - Indicators that match items on the Gateway Biology and End-of- Course assessments Level 1 indicators relate to concepts that should have been introduced prior to taking the course. Level 2 indicators correspond to content that will be specifically addressed within the course. Level 3 indicators are advanced and relevant to understanding the content at the previous levels. Performance Indicators Teacher – Indicators that teachers can use as evidence to determine if students have mastered the Learning Expectations within a particular standard. Sample Task - Sample activities specifically address or are aligned with one or more State and/or Teacher Performance Indicators. Integration/Linkages - Integrations and linkages with other courses or relevant career-related proficiencies 2
  • 3. Course Description Biology for Technology is a rigorous course that utilizes applied methodologies to prepare technical or dual path students for taking the Gateway assessment. It has been designed jointly between the areas of science and vocational-technical education to prepare students for both postsecondary education and the workplace. Life in modern society requires a broad knowledge of science. Basic scientific literacy is vital for all citizens, and science and technology are integral to almost all occupations. Studies show that US students do not have the grounding needed in science to pursue many science-related careers important to the growth of our nation. This course is designed to build understanding of the principles of biology inherent to technology; apply the scientific method and processes in simulating work conditions through participation in research, problem solving, and teamwork; and develop higher-order thinking skills and communication skills. Specific content includes how living organisms come into existence, grow and mature, differentiate from one another, and interact with the environment. Biology for Technology Standards Standard Number: 1:0 Cells Standard: The student will investigate the structures and functions of cell membranes, organelles, and component biomolecules as related to cell processes. Standard Number: 2.0 Interactions Standard: The student will investigate the interactions of organisms with their environment through different relationships, population dynamics, and patterns of behavior. Standard Number: 3.0 Photosynthesis and Respiration Standard: The student will compare and contrast the biochemical processes involved in the transfer of energy during photosynthesis and respiration and analyze the major chemical cycles in the biosphere. Standard Number: 4.0 Genetics and Biotechnology Standard: The student will investigate the concepts of genetics and heredity, different methods of reproduction, patterns of inheritance, and genetic disorders; as well as, explore and evaluate the DNA technologies from both a scientific and ethical perspective. Standard Number: 5.0 Diversity Standard: The student will investigate the diversity of organisms by analyzing systems of classification, exploring diverse environments, and comparing life cycles. Standard Number: 6.0 Biological Evolution Standard: The student will investigate the forces of natural selection on the development of organisms and examine the evidence for biological evolution. 3
  • 4. Biology for Technology Standards STANDARD #1 CELLS Standard Number: 1:0 Cells Standard: The student will investigate the structures and functions of cell membranes, organelles, and component biomolecules as related to cell processes. Learning Expectations: The student will: 1.1 compare and contrast the chemistry of biomolecules and investigate their roles in cell structure and metabolism. 1.2 explore and compare the organelles of different cell types. 1.3 probe the composition of the cell membrane and its significance to homeostasis. 1.4 analyze the various cell processes. Performance Indicators State: As documented through state assessment, at Level 1, the student is able to • identify major cell organelles, given a diagram. • distinguish between plant and animal cells given diagrams or scenarios. • predict the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane, given solutions of different concentrations. • sequence a series of diagrams depicting the movement of chromosomes during mitosis. • compare and contrast the cell cycle in plant and animal cells, given a diagram or description. at Level 2, the student is able to • distinguish proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, given structural diagrams. • identify a positive test for carbohydrates and lipids when given an experimental procedure, data, and results. • distinguish between active and passive transport, given examples of different molecules. • evaluate the role of meiosis in maintaining genetic variability and continuity, given a scenario. • determine the number of chromosomes following mitosis or meiosis, given the number of chromosomes in the original cell. • recognize the significance of homeostasis to the viability of humans and other organisms, given the definition of homeostasis. 4
  • 5. at Level 3, the student is able to • identify the biomolecules responsible for communicating, responding, regulating, or reproducing in the cell. Performance Indicators Teacher As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • demonstrate appropriate use and care of compound light microscopes. • examine plant and animal cells using compound light microscopes. • create a 3D model of both a plant and an animal cell. • prepare wet mount slides. • demonstrate molecular movement across a semi-permeable membrane. • model or observe the movement of chromosomes during mitosis in plant and animal cells. • model or observe the movement of chromosomes during meiosis in plant and animal cells. • research careers that relate to the study of cells (such as microscopist, cytologist, oncologist, medical technician, and biochemist) and report to the class, using visuals. • write a persuasive essay, supported by current scientific journals, relating certain lifestyle choices to a particular disease. • design a time line that traces the development of microscopes and correlates this information to cytology. at Level 2, the student is able to • construct, using various media, the four biomolecules in order to identify each by its components. • identify, secure, and present examples of structural diagrams found in common products. • conduct an experiment to identify carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in a meal. • prepare a slide of a plant and an animal cell using proper staining techniques to identify cellular structures. • record nutritional intake for a given period of time, calculating daily caloric intake for each biomolecule; evaluate the diet; and develop an appealing meal plan for teenagers. • design and conduct an experiment, using various food substances , to illustrate the relationship of cell surface area to cell volume. • demonstrate active and passive transport through role-play. • relate everyday experiences, such as bathing or swimming, to homeostasis. at Level 3, the student is able to • conduct an experiment to detect the presence of protein in everyday foods. • design and conduct a controlled experiment to observe enzymatic actions and identify possible sources of experimental error. Sample Task: Mitochondria-Study of Structure and Function Students may be able to observe mitochondria as cytoplasmic particles and as centers of enzyme activity. The mitochondria will be colored with Janus Green B. This stain is colored when it is chemically in an oxidized state. When the mitochondria are actively involved in oxidizing food, 5
  • 6. mainly be removing hydrogen, the stains act as a hydrogen acceptor. It is thereby reduced chemically (bleached by the enzymes) and becomes colorless. Procedure: Have each student cut a very thin slice from the outer sections of a celery stalk between two of the “strings.” This is done by first cutting a ¼” square of celery stalk placing it on a slide in a drop of sucrose solution. Using a razor blade, trim away the strings leaving a thin section of pith without strings in it. Add enough sucrose solution to cover the section and add a cover slip. Look for cytoplasmic streaming in the epidermis and the next tissue layer. Identify green plastids, clear nucleus, and small moving spheres and rods that are the mitochondria. Place a piece of filter paper to one side of the coverslip and at the same time add 2-3 drops of Janus Green B solution to the opposite side. The filter paper will draw the stain through the preparation. Note the mitochondria dye blue and within minutes they are decolorized by enzymes on the mitochondria, the slides may be used for several days if they are placed in covered dishes lined with moist toweling and stored in the refrigerator. Optional activity: Place 1-2 drops of oxidizing agent such as sodium bisulfite to restore the color of the stain. Try to determine the number of times these cycles of oxidation-reduction can be repeated. Sample Task: Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit Juice Industry The pectin molecule is very large, as it contains thousands of repeating units. It is colloidal and can exert a protective action on fruit particles preventing their settling out. If pectin is allowed to react with water is losses its colloidal properties and the gel can “break” or settle out. This reaction with water is normally a slow one but it can be catalyzed by the enzymes pectinase which will attack the oxygen linkage between sugar molecules. It is by the use of such enzymes that the production of fruit juices of controlled clarity and natural flavor has been made possible. Students will used 2 spoons, 2 50 mL beakers or small (3 oz) plastic cups, 2 graduated cylinders, 2 pieces filter paper, 2 funnels, 1 mL of pectinase, 1 marking pencil, 1 glass stirring rod, and apple sauce. Mark one of the beakers or cups “A” and the other “B.” Weigh and place 25 grams of apple sauce into both “A” and “B.” Add all of the pectinase to beaker A and stir thoroughly with the stirring rod. Let stand 5 minutes. Put filter paper (small coffee filters work great) in both funnels and put funnels in graduated cylinders. Use the spoons to pour the contents of beaker A into one funnel and beaker B into the other (don’t mix the spoons). Remember which cup you are pouring into which funnel. Let stand 5 minutes. Collect the filtrate (juice) from each beaker and measure after 5 minutes. Students need to determine how fast the sample from beaker A filtered compared to the sample from beaker B. Are the rates of filtering constant in both filters? How much juice was collected after 5 minutes in each cylinder? And, were the amounts in each cylinder the same? Explain. Sample Task: Tenderizing Protein (optional lab) Place raw egg white in petri dish or flat clear container. Place a lipid such as butter in another petri dish. Place a thin slice of potato (carbohydrate) or a slice of bread in a third dish. Sprinkle meat tenderizer on each and observe the reaction. [The tenderizer will begin to dissolve the egg white because it is a protein. No reaction occurs with the lipid or carbohydrates.] Integration/Linkages: microscopes, homeostasis, chemistry, physical science, meiosis, heredity, mitosis, art, mathematics, Lifetime Wellness, nutrition, history, research, writing, careers, cooperative learning/teamwork 6
  • 7. STANDARD #2 INTERACTIONS Standard Number: 2.0 Interactions Standard: The student will investigate the interactions of organisms with their environment through different relationships, population dynamics, and patterns of behavior. Learning Expectations: The student will: 2.1 compare and contrast the different types of symbiotic relationships. 2.2 distinguish between the abiotic and biotic factors in an environment. 2.3 analyze the flow of energy in an ecosystem using pyramids of energy and biomass. 2.4 analyze different behaviors to determine if they are learned or innate and relate this to survival of organisms. 2.5 investigate the roles of produces, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem. 2.6 examine the effects of human activity on ecosystems. Performance Indicators State: As documented through state assessment, at Level 1, the student is able to • identify commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism, given a scenario with examples. • classify organisms as producers, consumers, or decomposers, given their behaviors and environment. at Level 2, the student is able to • identify abiotic and biotic factors, given a description or an illustration of an ecosystem. • make inferences about how environmental factors would affect population growth, given a scenario. • examine the energy flow and loss through the trophic levels of an ecosystem, given an illustration of an energy pyramid. • determine the effects of human activities on ecosystems, given a scenario. • analyze and interpret population growth curves, given graphs. at Level 3, the student is able to • distinguish between a learned and an innate behavior, given a description of that behavior in a scenario. Performance Indicators Teacher: As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • compare and contrast the three types of symbiotic relationships: parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism. 7
  • 8. • recognize the general conditions necessary to maintain an ecosystem by constructing a model of an ecosystem. • describe the niche and habitat of an organism in an ecosystem. • recognize the kinds of organisms always found at the base of a food chain. • identify the producers, consumers, and decomposers in a food chain. • observe an outdoor habitat, identifying the abiotic and biotic factors, types of populations, producers, consumers, and decomposers. • research careers that relate to the environment, such as urban planner, forester, park ranger, environmental engineer, and environmental lawyer. at Level 2, the student is able to • use current publications and the Internet to research examples where human influence has changed an ecosystem; communicate findings through an oral presentation. • create a graphic organizer to demonstrate knowledge of parasites on the worldwide population. • collect various rain samples and test the pH; record data on a local map, charting the highs and lows. • construct a model of an energy pyramid, listing producers, primary and secondary/tertiary consumers, and decomposers; also show energy availability at each level. • collect data, construct and interpret population graphs to determine if the population is stable, increasing or declining. • dramatize the roles of specific organisms in a food web as compared to a food chain. at Level 3, the student is able to • research and evaluate the economic and political impact of recycling on nonrenewable resources. • prepare a list of behaviors and debate whether each behavior is innate or learned. Sample Task: Students will measure an area 20 cm square and mark off with a string. List biotic and abiotic factors found in the area, as well as performing a population count. Integration/Linkages: energy transfer, ecology, biogeochemical cycles, mathematics/graphing, health, evolution, mutation, adaptations, immunology, physical science, geography, populations, genetics, politics, economics, natural resources, recycling, careers, sociology, research and writing; cooperative learning/teamwork 8
  • 9. STANDARD #3 PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION Standard Number: 3.0 Photosynthesis and Respiration Standard: The student will compare and contrast the biochemical processes involved in the transfer of energy during photosynthesis and respiration and analyze the major chemical cycles in the biosphere. Learning Expectations: The student will: 3.1 compare and contrast the light dependent and light independent reactions of photosynthesis 3.2 investigate the relationship between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration 3.3 analyze the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water cycles in the biosphere 3.4 explore the efficiency of aerobic and anaerobic respiration Performance Indicators State: As documented through state assessment at Level 1, the student is able to • identify the reactants and products of photosynthesis and respiration, given the equations. • identify the cell organelle in which photosynthesis occurs, given a diagram of a plant cell • interpret a diagram of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle, given a diagram. at Level 2, the student is able to • distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in terms of the presence or absence of oxygen and the ATP produced. • relate the interdependence of the processes of photosynthesis and respiration to living organisms, given a diagram or a description. at Level 3, the student is able to • recognize the transfer of energy from respiration to cellular work, given an equation or diagram of the ATP cycle. Performance Indicators Teacher: As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • identify and explore the chloroplasts in a leaf such as Elodea. • construct a model or diagram of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle. • research careers that relate to photosynthesis and respiration, such as horticulturist, brewer, environmentalist, paper manufacturer, and agricultural extension agent. • model or illustrate the paths of water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide through a plant. 9
  • 10. at Level 2, the student is able to • prepare a graphic organizer to show comparison and relationships of products, reactants, and energy transfer in photosynthesis and respiration. • prepare a project showing fermentation, such as sauerkraut, kimchee, or yogurt and discuss the importance of fermentation to the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food and beverage industries. • prepare a diagram and label the major processes involved in the carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. • Devise a laboratory investigation which will demonstrate that oxygen is produced during photosynthesis. • sequence the major events of cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration. at Level 3, the student is able to • produce concept maps of the major events occurring in the light dependent and light independent reactions. • Using chemical equations, compare and contrast the efficiency of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Sample Task: Respiration in Yeast-showing CO2 and alcohol production. Prepare a yeast suspension by dissolving about ½ package of dried yeast (not quick rise) or ¼ cake yeast in a normal saline solution (.95 g NaCl to 99.5 mL distilled water). Using test tubes or fermentation tubes, add 20 mL of glucose solution to the yeast suspension. Cover each tube with a small balloon. Note and record the appearance and amount of froth or bubbles produced in the tube. Measure and record the circumference of the balloon at selected intervals. When balloon no longer increases in size, remove the balloons and twist opening to prevent the gas from escaping. No increase in size would indicate that respiration was slowing or had ceased. Place the inflated balloon over a tube of limewater, gently depress the balloon gas into the tube and shake. Limewater will become cloudy in the presence of CO2. For comparison, students will test another tube of limewater by blowing their breath, through a straw, for 40 seconds. Note the change in the limewater and compare to that of the yeast. See mitochondria activity in standard 1.0. Integration/Linkages: interaction of organisms, physical science/equations and hydrolysis, ecology, diversity, adaptations, C3, C4, CAM, microscopes, graphs, mathematics, research and writing, chemistry, careers, physical science, concept maps, cooperative learning/teamwork 10
  • 11. STANDARD #4 GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Standard Number: 4.0 Genetics and Biotechnology Standard: The student will investigate the concepts of genetics and heredity, different methods of reproduction, patterns of inheritance, and genetic disorders; as well as, explore and evaluate the DNA technologies from both a scientific and ethical perspective. Learning Expectations: The student will 4.1 investigate the structure and molecular composition of DNA and RNA. 4.2 relate the structure of DNA and RNA to the processes of replication and protein synthesis. 4.3 compare and contrast the asexual and sexual reproductive strategies used by organisms. 4.4 apply the principles of Mendelian inheritance to make predictions for offspring. 4.5 examine modes of inheritance involving sex linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and polygenic traits. 4.6 investigate the causes and effects of mutations. 4.7 identify causes and effects of genetic diseases in plants and animals. 4.8 investigate the scientific and ethical ramifications of genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, selective breeding, hybridization, cell and tissue culturing, transgenic animals, and DNA fingerprinting. Performance Indicators State: As documented through state assessment, at Level 1, the student is able to • distinguish between asexual and sexual methods of reproduction, using a scenario • identify the dominant trait, given the results of a monohybrid cross in a scenario • determine the genotype and phenotype of a monohybrid cross, given a Punnett square. • relate changes in the DNA instructions to cause mutations, given diagrams. at Level 2, the student is able to • recognize the two major functions of DNA as replication and protein synthesis, given diagrams showing a strand of bases with a complimentary strand. • identify the sex chromosomes in humans and recognize inheritance patterns that are sex linked, using a pedigree. • analyze modes of inheritance including co-dominance, incomplete dominance, polygenic, and multiple alleles using genetic problems or Punnett squares. • analyze a series of DNA bases to determine the sequence which demonstrates a mutation. • describe and analyze DNA fingerprinting using an illustration of DNA bands. • determine the probability of having a child with cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, or Tay-Sachs if both parents are carriers, given a scenario or genetic problem. 11
  • 12. at Level 3, the student is able to • differentiate the processes of transcription and translation, given diagrams. • analyze a dihybrid cross given a complete Punnett square to determine the probability of a particular trait. Performance Indicators Teacher: As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • construct a model of DNA • construct a monohybrid cross given a genetic problem to solve • distinguish between dominant and recessive traits given the results of a monohybrid cross. • research careers that relate to genetics and inheritance, such as lab technician, forensic pathologist, livestock breeder, medical doctor, and reproductive endocrinologist, lawyer, Human Genome Project, wildlife management, and police officers. at Level 2, the student is able to • draw a structural formula of DNA and RNA including all four of the nitrogen bases. • Compare and contrast DNA and RNA according to shape, function, and molecular make-up. • Design a model with separate pieces representing each of the components of DNA to be used to demonstrate the processes of replication, transcription, and translation. • prepare living environments to illustrate different types of asexual and sexual reproduction in plants. • Construct a dihybrid cross and predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios. • Design Punnett Squares for each of the following inheritance patterns; sex-linked, co- dominance, multiple alleles and polygenic traits. •Construct a pedigree, using members of the class, to predict the percentage chance that a "family," after four generations, will produce an individual with a genetic disease. •Use a microscope or hand lens to diagram and label different types of reproductive cells. •Research, discuss, and debate the recent findings of the Human Genome Project and the ramifications of these findings regarding ethical issues and DNA technologies (including, genetic engineering, selective breeding, hybridization, cell and tissue culturing, transgenic animals, and DNA fingerprinting). •Design and demonstrate a simple model of the process of recombinant DNA. •Using gel electrophoresis or paper simulation, compare DNA bands. •Demonstrate insertion of a human gene for insulin production into a bacterial cell. Level 3 •Construct a chromosome model and demonstrate mutations, such as, inversions, deletions, translocation, frameshifts, and crossing over. •Research and report on other types of mutations and the consequences of affecting sex cells or autosomal cells. •Describe a mutation and explain how a mutation could be beneficial to humans. •Interpret a karyotype and identify abnormalities for chromosome number, deletions, and translocation. •Research and debate the ethics of a chosen group of DNA technologies. 12
  • 13. •Apply an ethical model to evaluate current and future DNA technologies including recombinant DNA. Sample Task: Chromatin Isolation Lab Using Onions Students will isolate chromatin from onion cells using onions, homogenizing medium, 1 400 mL or medium sized beaker, 2 500 mL or large beaker, 2 250 mL or medium sized Erlymeyer flask, ice bath, warm water bath, blender, funnel, cheese cloth, 95% ethanol (ice cold), and tweezers, glass rod or spatula. Dice a medium-sized onion into cubes no larger than 3mm (do this ahead of time). Weigh out about 15 grams of diced onion and place in a 400 mL beaker. Add 60 mL of homogenizing medium (generic shampoo, i.e. K-Mart's European Style Deep Cleansing mixed about 4:1 with water) to the diced onion and place in a warm water bath for 8 minutes. Quickly cool the solution to 15-20 C in an ice bath. Pour the cooled solution into a blender with cover and blend for 45 seconds at low speed and then for 30 seconds at the high speed. Pour this new mixture into large 500 mL beaker and place in the ice bath for 8 minutes. Filter the white solution through cheese cloth (folded over 2 times) into a 500 mL beaker, taking care to leave the foam behind. Pour about 25 mL of your filtered solution into a clean 250 mL Erlymeyer flask. Place the flask in an ice bath and let it cool until it reaches 10-15 C. Slowly add approximately 50 mL of ice cold ethanol down the side of your flask until the white stringy chromatin precipitate appears (this precipitate will look stringy and cloudy). Spool out, or wind up, the stringy DNA onto a glass rod or metal spatula by rotating in one direction only. You may use tweezers to help in the removal of the DNA. Students can place their chromatin in a small glass vial with a screw top and ethanol and take their chromatin home. OR Sample Task: Chromosome Models For Demonstrating Mutations Students will build simple chromosome models to be used to demonstrate how mutations can occur using 4 pipe cleaners (all different colors), scissors, craft beads oblong in shape measuring 3-5 mm in length (look for these in a store), ruler, 4 pieces of plastic straw cut to measure 5-7 mm, 16 pieces of string measuring 30 cm each, 1 petri dish, marking pens and clear tape. Cut two of the pipe cleaners into tow equal pieces. Cut each of these four pieces in half again (they should measure 7.5 cm). Using the ruler and the next two pipe cleaners, cut eight equal pieces that are 5 cm long. Tie one piece (spindle fibers) of string at the end of each piece of pipe cleaner that has been cut. Place two of the 7.5 cm pieces of pipe cleaner side by side and slide each piece into one of the craft beads (centromeres) with the strings at opposite ends. Do the for the remaining 7.5 cm pipe cleaners and then do the same for all of the 5 cm pipe cleaners. Holding one pair of pipe cleaners between the thumb and forefinger, bend the ends outward at a slight angle. Do this for all the rest too. Place the chromosomes in the petri dish (nucleus) and tape the four pieces of plastic straw (centrioles) to the lid. When you finish use the marking pens and write your name on the bottom of the petri dish. Students now have models for demonstrating different types of mutations and these models are excellent for demonstrating mitosis and meiosis. Or Sample Task Coin baby—CORD Applied Biology and Chemistry "Continuity of Life" Integration/Linkages: 13
  • 14. biology, biological evolution, mitosis, meiosis, cell, math, probability, statistics, Hardy- Weinberg, microscope, art, research and writing, chemistry, careers, debate, adult living, Lifetime Wellness, physical science, communication, bioethics, ethics; cooperative learning/teamwork 14
  • 15. STANDARD # 5 DIVERSITY Standard Number: 5.0 Diversity Standard: The student will investigate the diversity of organisms by analyzing systems of classification, exploring diverse environments, and comparing life cycles. Learning Expectations: The student will 5.1 establish criteria for designing a system of classification and compare historically relevant systems of classification used in Biology. 5.2 infer the types of organisms native to specific environments included in the major biomes present on earth. 5.3 integrate a comparative study of plant and animal anatomical structures so as to recognize relationships among organisms relating to structural components, symmetry, metamorphosis, and alternation of generations. Performance Indicators State: As documented throughout state assessment, at Level 1, the student is able to • infer animals or plants indigenous to an environment, given pictures or diagrams of the organisms and a description of the environment. • infer the biome in which an animal or plant lives, given a description of the organism and pictures of various biomes. • infer the relatedness of different organisms using the Linnean system of classification, given picture of a variety of different plants or animals and a key to classification of organisms. at Level 2, the student is able to • determine the genus and species of an organism, given a dichotomous key containing descriptions of the characteristic of each classification level. • determine whether an insect undergoes complete or incomplete metamorphosis, given pictures or diagrams of the insect in its stages of development. • infer the body symmetry of an organism, given a diagram or picture of the organism. • predict the function of a system or organ, given structural descriptions, whether in the earthworm, crayfish, frog, or human. at Level 3, the student is able to • predict the function of an organ, given a description of its component tissues. • compare and contrast life cycles of various organisms to include alternation of generations, given pictorial representations. 15
  • 16. Performance Indicators Teacher: As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • develop a rationale for a system of classification, given a group of objects to classify. • examine plant or animal specimen and compare and contrast their structural components, symmetry, and life cycles. • illustrate or construct a biome for specific plant and animal species by determining the needs of the organisms. • predict the types of plants and animals indigenous to a biome by determining the characteristics of the biome. • research careers that relate to diversity, such as farmer, zoo keeper, pest control consultant, entomologist, taxonomist, lab technician, naturalist, and botanist. at Level 2, the student is able to • compare and contrast the Aristotelian, Linnean, and DNA sequencing classification systems. • determine indigenous organisms that undergo complete and incomplete metamorphosis and model the stages. • using a modeling product, demonstrate asymmetry, radial, and bilateral symmetry. • construct a graphic organizer to illustrate the organs and systems of earth works, crayfish, frogs, and humans. • classify a group of like objects and/or organisms given a dichotomous key with characteristics of the organisms. at Level 3, the student is able to • illustrate alternation of generations in plant and animal species. Sample Task: Collections Students prepare a scientific collection (leaf, insect, wildflowers, cones, fruit…). In this collection they are to identify the organism using its family, genus, species, and common name. Observe safety precautions and proper collecting and mounting procedures Metamorphosis Prepare an area in the classroom where students can observe metamorphosis on a daily basis. Examples: obtain meal worms from a local bait shop and place in a container of flour or corn meal. Observe. The meal worms will grow in three definite stages. The result will be confused flour beetles. Other organisms that can be easily observed are the praying mantis and butterfly. Dissection Compare and contrast the internal anatomy and body symmetry of the frog, earthworm, and crayfish. Classify the organisms using the Linnean system. Integration/Linkages Tessellating in mathematics, evolutionary trends in plants and animals, Fibonacci sequences in mathematics, genetics, geography, art, research and writing, careers, ecology, entomology, anatomy and physiology, history, cooperative learning/teamwork 16
  • 17. STANDARD #6 BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Standard Number: 6.0 Biological Evolution Standard: The student will investigate the forces of natural selection on the development of organisms and examine the evidence for biological evolution. Learning Expectations: The student will 6.1 interpret and evaluate the evidence for biological evolution in the fossil record. 6.2 investigate how natural selection, mutations, and adaptations impact the emergence of new species. 6.3 recognize the contributions of scientists, including Darwin, that led to the concept of evolution. 6.4 apply current knowledge of DNA and comparative anatomy to provide evidence for biological evolution. Performance Indicators State: As documented through state assessment, at Level 1, the student is able to • differentiate between the relative age of various fossils in sedimentary rock, given a diagram of rock strata. • predict how environmental change will encourage or discourage the formation of a new species or extinction of an existing species, given a written scenario. at Level 2, the student is able to • transfer knowledge of divergent evolution, as in Darwin’s finches, to determine why species with a common ancestor have adapted differently, given a diagram of the various species. • compare homologous structures in species to determine the relatedness of certain species, given diagrams or pictures of each. • differentiate between natural selection and selective breeding, given a scenario. at Level 3, the student is able to • recognize the relatedness of species using DNA strands Performance Indicators Teacher: As documented through teacher observation, at Level 1, the student is able to • compare and contrast the processes of fossil formation. • construct “mock” fossils using casts and molds. • collect and/or observe various fossils and relate them to biogeographical changes. • research careers that relate to biological evolution, such as farmers, field biologist, geologist, archeologist, epidemiologist, and anthropologist. 17
  • 18. at Level 2, the student is able to • date and identify the type of fossil in a mock archaeological dig; write a press release about the discovery. • view embryos of different vertebrates to compare their early embryonic development to show relatedness. • compare and contrast the homologous and analogous structures of organisms to demonstrate relatedness using skeletal remains or student-collected diagrams. • analyze a graph of the population distribution of peppered moths as their environment changed. • dramatize the role of a scientist who contributed to the concept of evolution. at Level 3, the student is able to • develop a diorama or a time line that depicts change of organisms through time and interpretations of those changes. • collect DNA data of specific species from the Internet to determine relatedness. • from the Internet or local/regional records, collect data regarding population counts of a specific species found in the area and hypothesize what events might affect populations. Sample Task: Visit a local greenhouse or invite a horticulturalist to bring plant samples through which students can explore the various methods of breeding plants. Integration/Linkages genetics/inheritance of traits, diversity of life, mathematics/calculations, graphing, time lines, microscopy, physical science, geology, populations, geography, earth science, bacteria, disease, research and writing, careers, communication, cooperative learning/teamwork 18