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AP Biology 2008_09 handbook.doc.doc.doc

  1. 1. AP Biology Student Handbook 2008-2009 Mrs. Angela Caylor
  2. 2. Preface to Students and Parents: Welcome to AP Biology! This handbook will be very important to you as we proceed throughout this school year. After reading EVERY word, you should place this handbook into your three-ring binder to be kept with all of your AP Biology materials. AP Biology is designed to prepare you to take the AP Biology in May. Preparing you for the test is my main objective, and I have designed our curriculum to maximize our time together in order to meet that goal. AP Biology is a college course taught in the high school setting, so you will exposed to the curriculum at that level. Therefore I expect for you to do the following: • Perform your work for this class every day • Complete your assignments on time • Come to me with questions for clarification and help when you need it You can expect the following from me: • To give assignments that help you to understand and remember key concepts • Guide you through difficult concepts with examples, laboratory experiments or demonstrations, activities and other learning adventures • Provide access to scientific research • To fully prepare you to take and pass the AP Biology exam which will give you one year of college laboratory science • Help you to interpret your textbook, draw connections to other areas of study and integrate our material into one cohesive year of study Pay special attention to the section labeled “Syllabus”. This contains our target test dates, labs and many other expectations. Weekly assignment reminders will be posted in the classroom, but you should be aware of what is going on and what is due. A 25% late penalty will apply to each assignment that is turned in after the posted due date. After two class periods, late work may not be turned in for credit. You may also obtain class information from my website on http://www.educateinteractive.org When you have read through this handbook, please show it to your parents. After they have read through the information, have them sign the student-parent contract. The parental signature will be one of your first grades of the semester.
  3. 3. Policies in Mrs. Caylor’s Classroom 1. No tardies: We have so much information to cover! Unexcused tardies negatively affect your participation in class since we will begin at the bell. Have pencils sharpened and be in your seat and ready to work when class starts. 2. No eating or drinking will be allowed. This is especially important in science classrooms where you may be exposed to chemicals through contact with surfaces. 3. You will receive four bathroom tickets per semester. Present one of these tickets to me to receive the bathroom pass. If you do not use all of your tickets, you may turn them in at the end of the semester for a few extra points. 4. Follow correct lab safety protocols at ALL TIMES. 5. Bring the proper materials: (textbook, notebook, paper, pen, pencil) to class each day. You will not be allowed to retrieve materials from your locket, car or anywhere else once class has started. Arriving to class unprepared will negatively affect your grade! 6. Pay respectful attention to what is going on in the classroom at all times. 7. Make-up exams will be taken on the day of your return to class. 8. Missed work is your responsibility. An excused absence does not excuse you for information learned that day. If you are to participate in a school sponsored activity or warranted absence, you must present an excused admit. Makeup work packets are available in the classroom. 9. Lab reports and major projects are due on their due dates, even if you are ill on that day. If you are too sick to come to school on the day a major project or lab report is due, you must make arrangements to have someone turn it in to Mrs. Caylor’s mailbox before 3:45 on the due date. If possible, you may email your project/report to Mrs. Caylor at angela.caylor@cobbk12.org In the past, the number of “ill” students has increased dramatically on due dates of major projects and test dates. It is not fair to the majority of students who are in school on the due dates for Mrs. Caylor to accept late reports/projects from students who were “ill”. Regular homework assignments may be turned in on your first day back in class, but no later than that. 10. Plagiarism and Cheating will not be tolerated and will earn a “0” on that particular graded assignment. The work you present must be your own in order for me to judge your mastery of the material. Copying another student’s work or turning in homework or lab reports with identical materials (with the exception of lab data if you were in the same lab group) will be considered cheating. Be certain that you do noting during testing that would bring your integrity into question. When writing ANYTHING (homework, papers, abstracts, etc.) be sure to give credit to the author of your source(s) and include all bibliographical information. Contact Info: angela.caylor@cobbk12.org Website: http://www.educateinteractive.org
  4. 4. AP Biology General Course Description This is a college biology course taught in the high school. The course covers a large amount of material and this can make heavy demands on students. In addition to a thorough reading of a college level Biology textbook, the students will write several papers summarizing scientific articles, and perform write-ups of laboratory experiences. The College Board requires 12 specific labs to be performed during the course of the school year as well. It is helpful to remember that this course provides students with an opportunity to develop a conceptual framework for modern biology emphasizing the following: that science is a process, not an accumulation of facts, that evolution is the foundation of modern biological models, integration of the general topics of biology into the eight major themes and the application of biological knowledge to environmental and social concerns. The textbook used is Biology, 8th Edition, by Neil Campbell. Student study guides for this text are available for student use. All students are encouraged, but not required to take the AP test in the spring. Since the exam scores are not returned until July, they are not a part of the overall grade. In order to reach my goal of providing the best learning environment for each of my students, I will be implementing some of the strategies found in a differentiated classroom. Our classroom will include different grouping strategies, variable pacing and the use of more open-ended activities. My goal is to promote creativity and to involve the students in high levels of critical thinking. Grading Policies Each student’s semester grade will be based on the total number of points that he/she has accumulated relative to the possible points that could have been earned. Points may be earned for the following: unit tests, supplemental readings, lab activities, lab write-ups, homework quizzes, etc. If a student fails a major test, he/she may retake the test over the same material with the exception of the essay portion of the test. The final test grade will be the average of the two tests with the highest possible grade being a 70%. Test corrections may also be completed for each multiple choice section of tests. It cannot be stressed enough how important it is for each student to MASTER material as it is presented. Both of these strategies give the student an excellent opportunity to improve an area of weakness. Grading percentages will be: Summative assessments: 50% Formative assessments: 40 % Mastery Test 10%
  5. 5. AP Topic Outline and Syllabus In order to bring together prevailing themes, each unit of study incorporates the eight themes of Biology as an ongoing process. We stress that modern biology is a process rather than a set of facts to memorize. I. Molecules and Cells (25% of course-22 days) A. Chemistry of Life (August 14-28) • Water • Organic molecules in organisms • Structure and function of functional groups B. Cells (September 2-18) • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Membrane structure and function • Subcellular organization • AP Lab: Diffusion and Osmosis C. Cellular Energetics (September 22-October 10) • Coupled reactions • Free-energy changes • Enzyme functioning • Fermentation and cellular respiration • Photosynthesis • AP Labs: Enzyme Catalysis, Plant pigments and Photsynthesis, Cellular Respiration II. Heredity and Evolution (25% of course- 22 days) A. Heredity (October 14-30) • Meiosis and gametogenesis • Eukaryotic chromosomes • Inheritance patterns • AP Labs: Mitosis & Meiosis, Inheritance Patterns, Fruit fly genetics B. Molecular Genetics (November 3-December 11) • RNA and DNA structure and function • Gene Regulation • Mutations • Viral structure and replication • Nucleic acid technology and applications • AP Labs: DNA labs (electrophoresis, colony transformation) C. Evolutionary Biology (December 15-January 15) • Early evolution of life • Evidence for evolution • Mechanisms of evolution • AP lab: Population Genetics
  6. 6. III. Organisms and Populations (50% of course-44 days) A. Diversity of Organisms (December 15-January 20) • Evolutionary patterns • Survey of the diversity of life • Phylogenetic classification B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (January 26-March 26) • Reproduction, growth and development • Structural, physiological and behavioral adaptations • Response to the environment • AP labs: Circulation/Physiology, Animal Behavior C. Ecology (March 30- April 30) • Population and community ecology • Ecosystem and biome ecology • Ecological succession • Biodiversity and the effects of human populations • AP lab: Dissolved Oxygen AP Biology Reading Assignments: Make a concept map using the following information Chapter Center Word Terms to Include 4 Carbon Organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, isomer, functional groups, sulfhydryl group, amino group, phosphate group, carbonyl group, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxyl 5 Macromolecule Polymer, monomer, condensation reaction, dehydration reaction, hydrolysis, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, nucleotide, polysaccharide, gene, nucleic acid, pyrimidine, lipids, fat, fatty acid, saturated fat, unsaturated fatty acid, phospholipids, denaturation, purine, protein, polypeptide, amino acid, peptide bond, cellulose, cholesterol 8 Metabolism Catabolic process, anabolic process, catalyst, enzyme, metabolism, potential energy, activation energy, exergonic reaction, endergonic reaction, active site, substrate, induced fit, cofactor, coenzyme, allosteric site 6 Cell Cytoskeleton, organelle, extracellular matrix, cell fractionation, prokaryotic cell, eukaryotic cell, chromosome, cytoplasm, flagella, plasma membrane, tonoplast, chromatin, cell wall, central vacuole, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, plastic, Golgi apparatus, Lysosome, nucleolus, nucleus, ribosome, smooth ER, rough ER, peroxisome, cilia, flagella 7 Cell membrane Selectively permeable, fluid mosaic model, diffusion, concentration gradient, passive transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, osmosis, turgid, flaccid, facilitated diffusion, gated channel, active transport, ligand, proton pump, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis,
  7. 7. pinocytosis, cholesterol, amphipatic, integral protein, peripheral protein, receptor-mediated endocytosis 9 Cellular Alcoholic fermentation, oxidation, reduction, electron transport chain, respiration glycolysis, krebs cycle, mitochondria, matrix, inner membrane, ATP synthase, oxidative phosphorylation, Chemiosmosis, aerobic, anaerobic, lactic acid fermentation, facultative anaerobes, NADH, FADH2, proton pump, cytoplasm 10 Photosynthesis Autotroph, heterotroph, chlorophyll, stomata, Calvin cycle, NADPH, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, photon, carbon fixation, photophosphorylation, C3 plant, C4 plant, CAM plant, photosystems I and II, electron transport chain, ATP, chloroplast, stroma, thylakoid, light, cell wall, eukaryote, central vacuole 12 Cell cycle Interphase, mitosis, G1, S1, G2, G0, prophase, prometaphase, anaphase, telophase, metaphase, kinetochore, sister chromatid, centromere, somatic cell, gamete, tumor, cytokinesis, cleavage furrow, cell plate, binary fission, spindle fibers, metaphase plate, daughter chromosome, cyclin, metastasis 13 Reproduction Gene, locus, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, somatic cell, karyotype, autosome, meiosis I, meiosis II, crossing over, homologous chromosomes, tetrad, chiasmata, synapsis, zygote, gamete, fertilization, sex chromosome, autosome, somatic cell 14 Genetics Trait, allele, hybridization, true-breeding, Mendel, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype, incomplete dominance, complete dominance, codominance, pleiotropy, epistasis, pedigree, carrier, recessive allele, dominant allele, law of segregation, law of independent assortment, punnett square, genotype, phenotype 15 Inheritance Wild type, mutant phenotype, linked gene, sex-linked gene, genetic recombination, parental types, recombinants, genetic map, linkage map, Barr body, nondisjunction, trisomic, aneulploidy, duplication, inversion, translocation, polyploidy 16 Molecular Transformation, bacteriophage, double helix, semiconservative model, genetics replication fork, DNA polymerase, leading strand, lagging strand, DNA ligase, primer, primase, helicase, nuclease, telomere, telomerase, okazaki fragment, nucleotide, DNA, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, Chargaff’s rule, Watson, Crick, Franklin 17 Central dogma Auxotroph, one-gene-one-protein, transcription, translocation, mRNA, DNA, template, codon, anticodon, tRNA, rRNA, ribosome, amino acid, promoter, TATA box, transcription factors, spliceosome, intron, exon, RNA splicing, terminator, elongation, substitution, mutagen, frameshift mutation, insertion, deletion, nonsense mutation 19 Microbes Virus, bacteria, bacteriophage, host, capsid, lytic cycle, virulent virus, lysogenic cycle, prophage, retrovirus, reverse transcriptase, provirus, nucleoid region, plasmid, transformation, transduction, transposon, insertion sequences, operon, regulatory protein, inducer, operator, conjugation 20 Biotechnology Recombinant DNA, genetic engineering, gene cloning, restriction
  8. 8. enzyme, restriction site, cloning vector, restriction fragment, denaturation, expression vector, DNA ligase, PCR, gel electrophoresis, DNA library, human genome project, RFLP, transgenic organism, STR, plasmid 22 Darwin Evolution, natural selection, taxonomy, paleontology, uniformitarianism, catastrophism, artificial selection, vestigial organs, homology, homologous structures, ontogeny, phylogeny, Lamarck, descent with modification, biogeography, fossil, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, molecular biology 23 Evolution Population genetics, population, species, gene pool, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, bottleneck effect, founder effect, genetic drift, microevolution, relative fitness, heterozygote advantage, polymorphism, stabilizing selection, directional selection, diversifying/ disruptive selection, nonrandom mating 24 Species Macroevolution, anagenesis, cladogenesis, speciation, allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation, hybrid zone, allometric growth, paedomorphosis, habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, gametic isolation, mechanical isolation, allopolyploidy 26 Phylogeny Systematics, geological time scale, radiometric dating, pangea, adaptive zone, phylogenetic tree, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, homology, clade 27 Prokaryote Archaea, bacteria, gram positive, gram negative, binary fission, peptidoglycan, transformation, transduction, conjugation, nucleoid region, nitrogen fixation, photoautotroph, chemoautotroph, photoheterotroph, chemoheterotroph, cyanobacteria, methanogen, halophile, thermophile 29 Plants: Part I Stomata, division, antheridium’s, archegonium, sporangium, angiosperm, vascular tissue, sporophyte, gymnosperm, megaspore, microspore, sporopollenin, lignin, alternation of generations, bryophyte, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, xylem, phloem, seedless, horsetails, lycophyta, ferns, eukaryote 30 Plants: Part II Gametophyte, sporophyte, seed, chloroplast, central vacuole, vascular tissue, ovule, angiosperm, gymnosperm, conifer, flower, stamen, carpel, anther, stigma, style, ovary, fruit, pollen, pollination, double fertilization, cotyledon, endosperm, animals, coevolution, eukaryote, cell wall 32 Animal evolution Ingestion, blastula, gastrulation, cleavage furrow, larva, metamorphosis, endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, flagellated protozoan, eukaryote, coelomate, pseudocoelomate, body cavity, acoelomate, cephalization, protostome, deuterostome, blastopore, heterotroph 33 Invertebrates Protozoan, porifera, osculum, amoebocyte, choanocyte, radiate, polyp, medusa, cnidaria, cnidocyte, nematocyst, ctenophore, comb jelly, jellyfish, sponge, acoelomate, platyhelminthes, flatworm, pseudocoelomate, complete digestive tract, rotifera, nematode,
  9. 9. roundworm, coelomate, protostome, nematode, mollusca, gastropod, cephalopod, annelida, arthropod, exoskeleton, chitin, open circulatory system, echinodermata, water vascular system, deuterostome 34 Vertebrates Chordate, notochord, pharyngeal gill slits, nerve cord, postanal tail, urochordate, cephalochordate, agnate, amniotic egg, amniote, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibian, reptilian, endotherm, aves, mammalian, ectotherm 35 Plant structure & Shoot, root hairs, axilar bud, apical dominance, protoplast, annuals, growth perennials, apical meristem, lateral meristem, root cap, pith, cortex, xylem, phloem, monocot, dicot, taproot, root system, nodes, secondary growth, primary growth, dermal tissue, petiole, blade, leaf, parenchyma cell, tracheid, sclerenchyma cell, ground tissue, zone of elongation, zone of cell division, zone of maturation, vascular tissue, stomata, guard cells, transpiration 36 Plant transport Transport protein, Chemiosmosis, cotransport, water potential, turgor pressure, transpiration, adhesion, cohesion, aquaporins, tonoplast, symplast, apoplast, xylem, phloem, bulk flow, root pressure, circadian rhythms, sugar source, sugar sink, sap 38 plant Alternation of generations, gametophyte, sporophyte, sepal, petal, reproduction stamen, carpel, flower, ovule, endosperm, monoecious, diecious, self- pollination, pollination, double fertilization, seed coat, imbibition, vegetative reproduction, fragmentation, morphogenesis, radical, seed 39 Plant control Hormones, phototropism, thigmotropism, gravitropism, senescence, gibberellin, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, photoperiodism, long-day plant, short-day plant, phytochrome, heat-shock protein, tropism, circadian rhythm 42 Gas exchange Closed circulatory system, open circulatory system, pulse, heart rate, cardiac cycle, stroke volume, blood pressure, artery, vein, capillary, hemolymph, SA node, lymphatic system, plasma, LDL, HDL, heart attack, gas exchange, hemocyanin, myoglobin, tracheal system, AV node, blood pressure, red blood cell, trachea, alveoli, erythrocyte, platelet, blood, leukocyte, gill, respiration, countercurrent exchange, lungs, diaphragm, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, hemoglobin, cellular respiration, mitochondria 43 Immune system Phagocytosis, lysozyme, neutrophil, white blood cell, monocyte, macrophage, histamine, mast cell, prostaglandins, interferon, antigen, antibody, plasma cell, MHC, cytokines, agglutination, vaccination, AIDS, fever, inflammatory response, natural killer cell, B cell, T cell, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity, perforin, immunization, antibiotic, HIV, autoimmune disease 44 Homeostasis Thermoregulation, osmoregulation, conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation, vasodilation, vasoconstriction, acclimatization, brown fat, excretory system, urea, ammonia, uric acid, filtration, reabsorption, secretion, nephron, kidney, ureter, urethra, urinary bladder, protonephridia, metanephridia, malphigian tubules, bowman’s capsule, glomerulus, ADH
  10. 10. 45 Endocrine system Hormone, endocrine gland, growth factors, tropic hormone, endorphin, target cell, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, adrenal glands, gonads, pineal gland, thymus, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, releasing gland, prolactin, growth hormone, ACTH, melatonin, PTH, glucagons, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrogens, estrogen, testosterone 46 Animal Gamete, zygote, fission, budding, fragmentation, hermaphroditism, reproduction sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis, fertilization, sperm, egg, external fertilization, internal fertilization, pheromones, gonads, testes, ovaries, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, menstruation, estrous, menopause, embryo 47 Animal Zygote, cleavage, blastomere, endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm, development gastrulation, blastopore, notochord, organogenesis 48 Nervous system Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, neuron, axon, dendrite, nerve, effector cell, synapse, interneuron, motor neuron, sensory neuron, reflex arc, membrane potential, action potential, depolarization, neurotransmitter, cerebrospinal fluid, limbic system, AP Biology Laboratory Objectives The following sets of instructional objectives for nine laboratories have been published by the AP Committee for Biology so that there will be some degree of consistency throughout the country and provide some standards which can be tested on the AP exam in May. We will do many labs this year, but you will be held responsible for only these twelve on the AP exam. At least one of the four essay questions on the exam will cover one of these labs. The learning objectives for each lab come from the College Board’s AP Course Description booklet. You will be provided with a paper copy of each lab from the AP lab manual which you will be allowed to write on and keep after it has been graded. Supplemental lab CD’s are available for student use for either lab makeup or for reinforcement. Enzyme Catalysis Students should be able to: • Graph data from an enzyme experiment • Determine the rates for enzymatically catalyzed reactions • Discuss a method for determining enzyme action • Discuss the relationship between dependent and independent variables • Discuss the effect of initial reaction rates produced by changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration • Design an experiment to measure the effect on enzyme activity produced by changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration Diffusion and Osmosis • Students should be able to: • Describe the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis • Describe how solute size and molar concentration affect the process of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane • Design an experiment to demonstrate and measure water potential • Relate osmotic pressure to solute concentration and water potential • Describe how pressure affects the water potential of a solution • Describes the effects of water gain or loss in animal and plant cells
  11. 11. • Calculate the water potential of living plant cells from experimental data Cell Respiration Students should be able to: • Discuss the gas laws as they apply to the function of a respirometer • Interpret data related to the effects of temperature on cell respiration • Interpret data related to the effects of germination or nongermination on cell respiration • Explain or determine the significance of a control • Calculate the rate of cell respiration by utilizing graphed data • Design an experiment to use a respirometer to measure cellular respiration Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis: Students should be able to: • Explain the principles of chromatography • Calculate Rf values • Design an experiment in which chromatography is used as a separation technique • Describe a technique for determining photosynthetic rates • Describe the relationship between dependent and independent variables • Describe how light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature can affect photosynthesis • Design an experiment to measure how light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature can affect photosynthetic rates Mitosis Students should be able to: • Compare the events of mitosis in plant cells with those of animal cells • Demonstrate a procedure to stain tissue for the identification of cells in the various stages of mitosis • Calculate the relative duration of the phases of mitosis Meiosis Students should be able to: • Manipulate chromosome models to demonstrate the events of meiosis I and II • Calculate the map distance between a gene for ascospore color and the centromere of the same chromosome • Explain how meiosis and crossing-over result in the different arrangements of ascospores within an asci • Describe the role of meiosis and mitosis in the formation of ascospores within the asci of Sordaria fimicola • Use chromosome models to demonstrate the role of segregation and independent assortment in the process of meiosis • Discuss how crossing-over can introduce additional genetic variability into the products of meiosis Genetics of Drosphila
  12. 12. Students should be able to: • Conduct a genetic experiment for a number of generations and observe some trait • Compare predicted traits with actual results • Explain the importance of chi-square analysis • Describe a genetic cross in an experiment to illustrate independent assortment and sex-linkage • Discuss the life cycle of the fruit fly and recognize the sex and types of classic mutations Molecular Biology Students should be able to: • Discuss the principles of bacterial transformation • Describe how to prepare competent E.coli cells • Discuss the mechanisms of gene transfer using plasmid vectors • Discuss the transfer of the antibiotic gene “Amp” and explain how to positively select for transformed cells that are Amp+ • Discuss the mechanisms of action for restriction endonucleases • Discuss how a plasmid can be engineered to include a piece of foreign DNA that confers the lac+ phenotype to transformed cells Population Genetics and Evolution Students should be able to: • Calculate allele frequencies using the Hardy-Weinberg theorem • Discuss the effect of natural selection on allelic frequencies • Explain and predict the effect on allelic frequencies of selection for the homozygous dominant • Explain and predict the effect on allelic frequencies of selection for homozygous recessive • Discuss the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequencies, as measured as deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equation of genetic equilibrium Transpiration Students should be able to: • Describe how differences in water potential affect the transfer or water from roots to stems to leaves • Relate transpiration to the overall process of water transport in plants • Discuss the importance of the properties of water, including hydrogen bonding, adhesion and cohesion to the transport of water in plants • Quantitatively demonstrate the effects of different environmental conditions on the rate of transpiration in plants • Identify the vascular tissues of the plant stem and describe their functions Physiology of the Circulatory system Students should be able to: • Measure pulse rate • Measure blood pressure • Describe the relationship between changes in heart rate and blood pressure relative to changes in body position • Describe the relationship between changes in heart rate and exercise
  13. 13. • Determine the “fitness index” for an adult • Perform statistical analysis on class data • Define Q-10 • Determine the Q-10 of heart rate in a living organism Animal Behavior Students should be able to: • Describe the relationship between dependent and independent variables • Discuss the value of comparing experimental results with control results • Graph and interpret histogram data • Measure volume, distance and temperature using metric scales • Design and conduct an experiment to measure the effect of environmental variables on habitat selection Dissolved Oxygen and Primary Productivity Students should be able to: • Describe the physiological importance of carbon and oxygen in an ecosystem • Understand the physical and biological factors that affect the solubility of dissolved gases in aquatic ecosystem • Describe a technique for measuring dissolved oxygen • Define primary productivity • Describe the relationship between dissolved oxygen and the processes of photosynthesis and respiration as they affect primary productivity in an ecosystem WRITE UP INSTRUCTIONS LAB REPORTS: Our AP Biology lab activities are designed to provide a wide variety of experiences. In college, lab report requirements will vary greatly. Some are quite rigorous and require the addition of pertinent scientific literature in the introductions. Since we are greatly limited by time in this course, our write- ups will be brief and somewhat less rigorous than ones that you may have to perform in college. Written lab reports are not required for the AP labs as they are quite lengthy. Written lab reports will be required for a few of our “supplemental” labs that we will be performing throughout the course of the school year. Use the suggested format found on LabQuest website for your lab write-ups MAGAZINE ARTICLE SUMMARIES: Please organize your write-ups using the following sections and number them accordingly on your own paper. I. Bibliographical information: Author, Title, Publication date, Article number, etc. II. Introduction: Define or describe the major terms in the title and explain basically why the subject is important for our study.
  14. 14. III. Content: What was the article about? What were the main concepts and ideas that were discussed? What was the question the author was investigating? What methods did he/she use? What evidence was uncovered to support a new idea? Were any old ideas overturned? This part should be the main body of your paper. IV. Summary and Evaluation: Restate the main areas of importance in the magazine article and discuss the quality of it from your perspective as a student of biology. Did you find it interesting? Useful? Readable? Boring? Would you recommend it to other members of your class? Please explain the answers that you give for these questions. Do not leave out this important section! When you turn in your write-up, please attach your copy of the article to your paper with a paper clip. ESSAY QUESTIONS: A-T-P (Attack the Prompt) During the AP Biology test, you are NOT required to produce a thesis statement. You simply have to answer what you are asked. The AP readers are looking for themes, key concepts, vocabulary and logic. Essays are NOT an option. They are 40% of your total score. If you have trouble answering a multiple part essay question, then try this new technique…Attack the Prompt! 1. Read the essay question. Underline all of the “to do” and action words (verbs). These action words tell you what’s required. 2. Set up a sort of T-table: To do words/Task 3. Target possible answers and briefly list the info in the t-table. Include key vocab terms! 4. Now, you have everything addressed. Pick the order or your response. Basically outline how you are going to write out your essay. 5. Write out your essay…be sure to use all of your key terms 6. Go back and make sure you addressed all key action words in your final response. THAT’S IT! Example: Answer the following questions: a. Propose a hypothesis regarding the effects of light on the cycle of activity of organisms. b. Describe a controlled experiment that could be performed to test this hypothesis, and the results you would expect. ACTION Task WORDS Propose If sunlight is completely removed from an ecosystem, the overall food chain will be disrupted because sunlight is the original source of energy for life on Earth. Describe Need: variables, methods, proposed results, graph, include the terms consumer, producer, photosynthesis, energy pyramid, 10% energy passed on, balance of ecosystem dependent upon decomposer and producers, cellular respiration, etc.
  15. 15. Now… you can write out the answer.