On Feb. 28, 1953, Francis Crick walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge, England, and, as James Watson later recalled, announced that &quot;we had found the secret of life.&quot; Actually, they had. That morning, Watson and Crick had figured out the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. And that structure — a &quot;double helix&quot; that can &quot;unzip&quot; to make copies of itself — confirmed suspicions that DNA carries life's hereditary information. Without Rosalind Franklin, a crystallographer who has been called the Dark Lady of DNA, they probably would never have succeeded in their discovery. They got the Nobel Prize, and the woman got the dirty dishes. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25 , 1922 ) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa , and currently teaching at Stanford University . One of the most important geneticists of the century, he has written, among others, Genes, Peoples, and Languages ( 2000 ) and The History and Geography of Human Genes ( 1994 with Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza).
--Could be important for inheritances. Story of “Anastasia.” –Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings controversy. –You can find a rather close male cousin with Ysearch. Important for adopted persons who don’t know their biological father’s surname. –You might find something you don’t want to find: up to 10% of babies in hospital delivery wards are “non paternity events.” –Especially useful for Native American and African American genealogy…why. –Very much of interest to Americans who are all descended from emigrants and at the same time not very informed about their forebears. Most do not know beyond grandparents.
You see that you can only test the so-called “outside” lines – the direct male line (blue) and the direct female line (red). You cannot obtain genetic information about any of the family members in black. Each generation you go back, the number of your ancestors doubles, so that for a timeframe of 1500 CE (the beginning of European immigration to Americas), a person alive today would have, in theory, over 34,000,000 lines. (In practice, populations go through bottlenecks and do not marry randomly, so the number is considerably lower.) DNA tests cannot measure &quot;crossover&quot; patterns from the male to the female line, only the &quot;outside&quot; male-male and female-female descents. In rare cases, your outside lines may not be the dominant ones in your genetic makeup. For instance, a British schoolteacher was found to have a distant sub-Saharan male progenitor, believed to have originated with an African slave in Roman Britain. And about 30 percent of American blacks have a Y chromosome that originated in Europe and is Caucasian.
Y Chromosome Consortium
Another important concept is haplotype, or haplogroup. J can stand for either matrilineal J or male (Y-chromosome) J. Another way of looking at haplogroups and haplotypes is haplogroup is your genus and haplotype is your species – a set and a sub-set. Note that a haplotype is determined on different bases. Some haplotypes are defined by as few as six markers, some by twelve (the standard for DNA labs). A twenty-four marker haplotype is often called an extended haplotype.
Notice this is what should be called a “minimal” haplotype, consisting of only 6 markers. What FTDNA has to say about it (also called Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype, though recent research shows it came from the East, even though the archetypal matching location today is Connaught in Ireland): The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common Y-DNA signature of Europe’s most common Haplogroup, R1b. Simply put your ancestors have experienced a dramatic population explosion over the past 10,000 years, probably since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM-that’s Anthropology-speak for the last Ice Age) that covered most of Europe beginning 20,000 years ago and lasting for 10,000 long cold winters. R1b, and its most common Haplotype (yours), exists in high or very high frequencies in all of Western Europe from Spain in the south to the British Isles and western Scandinavia in the north. It appears that approximately 2.5% in Western European males share this most common genetic 12 marker signature and because of its very high frequency we always suggest that for genealogy purposes people in this group should only use our 25 or 37 marker test for their genealogy. Anthropologists have been describing for many years that only a select % of all the males in past societies did the vast majority of fathering, while other males lost the opportunity to pass on their Y-Chromosomal genes. On a lighter note it’s clear that R1b’s Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype has contributed much more then it’s ‘fair share’ in populating Western Europe.
Genetic Genealogy, History and Prehistory, and DNA Ancestry Tracing “DNA and Your Health” Seminar Presented by Donald N. Yates, Ph.D.
A funny thing happened to me on the way to the synagogue Rabbi Yitzak Levy Rabbi Michael Lerner
Michael Hammer Family Tree DNA, Houston University of Arizona
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) the repeat region is variable between samples while the flanking regions where PCR primers bind are constant 7 repeats 8 repeats Homozygote = both alleles are the same length Heterozygote = alleles differ and can be resolved from one another AATG
ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer capillary Syringe with polymer solution Autosampler tray Outlet buffer Injection electrode Inlet buffer
Branches and Twigs Haplogroups are the descents or mega-families that characterized early human migrations. They are normally associated with geographical regions. Examples: R1b (Western Atlantic European), I (northern Europe), J (Jewish, Middle Eastern). Haplotype One person's set of values for the markers that have been tested. Two individuals that match on all markers but one, have two distinct haplotypes. (One-step mutation)
Atlantic Modal Haplotype DYS388 12 DYS390 24 DYS391 11 DYS392 13 DYS393 13 DYS394 14 (also known as DYS19) If you have one mutation in either direction, then you are AMH 1.15+. The AMH 1.15 haplotype is also referred to as the Atlantic Modal Cluster or AMC. Generally 1.15+ puts you in haplogroup 1 (H1), but not always.