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  • No known singular cause for AD Age and family history are reasonably certain though Age is primary risk factor Family history: inherited genetics play primary role in Early Onset type (30-60 yr old), though genetics could regulate Late Onset as well Main thing to remember is that research is ongoing and new ideas are being examined NOTHING DEFINITIVE
  • No obvious patterns of inheritance in Late Onset Risk factor genes can interact with one another to raise chances ApoE gene is responsible for the production of certain types of proteins in the body ApoE is only one identified so far, though there are probably others
  • Folate also known as folic acid comes from fruits, vegetables, grain products such as cereals, etc. Necessary for cell production in fetus during pregnancy Increasing evidence suggests possible connections: family history of heart disease and stroke and presence of their associated risk factors also Information on this and previous slides compiled from ADEAR, Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral Center, division of the National Institute on Aging
  • AD often progresses more because people confuse initial symptoms with age-related memory loss Difficulty solving math problems, impaired reasoning skills, etc. Symptoms are disregarded as normal aging and go unreported
  • These symptoms are easily noticed by family members, etc. and almost without fail cause ppl to seek help
  • Advanced stages marked by complete dissolution of cognition, personality, and changes in behavior
  • As you can see in the normal MRI of an 81 woman on the left, there are deep sulci and the normal brain is heavily convoluted The MRI on the right is from an 81 year old woman with advanced AD: loss of volume, surface area
  • All of these phenomena result in various symptoms being exhibited If any symptoms are observed, they should be reported to Dr., since AD is a progressive disease, it can possibly be caught in early stages and diagnosed and a treatment regimen can be begun
  • Alzheimers

    1. 1. Alzheimer’s Disease Nick Beisel Rebecca Ingold Liz Conway
    2. 2. Alzheimer’s Introduction <ul><li>Form of Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Alois Alzheimer: discovered plaques and tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: _______ and Late Onset </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing Research </li></ul><ul><li>No Cure </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Care </li></ul>
    3. 3. Risk Factors <ul><li>Age: numbers diagnosed ________ every five years after age 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Family History: Implications for Early Onset </li></ul>
    4. 4. Risk Factors: Ongoing Research <ul><li>Genetic Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_________________ (ApoE): protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ApoE carries __________ in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 15% have type that increases risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others still undiscovered </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Risk Factors: Speculation <ul><li>Diet: low _______ levels </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart Disease and Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous slides from ADEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Symptoms: Characteristics <ul><li>Precursor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild forgetfulness: “senior moment” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble remembering names, events, important dates, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________ difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bothersome but not alarming </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Symptoms: Characteristics <ul><li>Moderate Stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference with simple daily activities, e.g., brushing teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired ____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired speech, reading, writing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to recognize family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily noticed and reported </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Symptoms: Characteristics <ul><li>Advanced Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further deterioration of speech, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood Swings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wandering away from home </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Symptoms: Why? <ul><li>Normal MRI Alzheimer’s MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Images from </li></ul>
    10. 10. Symptoms: Why? <ul><li>Loss of brain volume </li></ul><ul><li>Atrophy of various lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry of ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Atrophy of _____________ and Amygdala </li></ul>
    11. 11. Treatment of Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Is no cure </li></ul><ul><li>May be possible to reverse or minimize symptoms </li></ul>
    12. 12. Types of Treatment <ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal </li></ul><ul><li>Herbal </li></ul><ul><li>_____ </li></ul><ul><li>At Home Techniques </li></ul>
    13. 13. Medications <ul><li>Numerous kinds of medications to relieve symptoms or control behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacrine, Donepezil, Galantamine, & Memantine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps with anxiety, sleep and behavior problems </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Hormonal <ul><li>HRT can ________ risk of AD </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of dementia too </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Herbs <ul><li>Ginko Biloba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May delay ___________ decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have preventive measures </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. New Diet Research <ul><ul><li>__________ plaque  build up causes oxidation and inflammation  kills brain cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets high in anti-oxidants slow oxidation and work to prevent inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curcumin (spice) may help prevent memory loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. At Home Techniques <ul><li>Make everything a ________ </li></ul><ul><li>Walking helps stimulate the brain to talk </li></ul><ul><li>Use reminders/ schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Recall happy memories (LTM not impaired) </li></ul>
    18. 18. AD by the numbers: <ul><li>There is an estimated 4.5 million Americans suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This number has more than doubled since _____ . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    19. 19. Alzheimer’s Association Poll <ul><li>1 in 10 Americans have a family member who suffers from Alzheimer’s Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>_____ Americans know someone with the disease. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    20. 20. Costs of Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>____ of all nursing home residents have Alzheimer’s Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Living in a nursing home can range from $42,000-$70,000 a year. </li></ul><ul><li>The average lifetime cost of care is $174,000. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    21. 21. Care Giving for someone with Alzheimer’s <ul><li>7 out of 10 Alzheimer’s patients live at home. </li></ul><ul><li>75% of their care is provided by family and ________ . </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining 25% is paid care which can typically cost around $19,000. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    22. 22. Care Giving <ul><li>Most caregivers are _______ . </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving for Alzheimer’s disease is physically and mentally demanding </li></ul><ul><li>These care givers can suffer from fatigue, frustration, grief, depression, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of stress make the care giver vulnerable to illness. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    23. 23. Care Giving <ul><li>In early stages the patient loses ability to do minimal tasks such as tying their shoes and selecting clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time the patient will gradually lose the ability to take care of oneself. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    24. 24. Nutrition <ul><li>___________ is also very important. A patient might forget how to prepare food or that they are hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>The caregiver should make sure the patient is receiving healthy meals. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Safety of the Patient <ul><li>Patient will gradually lose the ability to drive a car, cook, clean, shower, and ultimately take care of oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Insert _______ devices such as bed rails and hand rails for the bathrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust electrical appliances </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    26. 26. Care for the Care Giver <ul><li>_______________ and professional counseling. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely demanding and frustrating. </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>