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  1. 1. Biology Biology a full-year course studies molecular and cellular biology, genetics, evolution, and ecology The course incorporates the following state standards in science: Science Standard One: Students will use inquiry-based methods to investigate scientific concepts. Science Standard Two: Students will investigate forms and sources of energy. Science Standard Three: Students will investigate the relationship between structure and function in life processes. Science Standard Four: Students will examine the relationships between genetics and evolution. Science Standard Five: Students will analyze the flow of matter and energy in ecosystems. I. Chemistry of Life Students will learn: a. Basic chemistry such as atoms, molecules, compounds, and the structure of atoms. b. Chemical reactions, bonds, and the structure and properties of water. c. Structure and functions of organic compounds of life: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids. Laboratory: Design an experiment Students should be able to: a. Use basic laboratory techniques: observing, measuring, and recording data in a lab notebook. b. Write a lab report, including: title of the lab, Problem, Hypothesis, Independent and Dependent Variables, controls, material and method, Data Table, Results, Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Conclusion, Recommendations. Laboratory: Dehydration and Synthesis Students should be able to: a. Make models of glucose, fructose, maltose, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, glycerol, and triglyceride. II. Introduction to Life, Energy, and biosphere Students will learn: a. Energy and entropy.
  2. 2. b. Enzymes and energy. Chemical reactions in organisms. c. Energy transfer and ATP. d. Digestion inside and outside of cells. e. Carbohydrates, protein, fats, and Absorption. Laboratory: i. Enzyme Activity ii. The effect of pH and temperature on enzyme activity. Laboratory: i. Identifying compounds of living things. (Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Fatty Acids) III. Exchanging Material with the Environment Students will learn: a. Structure of cell membrane. b. Importance of cell membrane. c. How cells exchange materials from their surroundings (Diffusion, Osmosis, Passive and Active Transport). Laboratory: i. Diffusion through Dialysis tubing. ii. Osmosis and the living cells. iii. Diffusion and cell size. IV. Energy Transformation Students will learn: a. How do organisms obtain energy from their surrounding environment? b. Is survival of animals possible without plants? c. Process of Photosynthesis: i. The light reaction. ii. The Calvin Cycle d. Photosynthesis and the environment. e. Photorespiration and Special Adaptation. f. Photosynthesis and the Atmosphere. g. Metabolism and Cellular respiration. h. Role of oxygen in cell respiration. i. The reactions of Respiration: i.. Glycolysis ii. Mitochondria and Respiration iii. The Krebs Cycle iv. The Electron Transport System v. Oxygen, Respiration, and Photosynthesis
  3. 3. Laboratory: i. Collecting Energy from the Nonliving Environment. ii. Rate of Photosynthesis. iii. How Does Oxygen Affect Cells? iv. Rate of Respiration. V. Basic unit of life Students will learn: a. Cell study and Technology. b. The Basic Types of Cells. c. Prokaryotic cell Structure. d. Eukaryotic cell Structure. e. Cooperation among cells. f. Division of Labor. g. Systems. Laboratory: i. Microscope and slide preparation. ii. Cell structure of animal and plant cells. iii. Study of pond water. VI. The Cell Cycle Students will learn: a. Cell Division in Eukaryotes. b. The Phases of the Cell Cycle. c. DNA Structure. d. DNA Synthesis. e. DNA Repair. f. The Stages of Cell Division. g. Differences in Mitosis. Laboratory: i. Building a DNA model. ii. DNA Replication. iii. Examine Mitotic Cell Division in prepared slide of onion root-cell iv. Gel Electrophoresis VII. Expressing Genetic Information Students will learn: a. Genetic Material. b. Importance of Protein. c. Transcription and Translation. d. Translation Errors. e. Viruses and their Life Cycle.
  4. 4. Laboratory: i. Transcription and Translation with the help of models VII. Cell Division and Reproduction Students will learn: a. Asexual Reproduction. b. Chromosome Numbers. c. Meiosis and the Production of Gametes. d. Sexual Reproduction in Microorganisms. e. Sexual Reproduction in Plants. Laboratory: i. Simulate the process of meiosis with the help of Model. ii. The Yeast Life Cycle. IX. Patterns of Inheritance Students will learn: a. Heredity and Environment. b. Mendel’s Laws. c. Genes and Chromosomes. d. Probability and genetics. e. Inheritance of Alleles. f. Sex determination. g. Multiple Alleles and Alleles without Dominance. h. Linked Genes. i. X-linked Traits. j. Nondisjunction. k. Multigene Traits. X. Advances in Molecular Genetics Students will learn: a. The Genone Project b. Function of Genomics c. Technologies. d. Mutation and DNA Repair. e. Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Laboratory: i. Determining Mutation Frequency in Bacteria XI. Evolution Students will learn: a. The Origin of Life. b. Diversity and Variation. c. The species Concept. d. Classification and Homologies.
  5. 5. e. The Linnean Classification System. f. Five Kingdoms. g. Classification and Change. h. Changes in Species. i. Fossil Evidence. j. Evidence from Ecology and Homologies. k. Genetic and Molecular Evidence. l. The Process of Speciation. m. Patterns of Evolution. Suggested Learning Activity/Project: Students create project on species variation. XII. Ecosystem Structure and Function Students will learn: a. Abiotic Factor. b. Energy in Food Web. c. Relationship in Ecosystems. d. Nutrient Cycle. e. Limiting Factors. f. Population Dynamics. XII. Changes in Ecosystems Students will learn: a. Terrestrial Biomes. b. Aquatic Biomes. c. Succession. d. Human Interactions with Ecosystem. Laboratory: i. Forest Succession. ii. Tree identification. iii. Lichens and their role in air pollution detection. All biology students participate in The Charter School Science Fair.