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Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
Biological Basics
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Biological Basics

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  • 1. Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
  • 2. Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
  • 3.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of autosomes
        • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
  • 4.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of autosomes
        • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
      • XX = female
      • XY = male
  • 5.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • Genes--located on the chromosomes--biochemical instructions
  • 6.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • Genes
        • genotype vs phenotype
  • 7.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • genes
        • Alleles: different forms of the same gene
  • 8.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • genes
        • Alleles
  • 9.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • genes
        • Alleles
        • Two alleles on chromosome pairs are the same= Homozygous
  • 10.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • genes
        • Alleles
        • Two alleles on chromosome pairs are the same= Homozygous
        • Two alleles on chromosome pairs are different=Heterozygous
  • 11.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
        • 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • 22 pairs of sex chromosomes
        • genes
        • Alleles
        • Two alleles on chromosome pairs are the same= Homozygous
        • Two alleles on chromosome pairs are different=Heterozygous
        • dominant vs recessive alleles
  • 12.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders: mutation in gene
  • 13.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
        • Examples:
        • Phenylketonuria
        • Cystic Fibrosis
        • Sickle Cell anemia
        • Tay Sachs
  • 14. Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth 1) Mechanisms of Heredity 2) Genetic Disorders 3) Chromosomal Disorders
  • 15.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
      • Disorders of the autosomes (e.g., Trisomy 21)
  • 16.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
      • Disorders of the autosomes (e.g., Trisomy 21)
      • Disorders of the sex chromosomes
        • XO = Turner syndrome
        • XXY = Klinefelter’s syndrome
        • XXX = Poly- X syndrome
        • XYY = Poly-Y syndrome
  • 17.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
  • 18.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
  • 19.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
    Biological Parent Adoptive Parent Child
  • 20.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
    Biological Parent Adoptive Parent Child How Similar?
  • 21.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
    Biological Parent Adoptive Parent Child How Similar? How Similar?
  • 22.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
  • 23.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
          • Monozygotic = identical = 100% of genes
  • 24.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
          • Monozygotic = identical = 100% of genes
          • Dizygotic = fraternal = 50% of genes
  • 25.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
    Monozygotic Twins Dizygotic Twins Twin 1 Twin 2 How similar?
  • 26.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
    Monozygotic Twins Dizygotic Twins Twin 1 Twin 2 How similar? Twin 1 Twin 2 How similar?
  • 27.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • a. Methods
        • (1) Adoption studies
        • Twin Studies
        • Selective Breeding
  • 28.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
  • 29.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
        • Genes do not cause behavior, they make behavior more or less likely
  • 30.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
        • Genes do not cause behavior, they make behavior more or less likely
        • the outcome of heredity depends upon the environment in which development occurs
  • 31.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
        • Genes do not cause behavior, they make behavior more or less likely
        • the outcome of heredity depends upon the environment in which development occurs
        • Reaction range—a single genotype can lead to a range of phenotypes
  • 32.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
        • Genes do not cause behavior, they make behavior more or less likely
        • the outcome of heredity depends upon the environment in which development occurs
        • Heredity can influence the types of experiences people have. How?
  • 33.
    • Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
    • 1) Mechanisms of Heredity
    • 2) Genetic Disorders
    • 3) Chromosomal Disorders
    • 4) Behavioral genetics
      • Methods
      • Genes and Behavior
        • Genes do not cause behavior, they make behavior more or less likely
        • the outcome of heredity depends upon the environment in which development occurs
        • Heredity can influence the types of experiences people have. How?
        • (1) Passive relationship
        • (2) Evocative relationship
        • Active relationship
  • 34. Child’s genes Parent’s genes Child’s experiences Child’s phenotype Passive Gene-Environment interaction
  • 35. Child’s genes Parent’s genes People’s reactions to child Child’s phenotype Evocative Gene-Environment interaction
  • 36. Child’s genes Parent’s genes Aspects of environment child selects Child’s phenotype Active Gene-Environment interaction

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