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Biology II AP
Course Overview Themes
Biology II AP is a course designed to be the equivalent of a college biology
course usually taken by biology majors. The requirements of this class are
DEMANDING! Please make no mistake, you will be expected to complete college level
work. This includes a considerable amount of time outside of the classroom. Reading
and taking notes from your text is mandatory! To help you stay organized you will be
given an assignment sheet at the beginning of each unit. This assignment sheet will
include the readings and assignments for each day! Success in this course will not occur
unless you are dedicated to complete each assignment to your best ability.
Our class will focus on three overarching topics:
1) Molecules and Cells (25%)
2) Heredity and Evolution (25%)
3) Organisms and Populations (50%)
In studying these topics we will focus on eight major themes.
I. Science as a process
III. Energy Transfer
IV. Continuity and Change
V. Relationship of structure to function
VII. Interdependence in nature
VIII. Science, Technology and society.
These units will be integrated throughout the year with an emphasis on evolution as the
foundation of modern biological study.
Course Overview Laboratories
Biology is not a compilation of concepts that can be memorized! In this class you
will understand science as a process. You will be expected to develop a working
knowledge (conceptual framework) of biology and you will have an opportunity to put
your knowledge into practice through 12 mandatory laboratories as well as several other
class demonstrations and hands on activities. All mandatory labs will be hands on and
require you to collect and analyze data. For each required lab you will be expected to
complete a pre-lab journal and a formal lab write-up. Generally, each lab will require a
day dedicated to pre-lab activities (set-up, methodology, discussion, etc.) and a day after
the completion of the lab for discussion of conclusions and possible lab extensions. Yes,
significant time will be dedicated to laboratories, when adding the 12 formal labs that you
will complete more than 43 days will be spent in these activities (this is over 25% of our
instructional days). Because of time restraints, some labs will require that we stay after
school. When these times arrive, I will make sure to give you adequate time so that you
can arrange your schedule to attend.
Two simple rubric are below to help guide your through both the Lab Journal and
Lab Journal: (Different from Lab Report)
Each student shall complete a lab journal entry for each of the assigned labs. The journal
entry is written by hand in a composition notebook or bound lab notebook (spiral-bound
notebooks are not acceptable).
Lab Journal shall include
1. Title of the Lab
2. Purpose of the Lab/Hypothesis
3. List of Materials and Sketches of Apparatus
4. Description of Procedures. Must be in paragraph form and include a
flow chart of sketches. You must also include a chart identifying the
dependent and independent variables of the lab.
5. Results: may include tables, graphs, answers to questions etc...
6. Conclusions: may confirm of contradict your hypothesis but must
agree with your results.
Lab Report: 25 pts.
1. Title of the Lab (1pt.)
2. Statement of Purpose or Hypothesis:(4 pts) a paragraph that describes the
purpose of the lab and/or proposes a hypothesis
3. Background information: (4pts) In this paragraph you summarize
information pertinent to the lab; this information may be gathered from the lab
packet itself and/or from outside sources. If outside sources are used, they
must be documented.
4. Materials: (1pt) a list of necessary materials and equipment
5. Procedures: (4pts) Described in either paragraph form or in numbered steps’
if done properly, this section would allow the reader to perform the lab
without referring to the original lab packet and to obtain similar results.
6. Data and Observations/Analysis of Results: (5pts) Include all tables,
charts, graphs, sketches, etc. This section also includes the answers to the
7. Conclusions: (5pts) To be valid, conclusions must agree with observations
8. Sources of Error (1pt) identify anything that might have affected your results
Required Text: (provided by school)
Campbell, Neil A., J. Reece, and L. Mitchell, Biology, 8th edition
There are a number of different AP Biology Study Guides and Test Prep Books.
You may find these very helpful as you study and prepare for the AP Test. (I have
several examples to show you)
Students electing to take Biology II AP must have successfully completed both
biology and chemistry. Exceptions may be made if chemistry is being taken concurrently
and with prior approval by the instructor and school counselor.
1. Attend class daily—Prepared
2. Pay careful attention in class. Be an active learner by asking insightful
questions, participating in classroom discussions, and fulfilling all lab
3. With so much information—your note taking ability will play a vital role in
your success. Discussion, videos, labs, lecture, and reading are all appropriate
times to take notes.
4. Pay careful attention to the completion of all reading and homework
5. Prepare for and perform satisfactorily on class exams.
6. Take the AP Biology Exam
Although I will use a variety of teaching strategies throughout the year. This course will
heavily be waited towards laboratory work and class lecture/discussion. Students must
attend class with a foundational knowledge of the daily topic (acquired through reading
assignments) as I will be expecting student participation throughout the lecture. You will
find that I use “PowerPoint” presentations to help lectures be more interactive. However,
these lectures are NOT a time to try to take the bulk of your notes. Expectation is that
you take notes from your nightly reading and then supliment during lecture and
Students will be assessed continually throughout the year. Reading Quizzes, Note
Taking, Unit Exams, Lab Journals and Reports are more traditional forms of assessment.
However, students will be expected to show a deep understanding of the science process
through class discussion, debate, and analysis of Laboratory data. Students will be held
accountable to participate in daily lectures and discussions. Short 5 minute quizzes will
be used to help keep students accountable for assigned reading and homework.. Students
will also be expected to identify how Evolution is used as a foundation for all of the
topics we discuss.
Grades will be determined by dividing total points available by points earned. You are
responsible for keeping up with your own grades. I will give you a grade printout at the
conclusion of each unit. Use your records to “double check” the grades. During units
you may access your grade through Infinite Campus home over the internet. Your grade
will run throughout the year.
Formal Labs cannot be made up! Attendance on Laboratory days is extremely important.
Materials are very expensive and organisms die. If you are absent, you are responsible
for getting data from a classmate (to complete Lab Journals and Reports). You will also
be responsible for understanding the experimental design, procedures, data, analysis, and
functions of all materials used.
You remain responsible for readings and assignment even if you have to miss school.
For example: If you miss Tuesday’s class and return Wednesday you are responsible for
the readings assigned up through Wednesday (see unit assignment sheet for required
readings and assignments). It is important that you do not fall behind!
Science is a process! During this class you will have an opportunity to apply your
knowledge by attending several distance learning outings. These activities are designed
to enhance your ability to apply biological knowledge and critical thinking to
environmental and social concerns.
* Independent Learning Oportunities:
As a Biology 2 AP student you will be expected to complete two activities that would fill
this requirement! This can be in the form of a 10-15 page research project. (Rubric will
be provided) A service project (volunteer work related to our field of study) 8 hours with
documentation and short Write up! Or attending an AP seminar. Dates listed below.
January 9th Bryan Station HS
February 27th Mt. Sterling
May 8th JCTC
So a student may attend and participate in two AP seminars. Or an AP seminar and
write a research paper. etc.
Student Notebook: (Find a nice notebook that will hold a significant amount of paper.)
Section 1 Reading Journal/Notes. As you read your text you will take notes
or create a detailed outline of the information that you are
gathering. This section will become extremely important to you as
you review for tests and the ultimately the AP Exam.
Section 2 Lab Reports 1-12. Please see above rubric to help guide your
creation for this section.
Section 3 Journal Abstracts Each Student will complete 4 journal abstracts
throughout the year. (1 per 9 weeks) Please see below for a scoring
rubric for your journal articles.
Section 4 Assigned Questions Throughout the year I will assign important
questions that will need to be answered. These questions should be
answered completely as you would if you were answering
questions on a test.
Section 5 Student Essays A significant portion of the AP Exam is the essay
section. Throughout the year you will be assigned several
significant essays that you will write.
Practice makes perfect…. We will complete several essays throughout the year. The
following are helpful hints when preparing and writing a quality scientific essay.
Do’s and Don’ts When Writing AP Biology Essays “These recommendations for writing AP Biology essays were
collected from interview with readers of the 1986 AP Biology Exam by R. J. Patterson of Athens Academy.”
1. Read the question 2-3 times.
2. Outline the answer to avoid confusion and disorganization. Thinking ahead helps to avoid scratch outs,
strikes, skipping around and rambling.
3. Define the terms that you use
4. Answer the question parts in the order called for. It is best not to skip around.
5. Write clearly and nearly. Unless the handwriting is very good, small writing is difficult to read.
6. Go into detail that is on the subject and to the point. Answer the question thoroughly.
7. If you cannot remember a word exactly, take a shot at it…get as close as you can. If you don’t have a
name for a concept, describe the concept.
8. Use a black pen.
9. Remember that no detail is too small to be included as long as it is to the point.
10. Carefully label your diagrams(they get no points otherwise) and place them in the text at the
appropriate place… not detached at the end.
11. Bring a watch to the exam so that you can pace yourself. You have four essays to write with about 22
minutes for each answer.
12. Practice outlining essay answers during the year.
13. Understand that the exam is written to be hard… the average will be about 50% correct. It is very
likely that you will not know everything, so relax and write thorough answers.
1. Waste time on background information unless the question calls for historical development or historical
significance. Answer the question.
2. Ramble. Get to the point.
3. Shoot the bull. Say what you know and go on to the next question. You can always come back if you
4. Use pencil or an ink color other than black
5. Panic or get angry because you are unfamiliar with the question. Your probably have read or heard
something about the topic. Be calm and think.
6. Write more than a very few words in the margin
7. Worry about spelling a word exactly of using perfect grammar. While these are desirable for good
writing, they are not part of the standards used by the writer and should only impact your answer if
manuscript errors make if difficult to understand.
8. Scratch out excessively. One or two lines through an unwanted word or phrase is sufficient.
9. Write sloppily. It is easy for a grader to miss and important word when he or she cannot read your
10. Leave questions blank. Make an effort on every question
Journal Abstracts: 25pts.
Journal abstracts will cover a “feature” article from a reputable scientific journal
published within the past 12 months. (Please include the journal with your review) No
weekly news magazines, newspapers, popular magazines, or supermarket tabloids. The
journal abstract should be 1 typed page in length.
• Article is appropriate to the assigned topic (3pts)
• Article is current (3pts)
• Article is of the appropriate length (3pts)
• Abstract is of the appropriate length (6pts)
• Journal article is attached to abstract. (5pts)
• Abstract heading is in the proper form (5pts)
Take Heart, You are not in this alone. As a teacher of an AP course, I too will hold
myself to a high standard. As much time and effort you will put into this course, I too
will need to prepare for class periods and laboratories. I am available after school on
Tuesdays and Thursdays and can make special arrangements to meet with you outside of
class as needed.
It is my goal that after the completion of this course each and every student will be well
prepared to receive college credit through the AP Exam. I look forward to the many
challenges that we will work together to overcome and the successes that we will
achieve. With the right attitude, dedication, and desire we will be successful! Let us strive
to do our very best!
Biology 2 AP Course Outline
1. Molecules and Cells 25%
2. Heredity and Evolution 25%
3. Organisms and Populations 50%
** The following course outline will act as a guide to our year. You will notice that I
do not have pre-determined assignments outlined for Fall, Winter, and Spring Break.
However, Please anticipate an assignment during these breaks. We will use that time
to keep caught up to our outline.
Note: To help assess your daily reading and note taking, I will have short 5 question
quizzes over the nightly reading. These quizzes will take place unannounced and
several times a week. You will receive the quiz as soon as class begins and will have
a strict 5 minute time limit to complete the quiz. If you are late to class or have an
unexcused absence you will receive no points for the quiz.
Unit Topics Covered in Instructional Quizzes/ Time Chapter
Unit Activities/ Exams
Unit 1 - Intro/ 10 themes -AP Lab #2 - Reading 3 Chapters
The -Evolution, Unity, and Enzyme Quizzes weeks 1-6
Chemical Diversity Catalyst - Toothpickase
basis of life -Atoms and Molecules -Organic -Lab #2
(7%) -Water Chemical Journal and
-Organic Molecules Model lab Report
-Free Energy Changes -Unit 1 Exam
-Control of Metabolism Essay #1
Unit 2 - Prokaryotic and -AP Lab #1 - Reading 3 Chapters
Cells (10%) Eukaryotic cells Diffusion and Quizzes weeks 7,8,11,12
-Membranes / Functions Osmosis - Cell
-Cell Transport -Cell Organelle Communication
-Organelles / Functions Project/Present collaborative
- Sub Cellular unity and ations teaching
-Cell Cycle / Regulation -Lab #1
-Mitosis Journal and
- Unit 2 Exam
Unit 3 -Fermentation -AP Lab #4 - Reading 3 Chapters
Cellular -Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Quizzes weeks 9, 10
Metabolism -Photosynthesis -AP Lab #5 -
8% Respiration - Unit 3 Exam
-Video Clip- -Practice
Steps of Essay #2
Photosynthesis - 1st Journal
/Respiration Abstract Due
End of First Semester
Unit 4 -Meiosis / Gametes / -AP Lab #3 - Reading 4 Chapters,
Heredity Variation Mitosis and Quizzes weeks 13,14,
(8%) -Mendelian Genetics Meiosis -Lab #3 & #7 15,16
-Chromosomes / -AP Lab #7 Lab Journals
Mutations Genetics of and Reports
-Inheritance Patterns Organisms - Unit 4 Exam
-DNA / Structure / -Practice
Replication/ Control Essay #3
Unit 5 -RNA Structure and -AP Lab #6 - Reading 3 Chapters
Molecular Function Molecular Quizzes weeks 17,18,
Genetics -Gene Regulation / Biology -Lab #6 Lab 19,20
(9%) Expression -Genetic Journals and
-Mutations Disorder Reports
-Viral Structure and Research - Unit #6
Replication Project Exam
-Nucleic Acid -compare Practice Essay
Technology and contrast cell #4
Unit 6 -Darwinian Revolution -AP Lab #8 - Reading 2 Chapters
Evolutionary -Early Evolution of Life Population Quizzes weeks 22,23,24,
Biology -Evidence of Evolution Genetics -Lab #8 Lab 25
(8%) -Population Genetics -Natural Journals and
-Mechanisms of Selection Lab. Reports
Evolution - Student - Unit 6 Exam
-Speciation debate - 2nd Journal
Phylogeny and Abstract Due
Winter Break Assignment
Unit 7 -Evolutionary Patterns -M&M Chi - Reading 4 Chapters
Diversity of -Survey of the Diversity Sq. Lab Quizzes weeks 26,27,28,
Organism of Life -Animal - Unit 7 29,30,31,
(8%) -Phylogenic Individual Exam 32,33,34
Classification Project -Practice
-Evolutionary Essay #5
Unit 8 Plant Reproduction, Growth, -AP Lab #9 - Reading 4 Chapters
Form and and Development Transpiration Quizzes weeks 35, 36,
Function -Structural, Behavioral, -Plant -Lab #9 Lab 37, 38, 39
(Animal and an Physiological Collection – Journals and
Plants Adaptations Collab group Reports
combined -Response to the field work. - Unit 8
32%) Environment / Hormones Exam
-Transport / Nutrition -Practice
- Reproduction Essay #6
- 3rd Journal
End of Third 9 weeks
Unit 9 -Reproduction, Growth, -AP Lab #10 - Reading 5 Chapters
Animal and Development (ch. 21) Physiology of Quizzes weeks 21,40,41,
Form and -Structural, Behavioral, the -Lab #10 Lab 42,43,44,
Function and Physiological Circulatory Journals and 45,46,47,
(Animal and systems and adaptations System Reports 48,49
Plants -Response to the -AP Lab # 11 - Unit 9 Exam
combined Environment Animal - Practice
32%) - Homeostasis / negative Behavior Essay #7
feedback system -Collab group
-U Of L
Unit 10 -Population Dynamics -AP Lab #12 - Reading 2 Ch.
Ecology -Communities & Dissolved Quizzes weeks 50,51,52,
(10%) Ecosystems Oxygen and -Lab #12 Lab 53,54,55
-Societal and Aquatic Journals and
Environmental Concerns Primary Reports
Productivity - Unit 10
-Student Essay #8
Debate - 4th Journal
AP Review --Systematically go -- Several 2 All
through the major themes Practice weeks Chapters
and concepts of the class. Exams /
AP Exam Review:
3 weeks prior to the AP Exam we will begin to meet as a class on Tuesday’s and
Thursday’s after school. During this time we will complete practice exams, analyze
practice essays, and discuss necessary material. This time will also provide for an
opportunity for us to discuss individual needs in preparing for the exam.
Overview of Laboratory Goals
** The following is taken from College Board AP Biology Laboratory objectives
Laboratory 1 Diffusion and Osmosis (3 days)
Overview: In this laboratory you will investigate the process of diffusion and osmosis in
a model of a membrane system. You also will investigate the effect of solute
concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues.
Laboratory 2 Enzymes Catalysis (4 days)
Overview: In this laboratory you will measure the amount of product generated and then
calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen gas by
the enzyme catalase.
Laboratory 3 Mitosis and Meiosis (4 days)
Overview A: Exercise 3A is a study of mitosis. You will use prepared slides of onion
root tips to study plant mitosis and to calculate the relative duration of the phases of
mitosis in the meristem of root tissue. Prepared slides of the whitefish blastula will be
used to study mitosis in animal cells and to compare animal mitosis and plant mitosis.
Overview B: Exercise 3B is a study of meiosis. You will simulate the stages of meiosis
by using chromosome models. You will study the crossing over and recombination that
occurs during meiosis. You will observe the arrangements of ascopores in the asci froma
cross between wild type and mutants for tan spore coat color in the fungus Sodaria
fimicola. These arrangements will be used to estimate the percentage of crossing over
that occurs between the centromere and the gene that controls that tan spore color.
Laboratory 4 Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis (3 days)
Overview: In this laboratory you will separate plant pigments using chromatography.
You also will measure the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts. The
measurement technique involves the reduction of the dye, DPIP. The transfer of
electrons during the light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis reduces DPIP and
changes its color from blue to colorless.
Laboratory 5 Cell Respiration (3days)
Overview: Seeds are living but dormant. When conditions necessary to begin growth are
achieved, germination occurs, cellular reactions are accelerated, and the rate of
respiration greatly increases. In this laboratory you will measure oxygen consumption
during respiration as the change in gas volume in respirometers containing either
germinating or non-germinating peas. In addition, you will measure the respiration of
these peas at two different temperatures.
Laboratory 6 Molecular Biology (4 days)
Overview: In this laboratory, you will investigate some basic principles of genetic
engineering. Plasmids containing specific fragments of foreign DNA will be used to
transform Escherichia coli cells, conferring antibiotic (ampicillin) resistance. Restriction
enzyme digests of phage lambda DNA also will be used to demonstrate techniques for
separating and identifying DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis.
Laboratory 7 Genetics of Organisms (7 days)
Overview: In this laboratory, you will use fruit flies to complete genetic gcrosses. You
will learn how to collect and manipulate fruit flies, collect data from F1 and F2
generations, and analyze the results from a monohybrid, dihybrid, or sex-linked cross.
Laboratory 8 Population Genetics and Evolution (3 days)
Overview: In this activity, you will learn about the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic
equilibrium and study the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequency
by using your class as a sample population.
Laboratory 9 Transpiration (3 days)
Overview: In this laboratory, you will apply what you learned about water potential from
Laboratory 1 (Diffusion and Osmosis) to the movement of water within the plant. You
will measure transpiration under different laboratory conditions. You also will study the
organization of the plant stem and leaf as it relates to these processes by observing
sections of tissue.
Laboratory 10 Physiology of the Circulatory System (3 days)
Overview: In Exercise 10A, you will learn how to measure blood pressure. In Exercise
10B, you will measure pulse rate under different physiological conditions: standing,
reclining, after the baroreceptor reflex, and during and immediately after exercise. The
blood pressure and pulse rate will be analyzed and related to a relative fitness index. In
Exercise 10C, you will measure the effect of temperature on the heart rate of the water
flea, Daphnia magna.
Laboratory 11 Animal Behavior (3 days)
Overview: In this laboratory, you will observe the behavior of an insect and design an
experiment to investigate its responses to environmental variables. You also will observe
and investigate mating behavior.
Laboratory 12 Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity (3 days)
Overview: In Exercise 12A, you will measure and analyze the dissolved oxygen
concentration in water samples at varying temperatures. In Exercise 12B, you will
measure and analyze the primary productivity of natural waters of laboratory cultures as a
function of light intensity.
College Board Topics Correlated to AP Biology’s 8 Major Themes
I. Molecules II. Hereditary & III. Organisms &
& Cells Evolution Populations
*Cell Energetics *Evolutionary Biology *Ecology
*Cells *Molecular Genetics *Structure/Function of
*Chemistry of Life *Heredity Plants and Animals
I. Science as a Process *Enzyme *Protein Synthesis *Relationship of
Structure & *DNA & Chromosome Structure to function in
Function Inheritance Organ systems. Inquiry.
II. Evolution *Functional *Chromosomal & Gene *Natural Selection
*Eukaryotic & *Bacterial Resistance
Prokaryotic Evolution *Natural Selection
III. Energy Transfer *ATP Phosphorlation *Methylation *ETC in Photosynthesis
*ETC *Cellular Respiration
IV. Continuity & *Meiosis *Protein Synthesis *Plant And Animal
Change Relationships *Mitosis *Adaptations Project/ Change and
V. Structure & Function *Enzyme to substrate *Double Helix * Plant and Animal
Anatomy Structure and
Relation to Structure.
VI. Regulation *Transpiration Lab *Lac Operon *Homeostasis Lab #10,
*Metabolic Pathway *Cancer Lab#11
*Lactose Intolerance *Feedback Inhibition
VII. *Cellular Respiration *Plant and Animal *Plant and Animal
*Photosynthesis dependence on the Dependence on the
Environmental Changes. Environmental Changes.
Genetic Changes. *Symbiotic
VIII. *Cloning *Human Genome *Environmental
*Stem Cell Research Project Research Project.
*Genetic Testing *Global Warming