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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Instructors:   Dr. Steven M. Carr      Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes      Me...
Course Web Pages Dr.Innes:   www. mun .ca/biology/ dinnes /B2250/B2250.html Dr. Carr:   www. mun .ca/biology/ scarr /Bio22...
Tentative Lecture Dates  and Topics Carr:  Sept. 8 – Oct. 4   Structure and function of  DNA and genes Innes:  Oct. 13 – N...
Weekly Online Quizzes Marks Oct. 14  Example Quiz  2**  for logging in  Oct. 21  Quiz 1  2 Oct. 28  Quiz 2  2 Nov. 4  Quiz...
WebCT Quizzes Log in:  http:// webct . mun .ca:8900/
Webct quizzes
Course Goals <ul><li>Understanding of basic genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Think and think cr...
What is Genetics ? - Genetics is the study of heredity and variation - Examples of  genetic variation (within species) 1. ...
Cultivated varieties
Animal Breeds
Human Genetic Variation
Natural Populations
Which suspect matches blood stain ? Molecular Genetic Variation DNA Fingerprint DNA Sequence Protein variation
Subareas of Genetics cytogenetics molecular genetics human genetics population genetics quantitative genetics developmenta...
Genetic Journals American Journal of Medical Genetics  Clinical Genetics Developmental Genetics  Human Molecular Genetics ...
History of Genetics <ul><li>Domestication of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of plants </li></ul>
Historical Notes 1953  J. D.   Watson and F. Crick(*) DNA Structure http://www. sil . si . edu /Exhibitions/Science-and-th...
Advances in Genetics <ul><li>Human Genome Sequence  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. hgsc . bcm . tmc . edu / </li></ul><ul><...
Genetic Information Online Mendelian Inhertitance in Man (OMIM) http://www. ncbi . nlm . nih . gov / entrez /query. fcgi ?...
Ethical Issues in Genetics
Ethical Issues in Genetics <ul><li>Genetically modified organisms (GMO) </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy (Parkinson’s)  http...
Cloning 1997 1998 1999 - 2002 Dolly “ An udder way of making lambs” nucleus foster egg Sheep Mice Pig Goat Cow “ Cc” copy ...
Genetics in the News
Basic Concepts of Genetics (Chapter 1) Nucleus      contains genetic material DNA      genetic material    4 bases (nuc...
Pairs of Chromosomes (maternal, paternal) Two sets of chromosomes: diploid One set of chromosomes: haploid
 
DNA Replication
 
1. Transcription of mRNA from DNA 2. Translation of mRNA: triplet codon Amino acid Gene Expression
Understanding Genetics Relationship between: GENOTYPE  ENVIRONMENT  PHENOTYPE set of genes  morphology inherited  physiolo...
Interaction of genes and environment Phenotype Genotype
Mendelian Genetics Topics:   -  Transmission of DNA during cell division Mitosis and Meiosis  (Ch. 4) - Segregation  (Ch. ...
Mendelian Genetics Topics (cont.):   - Tetrad Analysis (mapping in fungi) -  Extensions to Mendelian Genetics - Gene mutat...
Basic Concepts of Genetics Cell/nuclear division Mitosis (somatic tissue):  identical cells Meiosis (germ tissue): gametes...
Mendelian Genetics: Chromosomes Readings: Transmission of DNA and cell division - Mitosis and meiosis  (Ch. 4) pp. 92, 100...
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance  (Ch. 4) <ul><li>- genes organized into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>correlation:  Genet...
Chromosome and DNA Replication <ul><li>DNA replication results in </li></ul><ul><li>chromosome replication </li></ul><ul><...
 
Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Mitosis Cell cycle: S = synthesis G = “gaps” 2n n n = # of chr. in a set
Meiosis 2n n
Animal egg Polar bodies n n
Plant gp = gametophyte n
Fungus
Cytological Observations <ul><li>1.  Constancy of the number of chromosom es </li></ul><ul><li>Morphologically similar pai...
Two processes of nuclear division 1. Mitosis (somatic tissue) 2. Meiosis (germ tissue)
Mitosis 1.  one parent cell--------> 2 identical daughter cells 2. same in all organisms 3. simple: (a)  each chromosome d...
Four Stages of Mitosis 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
1. Prophase - chromosomes condense - 2 chromatids (sister chromatids) - centromere - nuclear membrane breaks dow n Chromos...
2. Metaphase - chromosomes attach to spindle fibers - chromosomes migrate to plane between poles - maximum contraction :  ...
3. Anaphase - centromeres divide - sister chromatids separate
4. Telophase - nuclear membrane reforms - spindle disperses - cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis)
Mitosis:  Summary Mitosis: replication mitosis 2n = 2
Mitosis:  Summary replication mitosis 2n = 4
Mitosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
Mitosis: Lily Fig. 4-21
Meiosis (overview) diploid (2n) ---------------> haploid (n) gametes C hromosome replication  once  --------> 2 nuclear  d...
Meiosis I  Meiosis II   (reductional)  (equational) Prophase I  Prophase  II Metaphase I  Metaphase II Anaphase  I  Anapha...
Meiosis I (reductional division) 2n = ? Pairing of homologous chromosomes Continued  
Meiosis II (equational division) 4  products  n = ?
Meiosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
Meiosis: Lily pollen Fig. 4-22 Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophas...
Mitosis  Meiosis somatic cells  cells of sexual cycle one doubling  one doubling 1 division    2 cells  2 divisions    4...
Mitosis  Meiosis # chrs doesn’t change  #chrs.  halved No pairing of chr.  Synapsis of homologs Centromeres divide at  Not...
Mitosis (n)  Mitosis (2n)  Meiosis Fig. 4-20
Genetic Terminology Genes:  hereditary elements Alleles:  forms of a gene:  A ,  a  b,  b + Genotypes  Gene pairs Heterozy...
Genes on Chromosomes Expect behaviour of genes to correlate with the behaviour of chromosomes: genes  chromosomes Diploid ...
Genes on Chromosomes b +  b +  homozygote Fig. 4-17
Genes on Chromosomes b b +  heterozygote
b b   homozygote
Genetic Links http://www.biology-online.org/tutorials/2_genetics_evolution. htm http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/mfi-e.htm...
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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics

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  • Transcript of "Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics"

    1. 1. Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics Instructors: Dr. Steven M. Carr  Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes  Mendelian Genetics
    2. 2. Course Web Pages Dr.Innes: www. mun .ca/biology/ dinnes /B2250/B2250.html Dr. Carr: www. mun .ca/biology/ scarr /Bio2250.html Text Web Page: http://www. whfreeman .com/ mga / Virtual Fly: http://www. biologylabsonline .com/
    3. 3. Tentative Lecture Dates and Topics Carr: Sept. 8 – Oct. 4 Structure and function of DNA and genes Innes: Oct. 13 – Nov. 15 Mendelian Genetics Carr: Nov. 22 – Dec. 1 Molecular Genomics Tests: I Oct. 6 (Thurs) II Nov.17 (Thurs)
    4. 4. Weekly Online Quizzes Marks Oct. 14 Example Quiz 2** for logging in Oct. 21 Quiz 1 2 Oct. 28 Quiz 2 2 Nov. 4 Quiz 3 2 Nov. 10 Quiz 4 2
    5. 5. WebCT Quizzes Log in: http:// webct . mun .ca:8900/
    6. 6. Webct quizzes
    7. 7. Course Goals <ul><li>Understanding of basic genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Think and think critically </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to a discussion on </li></ul><ul><li>current issues in genetics </li></ul><ul><li>(GMO, gene therapy…) </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Genetics ? - Genetics is the study of heredity and variation - Examples of genetic variation (within species) 1. Domesticated species 2. Human genetics 3. Natural Populations Genetic variation  Phenotypic variation Molecular genetic variation
    9. 9. Cultivated varieties
    10. 10. Animal Breeds
    11. 11. Human Genetic Variation
    12. 12. Natural Populations
    13. 13. Which suspect matches blood stain ? Molecular Genetic Variation DNA Fingerprint DNA Sequence Protein variation
    14. 14. Subareas of Genetics cytogenetics molecular genetics human genetics population genetics quantitative genetics developmental genetics immunogenetics etc. etc.
    15. 15. Genetic Journals American Journal of Medical Genetics Clinical Genetics Developmental Genetics Human Molecular Genetics Genetics European J. of Human Genetics Genetics Selection Evolution Nature Genetics Genetika Fungal Genetics and Biology Genome Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics Genomics American J. Human Genetics Heredity Annals of Human Genetics Hereditas Opthalmic Genetics Japanese Journal of Human Genetics Human Genetics Journal of Heredity Current Genetics Molecular Biology and Evolution Animal Genetics Molecular Ecology Brazilian J. Genetics Molecular and General Genetics Biochemical Genetics Theoretical and Applied Genetics J. of Medical Genetics Trends in Genetics ( http://www.trends.com/tig/default.htm )
    16. 16. History of Genetics <ul><li>Domestication of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of plants </li></ul>
    17. 17. Historical Notes 1953 J. D. Watson and F. Crick(*) DNA Structure http://www. sil . si . edu /Exhibitions/Science-and-the-Artists-Book/ bioc . htm
    18. 18. Advances in Genetics <ul><li>Human Genome Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. hgsc . bcm . tmc . edu / </li></ul><ul><li>Drosophila Genome sequence </li></ul><ul><li>http:// flybase .bio. indiana . edu / </li></ul><ul><li>Other organsims: </li></ul><ul><li>http://daphnia. cgb . indiana . edu / </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. jgi .doe. gov / </li></ul>
    19. 19. Genetic Information Online Mendelian Inhertitance in Man (OMIM) http://www. ncbi . nlm . nih . gov / entrez /query. fcgi ?db=OMIM Online Mendelian Inhertiance in Animals (OMIA) http:// omia . angis .org.au/
    20. 20. Ethical Issues in Genetics
    21. 21. Ethical Issues in Genetics <ul><li>Genetically modified organisms (GMO) </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy (Parkinson’s) http:// hdlighthouse .org/research/ genetherapy /updates/0053parkinson. phtml </li></ul><ul><li>Designer genes </li></ul><ul><li>Data banks of DNA finger prints (criminals?) </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning (Stem cell research) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cloning 1997 1998 1999 - 2002 Dolly “ An udder way of making lambs” nucleus foster egg Sheep Mice Pig Goat Cow “ Cc” copy cat
    23. 23. Genetics in the News
    24. 24. Basic Concepts of Genetics (Chapter 1) Nucleus  contains genetic material DNA  genetic material  4 bases (nucleotides G, C, A, T) Gene  functional unit of heredity  sequence of 4 nucleotides Chromosome  linear DNA molecule
    25. 25. Pairs of Chromosomes (maternal, paternal) Two sets of chromosomes: diploid One set of chromosomes: haploid
    26. 27. DNA Replication
    27. 29. 1. Transcription of mRNA from DNA 2. Translation of mRNA: triplet codon Amino acid Gene Expression
    28. 30. Understanding Genetics Relationship between: GENOTYPE ENVIRONMENT PHENOTYPE set of genes morphology inherited physiology behaviour
    29. 31. Interaction of genes and environment Phenotype Genotype
    30. 32. Mendelian Genetics Topics: - Transmission of DNA during cell division Mitosis and Meiosis (Ch. 4) - Segregation (Ch. 5) - Sex linkage (Ch. 5) - Inheritance and probability (Ch.5) - Mendelian genetics in humans (pedigrees) (Ch.5) - Independent Assortment (Ch. 6) - Linkage (Ch. 6) - Gene mapping (Ch. 6)
    31. 33. Mendelian Genetics Topics (cont.): - Tetrad Analysis (mapping in fungi) - Extensions to Mendelian Genetics - Gene mutation - Chromosome mutation - (Quantitative and population genetics)
    32. 34. Basic Concepts of Genetics Cell/nuclear division Mitosis (somatic tissue): identical cells Meiosis (germ tissue): gametes (variation)
    33. 35. Mendelian Genetics: Chromosomes Readings: Transmission of DNA and cell division - Mitosis and meiosis (Ch. 4) pp. 92, 100 – 113
    34. 36. Chromosome Theory of Inheritance (Ch. 4) <ul><li>- genes organized into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>correlation: Genetics & Cytology </li></ul><ul><li>- theory can explain the behaviour of genes (segregation and independent assortment) </li></ul>
    35. 37. Chromosome and DNA Replication <ul><li>DNA replication results in </li></ul><ul><li>chromosome replication </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nuclear and cell division </li></ul>
    36. 39. Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Mitosis Cell cycle: S = synthesis G = “gaps” 2n n n = # of chr. in a set
    37. 40. Meiosis 2n n
    38. 41. Animal egg Polar bodies n n
    39. 42. Plant gp = gametophyte n
    40. 43. Fungus
    41. 44. Cytological Observations <ul><li>1. Constancy of the number of chromosom es </li></ul><ul><li>Morphologically similar pairs (diploid) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gametes - contain one set ( haploid) </li></ul>2n n Homologous chromosomes
    42. 45. Two processes of nuclear division 1. Mitosis (somatic tissue) 2. Meiosis (germ tissue)
    43. 46. Mitosis 1. one parent cell--------> 2 identical daughter cells 2. same in all organisms 3. simple: (a) each chromosome doubles (identical) (b) identical halves separate
    44. 47. Four Stages of Mitosis 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
    45. 48. 1. Prophase - chromosomes condense - 2 chromatids (sister chromatids) - centromere - nuclear membrane breaks dow n Chromosome replication
    46. 49. 2. Metaphase - chromosomes attach to spindle fibers - chromosomes migrate to plane between poles - maximum contraction : karyotype - number - centromere position - length Nuclear spindle
    47. 50. 3. Anaphase - centromeres divide - sister chromatids separate
    48. 51. 4. Telophase - nuclear membrane reforms - spindle disperses - cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis)
    49. 52. Mitosis: Summary Mitosis: replication mitosis 2n = 2
    50. 53. Mitosis: Summary replication mitosis 2n = 4
    51. 54. Mitosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
    52. 55. Mitosis: Lily Fig. 4-21
    53. 56. Meiosis (overview) diploid (2n) ---------------> haploid (n) gametes C hromosome replication once --------> 2 nuclear divisions (meiosis I, II) one nucleus -------------------> 4 nuclei
    54. 57. Meiosis I Meiosis II (reductional) (equational) Prophase I Prophase II Metaphase I Metaphase II Anaphase I Anaphase II Telophase I Telophase II
    55. 58. Meiosis I (reductional division) 2n = ? Pairing of homologous chromosomes Continued 
    56. 59. Meiosis II (equational division) 4 products n = ?
    57. 60. Meiosis Animation http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/
    58. 61. Meiosis: Lily pollen Fig. 4-22 Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II
    59. 62. Mitosis Meiosis somatic cells cells of sexual cycle one doubling one doubling 1 division  2 cells 2 divisions  4 cells same amount of DNA ½ amount of DNA Comparison (Fig. 4-24)
    60. 63. Mitosis Meiosis # chrs doesn’t change #chrs. halved No pairing of chr. Synapsis of homologs Centromeres divide at Not at anaphase I, anaphase but at anaphase II Conservative Variation Comparison (continued)
    61. 64. Mitosis (n) Mitosis (2n) Meiosis Fig. 4-20
    62. 65. Genetic Terminology Genes: hereditary elements Alleles: forms of a gene: A , a b, b + Genotypes Gene pairs Heterozygote: Aa bb + Homozygotes: AA aa bb b + b +
    63. 66. Genes on Chromosomes Expect behaviour of genes to correlate with the behaviour of chromosomes: genes chromosomes Diploid (2n) AA, Aa, aa pairs Haploid (n) A one set a
    64. 67. Genes on Chromosomes b + b + homozygote Fig. 4-17
    65. 68. Genes on Chromosomes b b + heterozygote
    66. 69. b b homozygote
    67. 70. Genetic Links http://www.biology-online.org/tutorials/2_genetics_evolution. htm http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/mfi-e.htm http://www.biology.arizona.edu/mendelian_genetics/mendelian_genetics.html http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/genetics.html
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