Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics
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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics

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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Presentation Transcript

  • Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Instructors: Dr. Steven M. Carr  Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes  Mendelian Genetics
  • Course Web Pages Dr.Innes: www. mun .ca/biology/ dinnes /B2250/B2250.html Dr. Carr: www. mun .ca/biology/ scarr /Bio2250.html Text Web Page: http://www. whfreeman .com/ mga / Virtual Fly: http://www. biologylabsonline .com/
  • Tentative Lecture Dates and Topics Carr: Sept. 8 – Oct. 4 Structure and function of DNA and genes Innes: Oct. 13 – Nov. 15 Mendelian Genetics Carr: Nov. 22 – Dec. 1 Molecular Genomics Tests: I Oct. 6 (Thurs) II Nov.17 (Thurs)
  • Weekly Online Quizzes Marks Oct. 14 Example Quiz 2** for logging in Oct. 21 Quiz 1 2 Oct. 28 Quiz 2 2 Nov. 4 Quiz 3 2 Nov. 10 Quiz 4 2
  • WebCT Quizzes Log in: http:// webct . mun .ca:8900/
  • Webct quizzes
  • Course Goals
    • Understanding of basic genetics
    • Solve problems
    • Think and think critically
    • Contribute to a discussion on
    • current issues in genetics
    • (GMO, gene therapy…)
  • What is Genetics ? - Genetics is the study of heredity and variation - Examples of genetic variation (within species) 1. Domesticated species 2. Human genetics 3. Natural Populations Genetic variation  Phenotypic variation Molecular genetic variation
  • Cultivated varieties
  • Animal Breeds
  • Human Genetic Variation
  • Natural Populations
  • Which suspect matches blood stain ? Molecular Genetic Variation DNA Fingerprint DNA Sequence Protein variation
  • Subareas of Genetics cytogenetics molecular genetics human genetics population genetics quantitative genetics developmental genetics immunogenetics etc. etc.
  • Genetic Journals American Journal of Medical Genetics Clinical Genetics Developmental Genetics Human Molecular Genetics Genetics European J. of Human Genetics Genetics Selection Evolution Nature Genetics Genetika Fungal Genetics and Biology Genome Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics Genomics American J. Human Genetics Heredity Annals of Human Genetics Hereditas Opthalmic Genetics Japanese Journal of Human Genetics Human Genetics Journal of Heredity Current Genetics Molecular Biology and Evolution Animal Genetics Molecular Ecology Brazilian J. Genetics Molecular and General Genetics Biochemical Genetics Theoretical and Applied Genetics J. of Medical Genetics Trends in Genetics ( http://www.trends.com/tig/default.htm )
  • History of Genetics
    • Domestication of animals
    • Cultivation of plants
  • Historical Notes 1953 J. D. Watson and F. Crick(*) DNA Structure http://www. sil . si . edu /Exhibitions/Science-and-the-Artists-Book/ bioc . htm
  • Advances in Genetics
    • Human Genome Sequence
    • http://www. hgsc . bcm . tmc . edu /
    • Drosophila Genome sequence
    • http:// flybase .bio. indiana . edu /
    • Other organsims:
    • http://daphnia. cgb . indiana . edu /
    • http://www. jgi .doe. gov /
  • Genetic Information Online Mendelian Inhertitance in Man (OMIM) http://www. ncbi . nlm . nih . gov / entrez /query. fcgi ?db=OMIM Online Mendelian Inhertiance in Animals (OMIA) http:// omia . angis .org.au/
  • Ethical Issues in Genetics
  • Ethical Issues in Genetics
    • Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    • Gene therapy (Parkinson’s) http:// hdlighthouse .org/research/ genetherapy /updates/0053parkinson. phtml
    • Designer genes
    • Data banks of DNA finger prints (criminals?)
    • Cloning (Stem cell research)
  • Cloning 1997 1998 1999 - 2002 Dolly “ An udder way of making lambs” nucleus foster egg Sheep Mice Pig Goat Cow “ Cc” copy cat
  • Genetics in the News
  • Basic Concepts of Genetics (Chapter 1) Nucleus  contains genetic material DNA  genetic material  4 bases (nucleotides G, C, A, T) Gene  functional unit of heredity  sequence of 4 nucleotides Chromosome  linear DNA molecule
  • Pairs of Chromosomes (maternal, paternal) Two sets of chromosomes: diploid One set of chromosomes: haploid
  •  
  • DNA Replication
  •  
  • 1. Transcription of mRNA from DNA 2. Translation of mRNA: triplet codon Amino acid Gene Expression
  • Understanding Genetics Relationship between: GENOTYPE ENVIRONMENT PHENOTYPE set of genes morphology inherited physiology behaviour
  • Interaction of genes and environment Phenotype Genotype
  • Mendelian Genetics Topics: - Transmission of DNA during cell division Mitosis and Meiosis (Ch. 4) - Segregation (Ch. 5) - Sex linkage (Ch. 5) - Inheritance and probability (Ch.5) - Mendelian genetics in humans (pedigrees) (Ch.5) - Independent Assortment (Ch. 6) - Linkage (Ch. 6) - Gene mapping (Ch. 6)
  • Mendelian Genetics Topics (cont.): - Tetrad Analysis (mapping in fungi) - Extensions to Mendelian Genetics - Gene mutation - Chromosome mutation - (Quantitative and population genetics)
  • Basic Concepts of Genetics Cell/nuclear division Mitosis (somatic tissue): identical cells Meiosis (germ tissue): gametes (variation)
  • Mendelian Genetics: Chromosomes Readings: Transmission of DNA and cell division - Mitosis and meiosis (Ch. 4) pp. 92, 100 – 113
  • Chromosome Theory of Inheritance (Ch. 4)
    • - genes organized into chromosomes
    • correlation: Genetics & Cytology
    • - theory can explain the behaviour of genes (segregation and independent assortment)
  • Chromosome and DNA Replication
    • DNA replication results in
    • chromosome replication
    • 2. Nuclear and cell division
  •  
  • Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Mitosis Cell cycle: S = synthesis G = “gaps” 2n n n = # of chr. in a set
  • Meiosis 2n n
  • Animal egg Polar bodies n n
  • Plant gp = gametophyte n
  • Fungus
  • Cytological Observations
    • 1. Constancy of the number of chromosom es
    • Morphologically similar pairs (diploid)
    • 3. Gametes - contain one set ( haploid)
    2n n Homologous chromosomes
  • Two processes of nuclear division 1. Mitosis (somatic tissue) 2. Meiosis (germ tissue)
  • Mitosis 1. one parent cell--------> 2 identical daughter cells 2. same in all organisms 3. simple: (a) each chromosome doubles (identical) (b) identical halves separate
  • Four Stages of Mitosis 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
  • 1. Prophase - chromosomes condense - 2 chromatids (sister chromatids) - centromere - nuclear membrane breaks dow n Chromosome replication
  • 2. Metaphase - chromosomes attach to spindle fibers - chromosomes migrate to plane between poles - maximum contraction : karyotype - number - centromere position - length Nuclear spindle
  • 3. Anaphase - centromeres divide - sister chromatids separate
  • 4. Telophase - nuclear membrane reforms - spindle disperses - cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis)
  • Mitosis: Summary Mitosis: replication mitosis 2n = 2
  • Mitosis: Summary replication mitosis 2n = 4
  • Mitosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
  • Mitosis: Lily Fig. 4-21
  • Meiosis (overview) diploid (2n) ---------------> haploid (n) gametes C hromosome replication once --------> 2 nuclear divisions (meiosis I, II) one nucleus -------------------> 4 nuclei
  • Meiosis I Meiosis II (reductional) (equational) Prophase I Prophase II Metaphase I Metaphase II Anaphase I Anaphase II Telophase I Telophase II
  • Meiosis I (reductional division) 2n = ? Pairing of homologous chromosomes Continued 
  • Meiosis II (equational division) 4 products n = ?
  • Meiosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
  • Meiosis: Lily pollen Fig. 4-22 Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II
  • Mitosis Meiosis somatic cells cells of sexual cycle one doubling one doubling 1 division  2 cells 2 divisions  4 cells same amount of DNA ½ amount of DNA Comparison (Fig. 4-24)
  • Mitosis Meiosis # chrs doesn’t change #chrs. halved No pairing of chr. Synapsis of homologs Centromeres divide at Not at anaphase I, anaphase but at anaphase II Conservative Variation Comparison (continued)
  • Mitosis (n) Mitosis (2n) Meiosis Fig. 4-20
  • Genetic Terminology Genes: hereditary elements Alleles: forms of a gene: A , a b, b + Genotypes Gene pairs Heterozygote: Aa bb + Homozygotes: AA aa bb b + b +
  • Genes on Chromosomes Expect behaviour of genes to correlate with the behaviour of chromosomes: genes chromosomes Diploid (2n) AA, Aa, aa pairs Haploid (n) A one set a
  • Genes on Chromosomes b + b + homozygote Fig. 4-17
  • Genes on Chromosomes b b + heterozygote
  • b b homozygote
  • Genetic Links http://www.biology-online.org/tutorials/2_genetics_evolution. htm http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/mfi-e.htm http://www.biology.arizona.edu/mendelian_genetics/mendelian_genetics.html http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/genetics.html