AP Biology Syllabus.doc


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AP Biology Syllabus.doc

  1. 1. AP Biology Syllabus Philosophy Biology is a network of interconnected content, both within and across disciplines. Teaching biology provides a unique opportunity to help students understand their impacts on the environment and their own health by building and reinforcing those connections. The goal is for students to understand their environmental, personal, and social responsibilities so they can make relevant and informed decisions that lead to positive outcomes for themselves and in society. In addition to the science sections of newspapers and popular science magazines, I also employ such journals as Science and Nature as resources throughout the course, thus making modern environmental and social concerns associated with biology a continuing theme. Course Overview This comprehensive survey course is designed to foster an understanding and appreciation for the broad and minute interconnected aspects of Biology. Throughout the year, the following eight unifying themes will be stressed with breadth and depth: 1) Science as a Process 2) Evolution 3) Energy Transfer 4) Continuity amidst Change 5) Relationship of Structure and Function 6) Regulation 7) Interdependence in Nature 8) Science, Technology and Society This course emphasizes evolution as the foundation for modern biology and also focuses on environmental and social concerns as key components of biological knowledge. Classes meet three times a week: once a week for 50 minutes, and twice a week for 90 minutes. Labs take up about 25 % of this instructional time. Teaching Strategies Whether the topic is biochemistry or evolution, most lecture material is connected to the relationships between structure and function, as well as factors necessary for life. The majority of class time is spent in lecture and class discussion or in lab activities. Course content is supported by the text, the internet, video, current research, and trips to a nearby watershed for environmental sample and data collections. Course material is also supported and assessed with practice multiple- choice questions from AP Central, the Released Exams, and test preparation books to help students focus on what is important in the chapter sections assigned. Lab Component All of the labs in the AP Biology Lab Manual for Students are performed, either exactly or modified to fulfill particular course objectives. Labs requires about 25% of class time. Students should save the work from their lab books as well as any other lab write-ups produced in the event that a college requires this as evidence of lab participation. AP classes take trips to a local watershed to collect local flora, fauna, and data. Pasco electronic data collection/analysis tools and Dell laptops are technologies used to enhance students’ lab experience, accuracy, and efficiency. Students are given the labs to read beforehand. They are organized into lab groups of up to four and lab set up is discussed to ensure that they understand the procedure and equipment they will be using. Students are expected to keep a lab notebook for write-ups. All labs require, at minimum, analysis questions from the lab manual and a written analysis/conclusion (including limitations and recommendations) of the lab. Full lab reports require: title, introduction/background information, purpose (the specific topic being investigated), procedure, data/results, analysis, conclusion, limitations, and recommendations. Quality of writing is stressed over quantity.
  2. 2. Textbook and Supplemental Materials 1. Campbell’s 7th edition Biology to take home and use a reference text. 2. Campbell’s 4th and 6th edition Biology to use in the classroom. 3. AP Biology Lab Student Workbooks. 4. Dell Inspiron 600m laptop computer. 5. Classroom access to wireless internet. 6. Web-based, teacher- generated lecture outlines and/or study questions. 7. Web-based, self-grading multiple choice review questions. 8. Web-based lab simulations to reinforce “wet” labs based. 9. Interactive ExploreLearning “gizmos” for difficult to visualize processes. 10. Scientific journals to be reviewed for current research in biology. Student Evaluation and Assessment Tests are given at appropriate times during each nine weeks. Tests consist of 30 – 40 multiple choice questions and one to two essays to provide students with practice with the AP exam format. Essays are timed throughout the year. A midterm exam is required for all students and will contain previously released AP test questions – 60 timed multiple choice questions and 2 timed essays. Grade Breakdown: Classwork/Quizzes…...…………………………25% Labs/Journal Reviews..………………………….25% Tests/Projects ………………...…………………..50% (3 per 9 weeks) Unit 1. Ecology (summer and 2 weeks) Readings • Ecology, chapters 50, 52 – 55 • Receive outline notes and guidance on the textbook readings Lecture Topics • Biomes: aquatic and terrestrial biomes and the factors that influence them, habitat and niche, biotic and abiotic factors in the environment, • Community ecology, ecological succession, soil and its role in succession, symbiotic relationships, intra & interspecific competition, resource partitioning, competitive exclusion • Ecosystem ecology, trophic structure, and productivity (energy transfer) • Biogeochemical cycles – Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Hydrologic cycle, Phosphorus cycle, eutrophication • Population ecology and human population growth Labs and Activities • AP Lab 12: Dissolved oxygen and aquatic primary productivity. • Human Population Lab: use given data to construct age structure pyramids, life tables, survivorship curves (dry lab) • Biome Reasearch: students choose a biome to research feeding relationships, identify food chains and food webs for their assigned biome Culminating Activity for Unit: Environmental Issues Project - Students are put into groups and each are given a topic to research and present a power point presentation to the class: Choices are Acid Precipitation, Ozone depletion, habitat destruction, depletion of energy reserves/ alternative energy possibilities, Greenhouse effect, depletion of fresh water reserves, introduction of exotic species, solid waste disposal/recycling. Worth a test grade. Unit 2. Animal Behavior (1 week) Topics and Readings • Students read chapter 51 and watch videos on animal behavior National Geographic’s Search for the Great Apes. Independent Work • Students use their text to answer assigned questions about famous animal behaviorists and concepts. Labs and Activities
  3. 3. • AP Lab 11: Animal Behavior. Students research how a particular abiotic factor affects the behavior of pill bugs (lab writeup) Unit 3. Classification & Survey of Animals/Protists/Fungi (2 weeks) Readings • Animal survey and classification, selected readings from chapters 28, 31 – 34 Lecture Topics • Review terms: prokaryotic/eukaryotic and autotroph/heterotroph, and terms used in classification and the formation of phylogenetic trees like symmetry and types of coelom • Outline notes and guidance on the textbook readings and the major phyla Labs and Activities • Microscope use and measurement (this lab can be found in most lab manuals) • Itty-bitty city lab (look at protists in pond water) • Observe specimens and practice placing the organisms on the phylogenetic trees Unit 4. The Plant Kingdom (2 weeks) Readings • The Plant Kingdom, Chapters 35 – 39 • Receive outline notes and guidance on the textbook readings Lecture Topics • Alternation of generations • Angiosperm structure and growth • Angiosperm reproduction and growth • Plant control systems Labs and Activities • AP Lab 9: Transpiration • Students collect flora specimens and study roots, leaves, and stems. • Monocot/Dicot Lab: sketching root and stem structures from microscope slides • Students collect flower specimens and study floral anatomy with regard to plant reproduction. • Students perform basic planting activities and observe seed germination. • Video The Secret Life of Plants or Sexual Encounters of the Floral Kind. Unit 5. Water and Organic Molecules (2 weeks) Readings • Chemical basis of life, protein and enzymes, chapters 2 – 5, 8 Lecture Topics • Elementary principles of inorganic chemistry (eg. atoms, molecules, etc.) • Roles of water (its properties), acids, bases and buffers and their biological importance • Roles of carbon and the functional groups • Macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids • Proteins and enzymes (structure and function) • The closing lecture is a demonstration of the food tests used to identify the different organic compounds Labs and Activities • AP Lab 2: Enzyme catalysis • Quick lab on properties of water including surface tension and high specific heat Independent Work • The origins of life (chapter 26). I spend about a day tracing the historical development of ideas concerning the origin of life and current views of the origin of life and the experimental evidence that supports these views. Students learn more about the origins of life by reading the chapter in their textbook and answering the guided questions I provide. This independent class work appears 10 weeks into the first semester because it is at this point that students have an understanding of organic molecules and can appreciate the molecular evolution concepts that are used to explain the origin of life.
  4. 4. Unit 6. Cellular Energetics (Photosynthesis and Respiration) (2 weeks) Readings • Photosynthesis and respiration, chapters 9 – 10 Lecture Topics • Angiosperm leaf anatomy • Chloroplast structure and function • Light reactions/light-dependent reactions, Light-independent reactions/Calvin Cycle • C3 and C4 cycles, evolution of strategies to avoid photorespiration (CAM, C4 plants) • Overview of aerobic and anaerobic respiration • Mitochondrion structure • Glycolysis/Krebs Cycle • Chemiosmosis in respiration and photosynthesis • The role of photosynthesis and respiration in global warming Labs and Activities • AP Lab 4: Plant pigments and photosynthesis. • AP Lab 5: Cellular Respiration: weekend to complete a lab write-up for this lab. Unit 7. Cells & Cell Functions (2 weeks) Readings • Architecture of cells chapters 6, 27, 18 • Cellular transport, chapters 7, 11 Lecture Topics • Evolution/architecture of prokaryotes to eukaryotes, comparison of plant and animal cells • Cell wall of bacteria and plants • Organelles; emphasis on mitochondria and chloroplasts • Bacteria reproduction and nutritional modes • Bacteria: classification and their roles, both harmful and beneficial • Membrane structure and function; transport across the membrane Labs and Activities • Cell Type lab: (plants vs animals) • AP Lab 1: Diffusion/Osmosis • Gram-staining techniques and the effect of antibiotics on bacteria • video on bacteria • Class discussion – What characteristics of cells provides evidence of a common origin? Unit 8. Cellular Reproduction (1-2 week) Readings • Reproduction: mitosis and meiosis, chapters 12 – 13 Lecture Topics • Significance of mitosis and meiosis • Cell cycle • Mitosis in plants and animals • Meiosis in plants and animals • Chromosomal abnormalities due to nondisjunction • Cancer Labs and Activities • Mitosis On-line Activity from www.biology.arizona.edu • AP Lab 3: Mitosis and meiosis • Lab: Time for Mitosis Unit 9. Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology (4 weeks) Readings • DNA history, structure, replication, protein synthesis • Biotechnology, chapters 16, 17, 19
  5. 5. Lecture Topics • DNA historical background, experimental evidence • DNA structure and replication in detail • Protein synthesis: transcription and translation, control of gene expression (operons) • Biotechnology techniques and ethical issues: cloning, PCR, principles of electrophoresis, RFLP analysis, • Viruses: basic virus structure, viral replication (lytic and lysogenic cycles, retroviruses) • AIDS and other important viruses • Viroids, prions, emerging viruses Labs and Activities • DNA Profiling simulation – “Where’s the CAT” • AP Lab 6: DNA extraction, transformation, and electrophoresis • Simulation of spread of AIDS through the classroom population using phenolthalein and sodium hydroxide solution and body fluid “swapping” • Bacterial Genome Electrophoresis: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/ • Class Discussion – Should employers have the right to discriminate against people based on genetic information that could be provided to them? Should insurance and other health care related companies have the right to screen and discriminate based on the presence or absence of potentially disorder-producing or disease-causing genes in their clients? • DNA Technology Current Events Article Project – independently, students find 4 articles since 2002 relating to DNA technology in the news, must have 1 related to human genetics, wildlife biology, human genome project and DNA fingerprinting (2 weeks) • Bacterial or Virus “Wanted Poster” – student must research and create a poster on a bacterial or viral disease of their choice to present to classmates • Video on viruses Unit 10. Genetics (2-3 weeks) Readings • Genetics, chapters 14 – 15 Lecture Topics • Mendelian genetics, probability, segregation, independent assortment • Non-Mendelian patterns, codominance, pleiotropy, epistasis, polygeny, blood typing, incomplete dominance • Human genetics, pedigree analysis, karyotyping • Sex linkage, autosomal linkage, linkage maps • Drosophila genetics, setting up a cross • Control of gene expression, Lac Operon Labs and Activities • Students solve problems from the text for homework to be reviewed in class • AP Lab 7: Drosophila. Students have the weekend to complete a write-up for this lab • Transgenic Fly Lab: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/ • Web Karyotyping activity – www.biology.arizona.edu • Genetic Disorder Research assignment on inherited diseases. Unit 11. Evolution and Past Diversity of Life (2-3 weeks) Readings • Evolution, chapters 22 – 25 Lecture Topics • History of Evolutionary thought: pre-Darwinian Ideas, Darwin’s theory, voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle • Evidences for evolution • Evolution in action today • Modern synthesis, population genetics, Hardy-Weinberg Law of genetic equilibrium, problems • Natural selection, microevolution events, types of selection, preservation of variation • Speciation, prezygotic and postzygotic mechanisms, allopatric and sympatric speciation • Gradualism/punctuated equilibrium
  6. 6. • Fossil record, extinctions, dating of fossils Labs and Activities • AP Lab 8: Population genetics and evolution • Nucleic Acid Sequences Lab to compare nucleic acid sequences of different organisms • Woolly Worm Lab (teacher-developed; demonstrates mechanism of natural selection using “worms” made out of wool to demonstrate fitness in one’s environment) • Lab – Students read an article about Darwin’s finches, then design, conduct, and write-up an experiment on beak adaptation and fitness using pliers and forceps to simulate different types of beaks to pick up corn kernels and various beans Self Study on Classification – Protists, Fungi and Plant Classification, emphasis on the evolution of these groups throughout time Unit 12. Animal Structure & Function (8 weeks) Readings • All systems (human and animal), chapters 40 – 49 Lecture Topics • Tissue types – Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous • Basic principles of anatomy, with an emphasis on mammalian systems • Nervous system: CNS and PNS, plan of the nervous system, neuron structure, reflex arc, transmission of nerve impulse, sensory reception • Endocrine system: homeostasis, sugar and calcium control, review of sexual hormones • Digestive system structure and function • Excretory system, with emphasis on maintaining homeostasis (Osmoregulation) • Respiratory system • Heart and circulatory system • Lymphatic and Immune systems • Muscular system: voluntary and involuntary muscles, muscular contraction, muscle cell structure • Review of human reproduction and embryology (development), menstrual cycle, fertilization, and formation of the embryo and birth., comparison of developmental stages in echinoderm, frog, chicken, and human, extra embryonic membranes in chicken and human, and their importance Labs and Activities • Lab – Students track food/drink intake for weekend and compare them to the current Food Pyramid to assess if their diet fits the pyramid. Students calculate their BMI. • Lab – students measure tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve and residual volume using a spirometer and compare these values for athletes vs. non-athletes in the classroom or instrument players vs. non-instrument players. • AP Lab 10 – Part A Blood Pressure and Pulse Lab • Cardiology Lab: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/ • Blood typing lab using simulated blood- students use simulated blood samples to test for agglutination when mixed and determine blood types from the results • AIDs lab: and the Immune Response (dry lab) • ELISA Lab: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/ • Neurophysiology Lab: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/ • Animal Behavior Lab: The Effect of Temperature on Cricket Chirping – To substitute for AP Lab 10 Part B (dry lab) • Class discussion – Design an experiment to determine why there is an inverse relationship between body size and metabolism. • Dry lab – Menstrual cycle lab (graphing of LH, FSH, progesterone and estrogen levels and tying them to events in the menstrual cycle • Students watch a video on Chick Embryology. Unit 14. Review (1 – 2 weeks)
  7. 7. • Review for AP Exam • Complete any of the 12 AP Biology labs that remain unfinished Class Activity: The class is divided into 8 groups, with each group corresponding to one of the major themes in the AP Biology course description. Each group is assigned the task of providing one example of how their major theme relates to each of the units covered in the course. Over several days, one person per day from each group is then selected to present their examples. Student Name: ____________________________________________ Please be sure that the following is completed, signed, and returned to your teacher. Please retain a copy of the course syllabus and safety rules, as you are responsible for them for the remainder of the year. I. Syllabus Statement I have read and understand the expectations of the course syllabus for AP Biology. I have retained a copy for future reference, and I will abide by the regulations and comply with the expectations stated within. II. Safety Contract and Information I understand the need for safe conduct and attitudes in the laboratory, and that safe practices are for the protection or myself and others. I have retained a copy for future reference and have read, understand, and agree to follow the guidelines set forth in the list of safety rules. III. Student Information I would like to inform the school that my child has the following physical or medical situations that could affect his/her learning in the lab. (check all that apply) ______ wears contact lenses other information: ____________________________________________ ______ seizures ___________________________________________________________ ______ visual impairments ___________________________________________________________ ______ hearing impairments ___________________________________________________________ ______ allergies (please list) ___________________________________________________________ Parent/guardian Full Name(s): _________________________________________________ Address: _________________________________________________ City, State, ZIP: __________________________________________________ parent email address(s): ___________________________________________________________________ parent email address(s): ___________________________________________________________________ STUDENT email address(s): __________________________________________________________________ Phone #’s: Home: _______________________ Work: _______________________ Cell: ________________________ Home: _______________________ Work: _______________________ Cell: ________________________ Student signature: ________________________________________________ Date: _________
  8. 8. Parent/guardian signature: __________________________________________ Date: _________