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AP Biology


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  • 1. Biology II AP Course Agenda 2009-2010 Course Overview Themes Biology II AP is a course designed to be the equivalent of a college biology course usually taken by biology majors. The requirements of this class are DEMANDING! Please make no mistake, you will be expected to complete college level work. This includes a considerable amount of time outside of the classroom. Reading and taking notes from your text is mandatory! To help you stay organized you will be given an assignment sheet at the beginning of each unit. This assignment sheet will include the readings and assignments for each day! Success in this course will not occur unless you are dedicated to complete each assignment to your best ability. Our class will focus on three overarching topics: 1) Molecules and Cells (25%) 2) Heredity and Evolution (25%) 3) Organisms and Populations (50%) In studying these topics we will focus on eight major themes. I. Science as a process II. Evolution III. Energy Transfer IV. Continuity and Change V. Relationship of structure to function VI. Regulation VII. Interdependence in nature VIII. Science, Technology and society. These units will be integrated throughout the year with an emphasis on evolution as the foundation of modern biological study. Course Overview Laboratories Biology is not a compilation of concepts that can be memorized! In this class you will understand science as a process. You will be expected to develop a working knowledge (conceptual framework) of biology and you will have an opportunity to put your knowledge into practice through 12 mandatory laboratories as well as several other class demonstrations and hands on activities. All mandatory labs will be hands on and require you to collect and analyze data. For each required lab you will be expected to complete a pre-lab journal and a formal lab write-up. Generally, each lab will require a day dedicated to pre-lab activities (set-up, methodology, discussion, etc.) and a day after the completion of the lab for discussion of conclusions and possible lab extensions. Yes, significant time will be dedicated to laboratories, when adding the 12 formal labs that you will complete more than 43 days will be spent in these activities (this is over 25% of our instructional days). Because of time restraints, some labs will require that we stay after school. When these times arrive, I will make sure to give you adequate time so that you can arrange your schedule to attend. 1
  • 2. Two simple rubric are below to help guide your through both the Lab Journal and Lab Report. Lab Journal: (Different from Lab Report) Each student shall complete a lab journal entry for each of the assigned labs. The journal entry is written by hand in a composition notebook or bound lab notebook (spiral-bound notebooks are not acceptable). Lab Journal shall include 1. Title of the Lab 2. Purpose of the Lab/Hypothesis 3. List of Materials and Sketches of Apparatus 4. Description of Procedures. Must be in paragraph form and include a flow chart of sketches. You must also include a chart identifying the dependent and independent variables of the lab. 5. Results: may include tables, graphs, answers to questions etc... 6. Conclusions: may confirm of contradict your hypothesis but must agree with your results. Lab Report: 25 pts. 1. Title of the Lab (1pt.) 2. Statement of Purpose or Hypothesis:(4 pts) a paragraph that describes the purpose of the lab and/or proposes a hypothesis 3. Background information: (4pts) In this paragraph you summarize information pertinent to the lab; this information may be gathered from the lab packet itself and/or from outside sources. If outside sources are used, they must be documented. 4. Materials: (1pt) a list of necessary materials and equipment 5. Procedures: (4pts) Described in either paragraph form or in numbered steps’ if done properly, this section would allow the reader to perform the lab without referring to the original lab packet and to obtain similar results. 6. Data and Observations/Analysis of Results: (5pts) Include all tables, charts, graphs, sketches, etc. This section also includes the answers to the questions. 7. Conclusions: (5pts) To be valid, conclusions must agree with observations and analyses 8. Sources of Error (1pt) identify anything that might have affected your results Required Text: (provided by school) Campbell, Neil A., J. Reece, and L. Mitchell, Biology, 8th edition Suggested Text: There are a number of different AP Biology Study Guides and Test Prep Books. You may find these very helpful as you study and prepare for the AP Test. (I have several examples to show you) 2
  • 3. Course Prerequisites: Students electing to take Biology II AP must have successfully completed both biology and chemistry. Exceptions may be made if chemistry is being taken concurrently and with prior approval by the instructor and school counselor. Class Requirements: 1. Attend class daily—Prepared 2. Pay careful attention in class. Be an active learner by asking insightful questions, participating in classroom discussions, and fulfilling all lab requirements. 3. With so much information—your note taking ability will play a vital role in your success. Discussion, videos, labs, lecture, and reading are all appropriate times to take notes. 4. Pay careful attention to the completion of all reading and homework assignments. 5. Prepare for and perform satisfactorily on class exams. 6. Take the AP Biology Exam Teaching Strategies: Although I will use a variety of teaching strategies throughout the year. This course will heavily be waited towards laboratory work and class lecture/discussion. Students must attend class with a foundational knowledge of the daily topic (acquired through reading assignments) as I will be expecting student participation throughout the lecture. You will find that I use “PowerPoint” presentations to help lectures be more interactive. However, these lectures are NOT a time to try to take the bulk of your notes. Expectation is that you take notes from your nightly reading and then supliment during lecture and discussion. Student Assessments: Students will be assessed continually throughout the year. Reading Quizzes, Note Taking, Unit Exams, Lab Journals and Reports are more traditional forms of assessment. However, students will be expected to show a deep understanding of the science process through class discussion, debate, and analysis of Laboratory data. Students will be held accountable to participate in daily lectures and discussions. Short 5 minute quizzes will be used to help keep students accountable for assigned reading and homework.. Students will also be expected to identify how Evolution is used as a foundation for all of the topics we discuss. Grades: Grades will be determined by dividing total points available by points earned. You are responsible for keeping up with your own grades. I will give you a grade printout at the conclusion of each unit. Use your records to “double check” the grades. During units you may access your grade through Infinite Campus home over the internet. Your grade will run throughout the year. 3
  • 4. Laboratories: Formal Labs cannot be made up! Attendance on Laboratory days is extremely important. Materials are very expensive and organisms die. If you are absent, you are responsible for getting data from a classmate (to complete Lab Journals and Reports). You will also be responsible for understanding the experimental design, procedures, data, analysis, and functions of all materials used. Attendance: You remain responsible for readings and assignment even if you have to miss school. For example: If you miss Tuesday’s class and return Wednesday you are responsible for the readings assigned up through Wednesday (see unit assignment sheet for required readings and assignments). It is important that you do not fall behind! Distance Learning: Science is a process! During this class you will have an opportunity to apply your knowledge by attending several distance learning outings. These activities are designed to enhance your ability to apply biological knowledge and critical thinking to environmental and social concerns. * Independent Learning Oportunities: As a Biology 2 AP student you will be expected to complete two activities that would fill this requirement! This can be in the form of a 10-15 page research project. (Rubric will be provided) A service project (volunteer work related to our field of study) 8 hours with documentation and short Write up! Or attending an AP seminar. Dates listed below. AP Seminars January 9th Bryan Station HS February 27th Mt. Sterling May 8th JCTC So a student may attend and participate in two AP seminars. Or an AP seminar and write a research paper. etc. Student Notebook: (Find a nice notebook that will hold a significant amount of paper.) Section 1 Reading Journal/Notes. As you read your text you will take notes or create a detailed outline of the information that you are gathering. This section will become extremely important to you as you review for tests and the ultimately the AP Exam. Section 2 Lab Reports 1-12. Please see above rubric to help guide your creation for this section. Section 3 Journal Abstracts Each Student will complete 4 journal abstracts throughout the year. (1 per 9 weeks) Please see below for a scoring rubric for your journal articles. 4
  • 5. Section 4 Assigned Questions Throughout the year I will assign important questions that will need to be answered. These questions should be answered completely as you would if you were answering questions on a test. Section 5 Student Essays A significant portion of the AP Exam is the essay section. Throughout the year you will be assigned several significant essays that you will write. Essays: Practice makes perfect…. We will complete several essays throughout the year. The following are helpful hints when preparing and writing a quality scientific essay. Do’s and Don’ts When Writing AP Biology Essays “These recommendations for writing AP Biology essays were collected from interview with readers of the 1986 AP Biology Exam by R. J. Patterson of Athens Academy.” Do 1. Read the question 2-3 times. 2. Outline the answer to avoid confusion and disorganization. Thinking ahead helps to avoid scratch outs, strikes, skipping around and rambling. 3. Define the terms that you use 4. Answer the question parts in the order called for. It is best not to skip around. 5. Write clearly and nearly. Unless the handwriting is very good, small writing is difficult to read. 6. Go into detail that is on the subject and to the point. Answer the question thoroughly. 7. If you cannot remember a word exactly, take a shot at it…get as close as you can. If you don’t have a name for a concept, describe the concept. 8. Use a black pen. 9. Remember that no detail is too small to be included as long as it is to the point. 10. Carefully label your diagrams(they get no points otherwise) and place them in the text at the appropriate place… not detached at the end. 11. Bring a watch to the exam so that you can pace yourself. You have four essays to write with about 22 minutes for each answer. 12. Practice outlining essay answers during the year. 13. Understand that the exam is written to be hard… the average will be about 50% correct. It is very likely that you will not know everything, so relax and write thorough answers. Don’t 1. Waste time on background information unless the question calls for historical development or historical significance. Answer the question. 2. Ramble. Get to the point. 3. Shoot the bull. Say what you know and go on to the next question. You can always come back if you remember something. 4. Use pencil or an ink color other than black 5. Panic or get angry because you are unfamiliar with the question. Your probably have read or heard something about the topic. Be calm and think. 6. Write more than a very few words in the margin 7. Worry about spelling a word exactly of using perfect grammar. While these are desirable for good writing, they are not part of the standards used by the writer and should only impact your answer if manuscript errors make if difficult to understand. 8. Scratch out excessively. One or two lines through an unwanted word or phrase is sufficient. 9. Write sloppily. It is easy for a grader to miss and important word when he or she cannot read your handwriting. 10. Leave questions blank. Make an effort on every question 5
  • 6. Journal Abstracts: 25pts. Journal abstracts will cover a “feature” article from a reputable scientific journal published within the past 12 months. (Please include the journal with your review) No weekly news magazines, newspapers, popular magazines, or supermarket tabloids. The journal abstract should be 1 typed page in length. • Article is appropriate to the assigned topic (3pts) • Article is current (3pts) • Article is of the appropriate length (3pts) • Abstract is of the appropriate length (6pts) • Journal article is attached to abstract. (5pts) • Abstract heading is in the proper form (5pts) Take Heart, You are not in this alone. As a teacher of an AP course, I too will hold myself to a high standard. As much time and effort you will put into this course, I too will need to prepare for class periods and laboratories. I am available after school on Tuesdays and Thursdays and can make special arrangements to meet with you outside of class as needed. It is my goal that after the completion of this course each and every student will be well prepared to receive college credit through the AP Exam. I look forward to the many challenges that we will work together to overcome and the successes that we will achieve. With the right attitude, dedication, and desire we will be successful! Let us strive to do our very best! Biology 2 AP Course Outline 1. Molecules and Cells 25% 2. Heredity and Evolution 25% 3. Organisms and Populations 50% ** The following course outline will act as a guide to our year. You will notice that I do not have pre-determined assignments outlined for Fall, Winter, and Spring Break. However, Please anticipate an assignment during these breaks. We will use that time to keep caught up to our outline. Note: To help assess your daily reading and note taking, I will have short 5 question quizzes over the nightly reading. These quizzes will take place unannounced and several times a week. You will receive the quiz as soon as class begins and will have a strict 5 minute time limit to complete the quiz. If you are late to class or have an unexcused absence you will receive no points for the quiz. 6
  • 7. Unit Topics Covered in Instructional Quizzes/ Time Chapter Unit Activities/ Exams Lab Unit 1 - Intro/ 10 themes -AP Lab #2 - Reading 3 Chapters The -Evolution, Unity, and Enzyme Quizzes weeks 1-6 Chemical Diversity Catalyst - Toothpickase basis of life -Atoms and Molecules -Organic -Lab #2 (7%) -Water Chemical Journal and -Organic Molecules Model lab Report -Free Energy Changes -Unit 1 Exam -Enzymes -Practice -Control of Metabolism Essay #1 Unit 2 - Prokaryotic and -AP Lab #1 - Reading 3 Chapters Cells (10%) Eukaryotic cells Diffusion and Quizzes weeks 7,8,11,12 -Membranes / Functions Osmosis - Cell -Cell Transport -Cell Organelle Communication -Organelles / Functions Project/Present collaborative - Sub Cellular unity and ations teaching communication project. -Cell Cycle / Regulation -Lab #1 -Mitosis Journal and report - Unit 2 Exam Unit 3 -Fermentation -AP Lab #4 - Reading 3 Chapters Cellular -Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Quizzes weeks 9, 10 Metabolism -Photosynthesis -AP Lab #5 - 8% Respiration - Unit 3 Exam -Video Clip- -Practice Steps of Essay #2 Photosynthesis - 1st Journal /Respiration Abstract Due End of First Semester Unit 4 -Meiosis / Gametes / -AP Lab #3 - Reading 4 Chapters, Heredity Variation Mitosis and Quizzes weeks 13,14, (8%) -Mendelian Genetics Meiosis -Lab #3 & #7 15,16 -Chromosomes / -AP Lab #7 Lab Journals Mutations Genetics of and Reports -Inheritance Patterns Organisms - Unit 4 Exam -DNA / Structure / -Practice Replication/ Control Essay #3 Unit 5 -RNA Structure and -AP Lab #6 - Reading 3 Chapters Molecular Function Molecular Quizzes weeks 17,18, Genetics -Gene Regulation / Biology -Lab #6 Lab 19,20 (9%) Expression -Genetic Journals and -Mutations Disorder Reports -Viral Structure and Research - Unit #6 Replication Project Exam -Nucleic Acid -compare Practice Essay Technology and contrast cell #4 Applications cycle 7
  • 8. Unit 6 -Darwinian Revolution -AP Lab #8 - Reading 2 Chapters Evolutionary -Early Evolution of Life Population Quizzes weeks 22,23,24, Biology -Evidence of Evolution Genetics -Lab #8 Lab 25 (8%) -Population Genetics -Natural Journals and -Mechanisms of Selection Lab. Reports Evolution - Student - Unit 6 Exam -Speciation debate - 2nd Journal Phylogeny and Abstract Due Systematics Winter Break Assignment Unit 7 -Evolutionary Patterns -M&M Chi - Reading 4 Chapters Diversity of -Survey of the Diversity Sq. Lab Quizzes weeks 26,27,28, Organism of Life -Animal - Unit 7 29,30,31, (8%) -Phylogenic Individual Exam 32,33,34 Classification Project -Practice -Evolutionary Essay #5 Relationships Unit 8 Plant Reproduction, Growth, -AP Lab #9 - Reading 4 Chapters Form and and Development Transpiration Quizzes weeks 35, 36, Function -Structural, Behavioral, -Plant -Lab #9 Lab 37, 38, 39 (Animal and an Physiological Collection – Journals and Plants Adaptations Collab group Reports combined -Response to the field work. - Unit 8 32%) Environment / Hormones Exam -Transport / Nutrition -Practice - Reproduction Essay #6 - 3rd Journal Abstract Due End of Third 9 weeks Unit 9 -Reproduction, Growth, -AP Lab #10 - Reading 5 Chapters Animal and Development (ch. 21) Physiology of Quizzes weeks 21,40,41, Form and -Structural, Behavioral, the -Lab #10 Lab 42,43,44, Function and Physiological Circulatory Journals and 45,46,47, (Animal and systems and adaptations System Reports 48,49 Plants -Response to the -AP Lab # 11 - Unit 9 Exam combined Environment Animal - Practice 32%) - Homeostasis / negative Behavior Essay #7 feedback system -Collab group field work- insect collection -U Of L Medical Center-Field Trip. 8
  • 9. Unit 10 -Population Dynamics -AP Lab #12 - Reading 2 Ch. Ecology -Communities & Dissolved Quizzes weeks 50,51,52, (10%) Ecosystems Oxygen and -Lab #12 Lab 53,54,55 -Societal and Aquatic Journals and Environmental Concerns Primary Reports Productivity - Unit 10 -Guess Exam speaker -Practice -Student Essay #8 Debate - 4th Journal Abstract Due AP Review --Systematically go -- Several 2 All through the major themes Practice weeks Chapters and concepts of the class. Exams / Analysis of Student Essay work. AP Exam Review: 3 weeks prior to the AP Exam we will begin to meet as a class on Tuesday’s and Thursday’s after school. During this time we will complete practice exams, analyze practice essays, and discuss necessary material. This time will also provide for an opportunity for us to discuss individual needs in preparing for the exam. Overview of Laboratory Goals ** The following is taken from College Board AP Biology Laboratory objectives Laboratory 1 Diffusion and Osmosis (3 days) Overview: In this laboratory you will investigate the process of diffusion and osmosis in a model of a membrane system. You also will investigate the effect of solute concentration on water potential as it relates to living plant tissues. Laboratory 2 Enzymes Catalysis (4 days) Overview: In this laboratory you will measure the amount of product generated and then calculate the rate of conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen gas by the enzyme catalase. Laboratory 3 Mitosis and Meiosis (4 days) Overview A: Exercise 3A is a study of mitosis. You will use prepared slides of onion root tips to study plant mitosis and to calculate the relative duration of the phases of mitosis in the meristem of root tissue. Prepared slides of the whitefish blastula will be used to study mitosis in animal cells and to compare animal mitosis and plant mitosis. Overview B: Exercise 3B is a study of meiosis. You will simulate the stages of meiosis by using chromosome models. You will study the crossing over and recombination that occurs during meiosis. You will observe the arrangements of ascopores in the asci froma cross between wild type and mutants for tan spore coat color in the fungus Sodaria 9
  • 10. fimicola. These arrangements will be used to estimate the percentage of crossing over that occurs between the centromere and the gene that controls that tan spore color. Laboratory 4 Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis (3 days) Overview: In this laboratory you will separate plant pigments using chromatography. You also will measure the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts. The measurement technique involves the reduction of the dye, DPIP. The transfer of electrons during the light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis reduces DPIP and changes its color from blue to colorless. Laboratory 5 Cell Respiration (3days) Overview: Seeds are living but dormant. When conditions necessary to begin growth are achieved, germination occurs, cellular reactions are accelerated, and the rate of respiration greatly increases. In this laboratory you will measure oxygen consumption during respiration as the change in gas volume in respirometers containing either germinating or non-germinating peas. In addition, you will measure the respiration of these peas at two different temperatures. Laboratory 6 Molecular Biology (4 days) Overview: In this laboratory, you will investigate some basic principles of genetic engineering. Plasmids containing specific fragments of foreign DNA will be used to transform Escherichia coli cells, conferring antibiotic (ampicillin) resistance. Restriction enzyme digests of phage lambda DNA also will be used to demonstrate techniques for separating and identifying DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis. Laboratory 7 Genetics of Organisms (7 days) Overview: In this laboratory, you will use fruit flies to complete genetic gcrosses. You will learn how to collect and manipulate fruit flies, collect data from F1 and F2 generations, and analyze the results from a monohybrid, dihybrid, or sex-linked cross. Laboratory 8 Population Genetics and Evolution (3 days) Overview: In this activity, you will learn about the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium and study the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequency by using your class as a sample population. Laboratory 9 Transpiration (3 days) Overview: In this laboratory, you will apply what you learned about water potential from Laboratory 1 (Diffusion and Osmosis) to the movement of water within the plant. You will measure transpiration under different laboratory conditions. You also will study the organization of the plant stem and leaf as it relates to these processes by observing sections of tissue. Laboratory 10 Physiology of the Circulatory System (3 days) 10
  • 11. Overview: In Exercise 10A, you will learn how to measure blood pressure. In Exercise 10B, you will measure pulse rate under different physiological conditions: standing, reclining, after the baroreceptor reflex, and during and immediately after exercise. The blood pressure and pulse rate will be analyzed and related to a relative fitness index. In Exercise 10C, you will measure the effect of temperature on the heart rate of the water flea, Daphnia magna. Laboratory 11 Animal Behavior (3 days) Overview: In this laboratory, you will observe the behavior of an insect and design an experiment to investigate its responses to environmental variables. You also will observe and investigate mating behavior. Laboratory 12 Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity (3 days) Overview: In Exercise 12A, you will measure and analyze the dissolved oxygen concentration in water samples at varying temperatures. In Exercise 12B, you will measure and analyze the primary productivity of natural waters of laboratory cultures as a function of light intensity. College Board Topics Correlated to AP Biology’s 8 Major Themes I. Molecules II. Hereditary & III. Organisms & & Cells Evolution Populations *Cell Energetics *Evolutionary Biology *Ecology *Cells *Molecular Genetics *Structure/Function of *Chemistry of Life *Heredity Plants and Animals I. Science as a Process *Enzyme *Protein Synthesis *Relationship of Structure & *DNA & Chromosome Structure to function in Function Inheritance Organ systems. Inquiry. II. Evolution *Functional *Chromosomal & Gene *Natural Selection Groups Mutations *Eukaryotic & *Bacterial Resistance Prokaryotic Evolution *Natural Selection III. Energy Transfer *ATP Phosphorlation *Methylation *ETC in Photosynthesis *ETC *Cellular Respiration IV. Continuity & *Meiosis *Protein Synthesis *Plant And Animal Change Relationships *Mitosis *Adaptations Project/ Change and Adaptations V. Structure & Function *Enzyme to substrate *Double Helix * Plant and Animal Anatomy Structure and Relation to Structure. VI. Regulation *Transpiration Lab *Lac Operon *Homeostasis Lab #10, *Metabolic Pathway *Cancer Lab#11 *Lactose Intolerance *Feedback Inhibition VII. *Cellular Respiration *Plant and Animal *Plant and Animal *Photosynthesis dependence on the Dependence on the Environmental Changes. Environmental Changes. Genetic Changes. *Symbiotic Relationships VIII. *Cloning *Human Genome *Environmental *Stem Cell Research Project Research Project. *Genetic Testing *Global Warming 11
  • 12. *Genetic Engineering *Conservation 12