AP Biology.doc

  • 2,872 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,872
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Braintree High School Curriculum Guide Department: Science Course: Advanced Placement Biology Grade: 12 Level: 1 Schoolwide Learning Expectations: 1. Come to school prepared and ready to learn. 2. Communicate effectively in writing that is organized and clear, that conforms to conventions of grammar and usage, that has a stated purpose and that is directed toward a particular audience. 3. Use appropriate research skills to locate, select and analyze information and ideas. 4. Use critical thinking skills to solve problems. 5. Work cooperatively and effectively in group situations. 6. Use technology appropriately and properly in research, writing, analysis and problem- solving. 16. Use a scientific method to solve problems. (Science) Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Frameworks Standards: 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Living things are made of atoms bonded together to form organic molecules 1.1 Explain the significance of carbon in organic molecules. 1.2 Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S). 1.3 Describe the composition and functions of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).* 1.4 Describe how dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules. 1.5 Explain the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions. 2. Structure and Function of Cells Broad Concept: All living things are composed of cells. Life processes in a cell are based on molecular interactions. 2.1 Relate cell parts/organelles to their functions.* 2.2 Differentiate between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, in terms of their general structures and degrees of complexity.* 1
  • 2. 2.3 Distinguish between plant and animal cells.* 2.4 Describe how cells function in a narrow range of physical conditions, such as temperature and pH, to perform life functions that help to maintain homeostasis. 2.5 Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).* 2.6 Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis. Describe the use of isotopes in this identification. 2.7 Provide evidence that the organic compounds produced by plants are the primary source of energy and nutrients for most living things.* 2.8 Identify how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP. 2.9 Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.* 2.10 Describe and compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis, and their role in the cell cycle.* 3. Genetics Broad Concept: Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of  each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of  that organism. 3.1 Describe the structure and function of DNA, and distinguish among replication,  transcription, and translation.* 3.2 Describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation and how they  relate to each other in molecular biology. 3.3 Describe the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins by using  tRNAs to translate genetic information encoded in mRNAs. 3.4 Explain how mutations in the DNAsequence of a gene may be silent or result in  phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring. 3.5 Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex­linked  traits. 3.6 State Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. 3.7 Use a Punnett Square to determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid  crosses.* 3.8 Explain how zygotes are produced in the fertilization process. 3.9 Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material  to invade living cells. 4. Human Anatomy and Physiology Broad Concept: There is a relationship between structure and function in organ  systems of humans. 4.1 Explain how major organ systems in humans (e.g., kidney, muscle, lung) have  functional units (e.g., nephron, sarcome, alveoli) with specific anatomy that perform  the function of that organ system. 4.2 Describe how the function of individual systems within humans are integrated to  maintain a homeostatic balance in the body. 5. Evolution and Biodiversity Broad Concept: Evolution and biodiversity are the result of genetic changes that  occur in constantly changing environments. 5.1 Explain how the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence support the  theory of evolution. 5.2 Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population  through Darwinian natural selection (evolution) resulting in biodiversity. 2
  • 3. 6. Ecology Broad Concept: Ecology is the interaction between living organisms and their  environment. 6.1 Explain how biotic and abiotic factors cycle in an ecosystem (water, carbon, oxygen,  and nitrogen).* 6.2 Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers,  and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels.* 6.3 Identify the factors in an ecosystem that influence fluctuations in population size. 6.4 Analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from natural causes, changes in climate,  human activity, or introduction of non­native species. 6.5 Explain how symbiotic behavior produces interactions within ecosystems. 3
  • 4. Course Objectives (with links to school and frameworks standards): See attached, pages: 11 through 27. Course Outline: See attached, pages: 11 through 27. Texts and Instructional Resources: See attached, pages: 6, 15, 21 & 27. Suggested Learning Activities: See attached, pages: 5, 14 & 22. Suggested Assessment Methods: See attached, pages: 5, 6, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25 & 27. 4
  • 5. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 1: MOLECULES AND CELLS I CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Define the term atomic mass. 2. Calculate the number of neutrons in an atom. 3. Identify the elements most common in organisms. 4. Identify covalent and ionic bonds. 5. Describe the nature of polar covalent and nonpolar covalent bonds. 6. Explain the importance of hydrogen bonding in organic molecules. 7. Define and give examples of an isomer. 8. Name and draw the molecular structure for the following functional groups: a. hydroxyl b. carbonyl c. carboxyl d. amino e. sulfhydryl f. phosphate 9. Define the physical and chemical properties of water. 10. Describe water’s versatility as a solvent. 11. Describe the nature of acids and bases. 12. Give the relative concentration of H+ and OH- ions in any pH. 13. Describe the electron structure of carbon. 14. Explain carbon’s versatility in bonding to other atoms. 15. Give examples of structural isomers. 16. Write an equation for the condensation synthesis of a disaccharide. 17. Identify the general composition of chitin, amylase, cellulose and amylopectin. 18. Draw the condensation reaction of glycerol and three fatty acids to form a triglyceride. 19. Define the terms saturated and unsaturated fats. Give examples. 20. Draw the general molecular structure of a phospholipid. 21. Identify the general structure of steroids. 22. Draw an amino acid molecule. 23. Give an example for each of the following types of amino acids: ionized, polar, and nonpolar. 24. Identify the nature of each of the four levels of protein structure. 5
  • 6. 25. Give examples of an alpha helix, beta sheet, and globular proteins. 26. Define the properties that contribute to the folding of a polypeptide chain. 27. Draw the general structure of a nucleotide. 28. Describe the general structure of a nucleotide. 29. Briefly describe the nature of genetic code. 30. Identify the differences between DNA and RNA. 31. Define the types of energy. 32. Define entropy. 33. Draw a molecule of ATP and explain its regeneration. 34. Describe the relationship between free energy of activation and enzymes. 35. Describe the function of enzymes in living systems. 36. Describe the affect of temperature and pH and concentration of substrate on enzymes. 37. Describe the factors that affect enzyme activity. 38. Explain allosteric regulation of enzymes. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 1,2,3,6 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 ACTIVITIES: AP Enzyme Lab Oxidation – Reduction Reactions in Yeast McMush Lab Macromolecule building kits Web Sites: http://www.arizona.edu/biochemistry/biochemistry.html http://www.johnkyrk.com/h20.html http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~ascarpi/NSC/7-ph.html http://wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/review/kinetics/kinetics_intro.html http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/large_molec ules_problems.html 6
  • 7. Oxidation - Reduction Reactions in Yeast Purpose: To demonstrate oxidation - reduction reactions in living systems Equipment: 3 culture tubes (13 mmX 100mm) Culture tube rack 5 ml pipette pipette pump 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol solution (Dipip) ( 0.2 gram in 1 liter distilled water) yeast solution (2%) glucose solution (5%) NaCl solution (5%) parafilm Background: Organisms have certain pathways where electrons are passed from one molecule to the next in a chain of reactions. Of course, when a molecule accepts an electron it is reduced and when it loses an electron it is oxidized. In order for ATP to be synthesized from ADP and P, energy must be transferred to ADP to allow for the attachment of the third P. This is a process which occurs continually in most cells. The pathway of electrons is necessary, since their movement through a succession of electron transport molecules allows for a transfer of protons through a membrane. This builds up an excess of protons on one side of the (mitochondrial) membrane creating a proton gradient which can be used to do work. In this case, the work is the transfer of energy to ATP. In this laboratory activity, some of the electrons headed for this electron pathway will be intercepted by the indicator (Dipip) and turn from the blue, oxidized state to colorless which is the reduced state. Procedure: 1. Number 3 culture tubes and add the solutions listed below to each tube. 2. Add 8-10 drops of Dipip to each tube. Cover tube with parafilm and invert 2 or 3 times to mix. Record the starting time. 3. Observe until the blue color disappears. Record the time of disappearance for each tube. Tube 1: 5ml yeast, 10ml H2O Tube 2: 5ml yeast, 10ml dextrose, H2O Tube 3: 5ml yeast, 10 ml 5% NaCl Data: Share your results with class members. Find the class mean for each tube. 7
  • 8. McMush Lab Objective: To determine the compounds present in food. Introduction: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and other nutrients provide your body with energy necessary to carry on life activities. These compounds are present in the plants and animals you use as food. In this lab, you will test for specific compounds and then determine if those compounds are present in ordinary foods. Materials: McDonald's Happy Meal beaker graduated cylinder test tubes test tube clamp hot plate Benedict's solution Biuret solution Lugol's iodine solution 1% silver nitrate solution blender Procedure: Part I: Testing of Known Substances Protein test: Place 5 mL of the gelatin solution into your test tube. Add 10 drops of Biuret solution. Biuret contains a strong solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide and a very small amount of very dilute copper sulfate solution. The reagent changes color in the presence of protein and peptides because the amine group complexes with the copper ions. Protein – violet; peptides - pinkish Glucose test: Place 5 mL of the glucose solution into your test tube. Add 3 mL of Benedict's solution. Place the tube in a beaker of boiling water and boil for five minutes. Use test tube clamps to hold hot test tubes. Benedict’s reagent changes color after heating in the presence of sugar but not in the presence of starch. Changes from blue to green to red to yellow to orange, depending on the amount of sugar present. 8
  • 9. Starch test: Place 5 mL of the starch solution into your test tube. Add 5 drops of Lugol's iodine solution. Chloride test: Place 5 mL of the salt solution into your test tube. Add 5 drops of silver nitrate solution. Record your results in a data table (as shown below). Part II: McMush Place the Happy Meal in a blender. Add enough water to cover and blend until you get an emulsion. Filter the mush into a beaker. Predict the substances you will find in the McMush solution. Record your predictions in the data table using a + or -. Repeat steps 1-5 above using 5 mL of the McMush solution. Describe and record your results. Food Substance Reagent test Results Protein Biuret solution Tube Color Change Explanation 1. gelatin 2, McMush 3. Fries Sugar Benedict's solution Tube Color Change Explanation 1. Glucose solution 2, McMush 3. Fries 9
  • 10. Starch Lugol's iodine solution Tube Color Change Explanation 1. Starch solution 2, McMush 3. Fries sodium chloride - silver nitrate solution Tube Color Change Explanation 1. Salt solution 2, McMush 3. Fries 10
  • 11. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 1: MOLECULES AND CELLS II CELLS Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Identify the fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2. Identify the differences in plant and animal cells. 3. Explain the functions of the following cell organelles: a. cell wall b. cell membrane c. ribosome d. rough endoplasmic reticulum e. smooth endoplasmic reticulum f. lysosome g. golgi apparatus h. peroxisome i. chloroplast 4. Describe the organization of the nucleus, including all structures associated with it. 5. Identify the constituents of the cytoskeleton, including the ultra structure of each. 6. Describe the process of breaking up a cell to separate organelles. 7. Explain the principles of diffusion. 8. Describe the process of osmosis, compare it to diffusion. 9. Define the terms: isoosmotic, hyperosmotic, and hypoosmotic. 10. Draw the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. 11. Solve an osmosis problem involving solutions of different concentration. 12. Describe facilitated diffusion. 13. Explain the sodium-potassium pump. 14. Define phagocytosis and pinocytosis. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 4, 5 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity 1 Diffusion/ Osmosis. 11
  • 12. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 1: MOLECULES AND CELLS II CELL ENERGETICS Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Understand the nature of electron gain and electron loss in redox reactions. 2. Describe the 10 reactions of glycolysis in correct order. 3. Identify the reactants and products of glycolysis. 4. Describe the role of enzymes in glycolysis. 5. Write out the intermediate reactions between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. 6. Write the reactions that occur in anaerobic respiration. 7. Explain why lactate is produced in overworked muscle cells. 8. Explain the function of acetyl COA in the transfer of energy in the Krebs cycle. 9. State the reactants and products of the Krebs cycle. 10. Describe chemiosmotic phosphorylation. 11. Identify the final acceptor of electrons in the mitochondria. 12. Identify the source and total number of ATP molecules derived from one glucose molecule. 13. Draw a model of the mitochondrion and indicate where each major energy activity occurs. 14. Write the overall reaction for photosynthesis. 15. Draw the structure of the chloroplast and identify its constituent parts. 16. Draw the structure of a leaf and identify the tissue layers and important cells. 17. Explain how gas interchange occurs between the leaf and the atmosphere. 18. Describe the structure and function of chlorophyll. 19. Describe the Hill Reactions. 20. Explain how oxygen is produced from water. 21. Describe the differences between photosystem I and photosystem II. 22. Explain cyclic electron flow. 23. Describe the differences between cyclic and non-cyclic electron flow. 24. Describe how ATP is produced in the thylakoids. 25. Describe the steps in the Calvin Cycle. 26. Identify the reason for the existence of the C4 pathway. 27. Diagram the C3 and C4 pathways. 12
  • 13. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 7, 8 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: Respiration AP Lab Activity: Photosynthesis Lab Activity: Measuring the Rate of Photosynthesis 13
  • 14. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 2: Heredity and Evolution I Heredity Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria. 2. Identify the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes. 3. Draw the cell cycle and describe the events in G0, G1, G2 and S phases. 4. Name the mitotic phases in correct order. 5. Identify and describe the spindle, kinetochore, centrosome, centriole, centromere, asters, cell plate and cleavage furrow. 6. Describe the major events in the mitotic phases. 7. Describe the process of cytokinesis in plants and animals. 8. Define karyotype. 9. Explain the purpose of meiosis. 10. Identify the correct phases of meiosis in order. 11. Describe the major events in each meiotic phase. 12. Diagram and explain the process of crossing over. 13. State the meiotic phase where crossing over takes place. 14. Explain how meiosis and random fertilization contribute to genetic diversity. 15. State Mendel’s Laws. 16. Explain how Mendel’s work led to defining his laws. 17. Define homozygous, heterozygous, allele, dominant gene, recessive gene, phenotype, genotype, backcross. 18. Solve genetic word problems. 19. Explain the inheritance pattern of sex-linked genes. 20. Solve a chi-square problem. 21. Explain the work of Thomas Morgan and others, which led to the chromosome theory. 22. Describe the effect of recessive lethal genes on a population. 23. Identify a particular inheritance pattern using experimental data. 14
  • 15. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 9, 10,11,12, 13 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: M&M’s Chi Square Activity AP Lab Activity: Fruit Fly Genetics OR Wisconsin Fast Plant Genetics Lab Activity: Genetic Word Problems 15
  • 16. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 2: Heredity and Evolution II Molecular Genetics Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Describe the experiments of Griffith, heresy and Chase, which proved the function of DNA. 2. Describe the work of Beadle and Tatum, which led to the gene-enzyme hypothesis. 3. Explain the work of Erwin Chargaff, which provided a clue to the formation of the DNA model by Watson and Crick. 4. Diagram a model of DNA, including all monomers, sugars, and phosphates. 5. Identify the differences and similarities between DNA and RNA. 6. Describe the base pairing of DNA and RNA. 7. Describe the process of semi conservative replication of DNA. 8. Describe the “central dogma” of nucleic acids. 9. Describe the process of transcription. 10. Explain RNA processing after synthesis. 11. Define promoter, exon, and intron. 12. Describe the process of translation. 13. Describe initiation. 14. Explain translocation. 15. Explain termination. 16. Explain how operons operate. 17. Define operator, regulator. 18. Explain the process of transformation. 19. Describe the process of restriction analysis. 20. Explain the process of DNA electrophoresis. 21. Describe how restriction enzymes work. 16
  • 17. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 14, 15, 16, 17 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: Bacteria Transformation AP Lab Activity: Restriction Analysis of DNA Samples Video: Race for The Double Helix 17
  • 18. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 2: Heredity and Evolution III Evolutionary Biology Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Identify the influences of the works of Malthus and Llyell on Darwin’s early thinking. 2. Explain the errors in Lamarck’s theory of evolution. 3. State the facts and inferences that form the theory of natural selection. 4. Identify and explain evidence of evolution: a. biogeography b. fossil record c. taxonomy d. comparative anatomy e. comparative embryology f. molecular biology 5. Define the term gene pool 6. State the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, including the conditions that must be in effect. 7. Solve word problems involving the frequency of genes in a population. 8. Define the term microevolution. 9. Define genetic drift. Explain how it contributes to microevolution. 10. Define and explain bottleneck effect and founder effect. 11. Describe how gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating and natural selection can cause microevolution. 12. Identify the sources of genetic variation. 13. Identify the modes of natural selection: frequency-dependent selection, stabilizing selection, directional selection, and diversifying selection. 14. Define species. 15. Explain why any definition of a species is limited. 16. List and describe six types of isolation that may serve as barriers between dissimilar individuals. 17. Identify and give an example for the two major types of speciation. 18. Define and explain adaptive radiation. 18
  • 19. 19. Describe the two major mechanisms of speciation: divergent evolution and convergent evolution. 20. Compare and contrast punctuated equilibrium and gradualism. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia s. Mader Chapters 18, 19, 20, 21 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: AP Lab #7 AP Lab Activity: Population Genetics and Teddy Grahams 19
  • 20. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 3: Organisms and Populations I Structure and Function of Animals (Invertebrates) Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Briefly explain the criteria used to classify organisms. 2. Define the term domain. 3. Explain the evolutionary relationships between the domains Eubacteria, archebacteria and eukarya. 4. Name the major Protist phyla and the main characteristics of each phylum 5. Identify the main characteristics of Paramecium, Amoeba and Euglena. 6. Diagram and explain the life cycle of the malaria parasite. 7. Define cell, tissue, organ and organ system 8. Describe the concept of specialization. 9. Draw and identify the various cells which are found in a sponge. 10. Name the phylum to which sponges belong. 11. Describe the body plan of a coelenterate. 12. Differentiate between hydra polyp and medusa stages of a coelenterate. 13. Identify the distinguishing characteristics of a coelenterate (cnidarian). 14. Diagram and label a Hydra. 15. Describe the life cycle of Obelia. 16. Explain how coral reefs form. 17. Name the distinguishing characteristics of the phylum P/atyhelminthes. 18. Name the three classes of the phylum Platyhelminthes and give an example of each. 19. Define the term triploblastic. 20. Explain why three tissue layers are needed to form an organ. 21. Name the three embryonic tissue layers and give an example of an organ 22. which forms from each layer. 23. Define cephalization. 24. Explain the process of regeneration. 25. Explain why the tapeworms are thought to be a degenerated animal type. 26. Diagram and explain the life cycle of a liver fluke. 27. Diagram and explain the life cycle of a tapeworm. 28. Identify the tapeworm structures: scolex, proglottid, hooks, suckers. 29. Define the terms: acoelomate, pseudocoelomate and eucoelomate. 30. Identify the major animal phyla which are eucoelomate or pseudocoelomate. 20
  • 21. 31. Name the three major phyla of worms and give the distinguishing characteristics of each. 32. Diagram and explain the life cycle of Trichina. 33. Explain the significant advances in structure found in the phylum Annelida. 34. Identify five different mollusks which are eaten by humans. 35. Name the distinguishing characteristic of the phylum Mollusca. 36. Name the distinguishing characteristics of the phylum Arthropoda. 37. Name the classes of the phylum Arthropoda, and give three examples of each class. 38. Name and give examples of six insect orders. 39. Explain the terms protostomata and deuterostomata. 40. Give examples of protostomes and deuterostomes. 41. Describe the language of the bees”. 42. Explain why Echinoderms are placed on the same side of the phylogenetic tree as Chordates. 43. List the distinguishing characteristics of Echinoderms. 44. Draw and label the early stages of development in a starfish. 45. Define invagination, gastrulation, archenteron, blastopore. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia S. Mader Chapters 28, 29, 30, 31, 33 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: Survey of Protists AP Lab Activity: Invertebrate Lab Practical Lab Activity: Observing Bacteria Lab Activity: Gram Staining 21
  • 22. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 3: Organisms and Populations II Structure and Function of Animals (Vertebrates) Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Name the vertebrate classes and give an example of each class. 2. Describe the major characteristics of the three classes of fish. 3. Draw and explain the circulation of blood in a fish. 4. Describe countercurrent exchange using the fish gill as an illustrative example. 5. Identify the body covering found in each vertebrate class. 6. Identify the type, number and names of the appendages found in each class. 7. Describe the adaptations to land which were necessary during the evolution of amphibians to reptiles. 8. Compare the circulatory system in fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. 9. Name the orders of mammals and give an example of each. 10. List the distinguishing characteristic of each vertebrate class. 11. Compare the adaptations to full live birth as found in the monotremes, the marsupials and the placental mammals. RESOURCES: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia S. Mader Chapters 28, 29, 30, 31, 33 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab Activity: Animal Behavior Lab 22
  • 23. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 3: Organisms and Populations III Structure and Function of Plants Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Identify the phylum associated with various plant specimens. 2. Diagram and label the parts of a flower. 3. Describe the process of ovule development. 4. Describe the process of pollen development. 5. Name the parts of the flower and identify the function of each part. 6. Describe the process of double fertilization. 7. Explain some of the various methods of flower pollination. 8. Diagram and label the life cycle of mosses. 9. Diagram and label the life cycle of ferns. 10. Diagram and label the life cycle of flowering plants. 11. Identify the parts of a seed and explain the fate of each part. 12. Define spermatophyte generation and gametophyte generation. 13. Identify the number of chromosomes found in both generations. 14. Name the three tissue systems in a plant. 15. Describe the growth of stems, identifying the primary and secondary tissues which are formed. 16. Diagram and label a cross section of a root. 17. Identify the function of each of the tissue layers in a dicot root. 18. Diagram and label a cross section of a woody dicot stem. 19. Diagram and label a cross section of a dicot leaf. 20. Identify the parts in a stem and leaf and give their function. 21. Name the primary and secondary meristem tissues. 22. Explain how transpiration affects the movement of water in a stem. 23. Identify the four forces that cause water movement up a stem. 24. Explain how osmotic pressure affects the movement of sugar in a plant. 25. Describe the function associated with the Casperian strip. 26. Explain the forces that regulate the stoma. 27. Explain how stomata open and close. 23
  • 24. Resource: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia S. Mader Chapters 28, 29, 30, 31, 33 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: Perform AP Bio Transpiration Lab. View and draw cross sections of leaves, stems and roots. View cross sections of lily ovaries Dissect a flower. 24
  • 25. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 3: Organisms and Populations IV Systems Learning Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. Identify the major bones of the human skeleton 2. Explain the path the blood takes through the heart and lungs, naming the structures it passes. 3. Describe how blood pressure is measured. 4. Name the cells and inclusions found in whole blood and describe their function(s). 5. Define systolic and diastolic. 6. Compare the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and their respective functions. 7. Name, in order, the organs of the alimentary canal. 8. Describe the functions of the stomach. 9. Identify the secretions of the stomach lining. 10. Explain the functions of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. 11. Identify the constituents and functions of bile. 12. Explain how the level of glucose in the blood is maintained and regulated. 13. Describe the structure of the lungs. 14. Explain the disassociation curve for hemoglobin. 15. Describe the Bohr Shift. 16. Describe the loading and unloading of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. 17. Identify and explain the control of breathing. 18. Diagram and explain the microstructure of a muscle cell. 19. Explain, with a diagram, how the kidney nephron works. 20. Identify the organs of reproduction in both sexes. 21. Explain how the hormones vary during the menstrual cycle. 22. Describe the function of each sex hormone and gonadotrophic hormone. 23. Describe the process of oogenesis. 24. Explain, with diagrams, the early development of a vertebrate. 25. Explain the principle of countercurrent exchange. 26. Explain the principle of both positive and negative feedback. 25
  • 26. Resource: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia S. Mader Chapters 28, 29, 30, 31, 33 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: Perform Cardiovascular Lab Learn to take blood pressure 26
  • 27. Braintree High School Advanced Placement Biology Unit 4: Ecology Learning Objectives The student will be able to: 1. Define the terms ecology, ecosystem, biome. 2. Draw an explain an example of a food web. 3. Identify the major trophic levels and give three examples of organsims for each. 4. Describe the function of decomposers in the ecosystem. 5. Diagram and explain an energy pyramid. 6. Explain why the energy pyramid loses energy as it progresses through the trophic levels. 7. Diagram and explain the nitrogen cycle. 8. Diagram and explain the water cycle. 9. Describe the process of succession. 10. Define the term climax community 11. Give an example of one terrestrial biome (tundra, desert or deciduous forest) and describe its climate, general vegetation and examples of animals which may be found there. Resource: Biology, Seventh Edition Sylvia S. Mader Chapters 28, 29, 30, 31, 33 Http:/www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7 Activities: AP Lab: Dissolved Oxygen 27