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Northwestern Local Schools
                               Science Course of Study
Advanced Placement Biology Syllabus
Text...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                      Science Course of Study
Essential Questions
    • Why is ...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                        Science Course of Study
   B. Cells

              1. P...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                      Science Course of Study
            1. EM spectrum. Role ...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                      Science Course of Study
            1. Meiosis and gamete...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                      Science Course of Study
            4. Speciation: Isolat...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                     Science Course of Study
   Vocabulary
   as noted in chapt...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                      Science Course of Study



                              ...
Northwestern Local Schools
                                       Science Course of Study
   •   explain how humans impact...
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Advanced Placement Biology

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Transcript of "Advanced Placement Biology"

  1. 1. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study Advanced Placement Biology Syllabus Texts: Biology 6th Edition. Solomon, Berg, Martin. With CD for home use with interactive tutorials, Lab Manual Cliffs: AP Biology 2nd Edition. Phillip Pack PhD. 5 Steps to a 5: AP Biology Author(s): Anestis, Mark and Freedson, Grace ISBN: 0071377182 C8—Evidence of Curricular Requirement: The course includes a laboratory component that fulfills all of the objectives of the recommended AP Biology labs as listed in the AP Biology Course Description. Students must spend a minimum of 25 percent of instructional time engaged in hands-on laboratory work First Nine Weeks Course Introduction: Characteristics of Life (1 week) Chapter 1: A View of Life C4—Evidence of The student will: • define biology and discuss its applications to human life and society Curricular Requirement: an • distinguish between living and nonliving things understanding of • summarize the importance of information transfer to living systems science as a • construct a hierarchy of biological classification process rather than • demonstrate the binomial system of nomenclature and classify an organism • explain why the theory of evolution is the unifying concept in biology • design an experiment to test a hypothesis, using the procedure and terminology of the scientific method Essential Questions • What makes a living thing “living”? • How is Biology studied? • How are living things organized? • How is information transmitted within and between organisms? Vocabulary biology, cell theory, biological growth, development, metabolism, homeostasis, cilia flagella, stimuli, asexual/ sexual reproduction, mutation, adaptations, genes, proteins, cell signaling, hormones, neurotransmitters, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, ecology, taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, natural selection, scientific method, theory I. Molecules and Cells C1—Evidence Chemistry of Life (2 weeks) of Curricular Chapters 2 & 3 Requirement: Molecules The student will: • name the principal chemical elements in living things and give functions of each • compare the physical properties (mass, charge) and the locations of electrons, protons, neutrons • compare the types of bonding and relate to structure • describe the biological role of macromolecules • describe the properties of water and why water is essential for life 7/26/2010 1
  2. 2. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study Essential Questions • Why is water so important? • What are living things composed of? • What is the function of enzymes? • What makes a molecule “organic”? Vocabulary organic, enzyme, atom, electron, configuration, covalent and ionic bonds, hydrogen bond, valence electrons, electronegativity, polar, nonpolar, cation, anion, oxidation, reduction hydrophilic, hydrophobic, pH, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleic acids, lipids, DNA, monosaccharides, ATP A. Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry 1. Review of atomic structure. Electron configurations and valence structure. Covalent and Ionic Bonding. Hydrogen bonds and Macromolecule structural integrity. Molecules. pH and physiological buffers. 2. Properties of water. Molar solutions. The role of Carbon. Functional groups 3. The Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids. Monomers of the Biopolymers. Condensation and Hydrolytic Reactions. 4. Biological Roles of the Macromolecules. Cells (3 weeks) Chapters 4, 5, 9; Lab #1 Diffusion and Osmosis, Lab #3 Mitosis and Meiosis The student will: • explain why the cell is considered the basic unit of life and discuss the cell theory • compare and contrast the characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • compare size relationships between different cells and structures • evaluate the importance of membranes to the cell, emphasizing their various functions • discuss how cells replicate and what happens when there are errors Essential Questions • What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? • What makes plant and animal cells? • Why are cells so small? • How do cells replicate? • What is unique about the nucleus? mitochondria? cell membrane? Vocabulary cell theory, organelles, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, all cell organelles (p. 81), cilia, flagella, amphipathic, fluid-mosaic model, selectively permeable membrane, diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active/ passive transport, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, plasmolysis, endocytosis, exocytosis 7/26/2010 2
  3. 3. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study B. Cells 1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Investigative techniques: centrifugation and microscopy. C6—Evidence of Curricular Requirement: the 2. Plant and Animal cells. Representative Organelles and Functions. The integration of the general topics of biology through Endomembrane System. The Energy Organelles: Mitochondria and the eight major themes as Chloroplasts. The Lysosome and Apoptosis: Controlled cell death. specified in the AP Biology The Cytoskeleton and Cellular motility. Molecular motors. Course Description; Science as Process; Evolution; Energy Transfer; 3. Plasma Membrane Structure and Functions. Lipid bilayers and Continuity and Change; Proteins. Role of Cholesterol. Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated and Relationship of Structure Active Transport via Protein Carriers, Membrane Pumps. Endocytosis to Function; and Exocytosis. Cell Mediated Transport. Cell Signaling: Cytokines, Regulation; cAMP, Steroids, and Nitric Oxide. Interdependence in 4. Cell Reproduction: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic. The Cell Cycle: Interphase and Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Regulation of the Cell Cycle: Cdk’s and MPF regulators. Cancer and the Cell cycle: Contact inhibition. Metastasis and Totipotent gene expression. Student Cancer Research PowerPoint Presentations. Energy Transfer Through Living Systems (3 weeks) Chapters 6, 7, 8; Lab #2 Enzyme Catalysts, Lab #5 Cell Respiration, Lab #4 Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis The student will: • explain the role of ATP in the cell • describe factors which affect enzyme reactions • summarize the reactions for acrobic and anaerobic respiration and photosynthesis Essential Questions • Why is energy essential to life? • What functions do enzymes serve? How do plants and animals obtain energy? • Where does photosynthesis occur? • Where does cellular respiration occur? Vocabulary as noted in chapters II. Energy Transformations A. Thermodynamics 1. Types of energy. Laws of Thermodynamics. Gibbs free energy. Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions. 2. Coupled reactions. NAD+ and FAD as hydrogen carriers. Reduction and Oxidation. ATP and energy transfer, Coupled reactions, Substrate level phosphorylation, chemiosmosis, H+ gradients. 3. Enzymes as catalysts. Activation energy. Factors which effect enzyme mediated reactions: Substrate / Enzyme concentration. pH and Temperature. Inhibitors and feedback regulation. B. Photosynthesis 7/26/2010 3
  4. 4. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study 1. EM spectrum. Role of isotopes O18 and C14 in research of photosynthetic reactions. 2. C3 Photosynthesis. The Light Reactions: a. Roles of chlorophylls and accessory pigments b. Photolysis and NADP as a hydrogen carrier. c. Chemiosmosis and ATP synthesis: Proton Motive Force and ATP synthase. Chemiosmosis across Thylakoid membranes. d. The Calvin Cycle and carbon fixation: Stroma reactions- Redox reactions with NADPH and Phosphorylation of organic acids. Glucose synthesis. C6—Evidence of Curricular e. C3 and C4 Photosynthesis comparisons. CAM plants and Requirement: the carbon fixation. integration of the general topics of biology through C. Cell Respiration: the eight major themes as specified in the AP Biology 1. Sites of cellular respiration: Cytoplasm and Mitochondria. Course Description; Science as Process; Evolution; 2. Glycolysis: Energetics and pyruvate synthesis. Role of NAD and key Energy Transfer; Continuity and Change; enzymes. Relationship of Structure to Function; 3. Acetyl CoA as an intermediate. (3) The Citric Acid Cycle: Redox Regulation; reactions and GTP synthesis. Interdependence in 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron Transport System and H+ gradients as energy source. Chemiosmosis and ATP synthesis: Proton Motive Force and ATP synthase. Aerobic respiration and the role of oxygen as final electron acceptor. 5. Anaerobic fermentation: Ethanol and Lactic acid. 6. Alternative oxidative pathways: Fatty acid and Amino acids as energy sources. Second Nine Weeks Heredity (6 weeks) Chapters 9-15, 16, 23; Lab #6 Molecular Biology, Lab #7 Genetics of Organisms The student will: • apply Mendel’s Laws to heredity • describe the structure and function of DNA and RNA • describe the structure and replication of viruses • discuss DNA technology and its implications Essential Questions • How are traits inherited? • Why do living things look different? • Where is genetic material located? • What is the current DNA technology being used? • How are viruses different from living things? Vocabulary as noted in chapters III. Genetics A. Classical Genetics 7/26/2010 4
  5. 5. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study 1. Meiosis and gamete synthesis. Abnormalities in meiotic processes: Monosomic and Trisomic karyotypes. 2. Fundamental genetics, Mendel's Laws. Monohybrid and Dihybrid crosses. Pedigree analysis. 3. Inheritance patterns: Autosomal and Sex-linked. Multiple Alleles, Polygenic, Lyonization and X Dosage Compensation, Epistasis, Pleiotropy, and Cytoplasmic hereditable factors. B. Molecular Genetics 1. DNA structure and function. Enzymes of replication. Origins of Replication. Replication-Anti parallel 3”-5’ problem, Okazaki fragments, DNA ligase. Telomeres and Aging: Hayflick Limits. 2. Chromosomal structure: DNA Packing and histones. 3. Protein synthesis. a. RNA polymerase. TATA boxes. mRNA transcription, mRNA splicing, exons and introns, tRNA function and anticodon-mRNA recognition, rRNA function, polypeptide synthesis, RNAi (interference RNA), medical applications of RNAi. 4. Gene expression, Operon Models and Regulatory Proteins. Changes in the genetic code: Point vs. Frame Shift Mutations. mtDNA. 5. Recombinant DNA technology. Plasmid vectors. PCR, polymorphisms, GenBlast and other data bases. Basic virology. DNA / PCR labs will be at Clemson University’s DNA Center as an all day activity. C6—Evidence of Evolution (3 weeks) Curricular Requirement: Chapters 17-20; Lab #8 Population Genetics and Evolution the integration of the general The student will: topics of biology • discuss the historical development of the theory of evolution through the eight major • summarize the evidence for evolution themes as • describe the mechanisms (e.g., natural selection) by which natural selection occurs specified in the AP Biology Course Essential Questions Description; Science as • What is evolution? Process; • What process drives evolution? C2—Evidence of Evolution; • How are living things related? Curricular Energy • Where did life begin? Requirement: Transfer; Heredity and Continuity and • What is natural selection? Evolution Change; • How do organisms evolve? Relationship of Structure to Vocabulary as noted in chapters IV. Evolution A. Natural selection 1. Populations and The Hardy-Weinberg Binomial. Allelic frequency changes as evidences of microevolution. 2. Modes of Selection. Selection pressures. C5—Evidence of Curricular Requirement: recognition of evolution as the foundation 3. Genetic Drift and Bottlenecks. of modern biological models and thought 7/26/2010 5
  6. 6. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study 4. Speciation: Isolating mechanisms, Allopatry, Sympatry, Adaptive radiation. Phylogeny and Cladistics: Evolutionary pathways. 5. Darwin vs. Punctuated equilibrium 6. Genome Sequencing and Evolutionary Relatedness. First Semester Exam Third Nine Weeks Systematics and the Six Kingdoms (2 weeks) Chapters 22, 23-28 The student will: • explain why scientific names and classification systems are used • list the three domains and six kingdoms of organisms, give rationale for and against this system of classification, and describe the distinguishing characteristics of each Essential Questions • How are living things organized? • What are the characteristics of organisms in each of the six kingdoms? • How are evolutionary relationships related to classification? Vocabulary as noted in chapters V. Fundamentals of Taxonomy and Zoology A. Overview of Taxonomy and Systematics: The Six Kingdoms. 1. Representative Animal Phyla Anatomy and Physiology (6 weeks) Chapters 37-50; Lab #10 Circulation, Lab #11 Animal Behavior, Fetal Pig Dissection (Fetal Pig Dissection Guide) The student will: • explain how each body system functions and how structure of the body relates to function • describe structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of animals Essential Questions • How is the animal body structured and how does structure relate to function? • What are the basic functions of the major systems of the body? • How does the body protect itself from diseases? • How does the body communicate and control its functions? 7/26/2010 6
  7. 7. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study Vocabulary as noted in chapters B. Anatomy and Physiology: Vertebrate emphasis Tissues / Organs/ Organ systems and homeostasis. Types: Epithelial. Connective. Muscle. Neural. 1. Muscles, Bones, Integument a. Muscle Tissue: Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal Contraction Profiles. Sliding filament mechanism of contraction. b. Overview of the role of the skeleton. Endoskeletons vs Exoskeletons Osteocytes vs. Osteoblasts. Vascular supply- Haversian canals c. The role of the skin in homeostasis. Cells of the integument. 2. Circulation and Immune functions a. Circulatory Systems Among Representative Phyla. Open vs. Closed circulation. b. Blood and ECF’s. Cells of the circulatory system. Leukocytes,Thrombocytes, and Erythrocytes. d. Cardiovascular pathways. Vessel structure and functions. Capillary exchange. e. The Heart: Anatomy and Function. The Cardiac Cycle. Blood pressure dynamics. Cardiac Output: Starling’s Law, Bainbridge Reflex, and Other Regulatory Mechanisms. f. The Immune System: Nonspecific Defenses. The role of the phagocytes. Macrophages. Specific Defenses: The Cytotoxic and Helper T Cells. Cell Mediated Immunity. The MHC Membrane Antigens. The Humoral Response: B Cell Differentiation Into Plasma Cells. Antibody Structure. Ig Groups. Allergies. Passive vs. Active Immunity. Vaccines. g. Homeostatic Mechanisms: Feedback Regulation, Endotherms and Poikilotherms, Thermal Homeostasis via Countercurrent Exchange 3. Respiratory and Excretory systems a. Respiratory Systems Among Representative Phyla. b. Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory Systems. c. Transport mechanisms across relevant membranes. The role of c450 and Facilitated Diffusion. Oxygen Loading Pressures of Distinct Hemoglobins: Fetal vs. Adult. The Bohr Shift and Oxygen Dissociation Curves. d. Excretory Systems among representative phyla. e. Anatomy and Physiology of the Excretory Systems. f. The Human Kidney: Nephron Anatomy and Function. Neural / Hormonal Regulation. 4. Endocrine Control Mechanisms a. Hormonal Control Among Selected Organisms b. Hormones: Water soluble and Steroids. Regulatory Mechanisms: The Plasma Membrane and Nucleus. c. The Human Endocrine System: Anatomy and key hormones: Mode of action and physiological effects. 5. Nervous System Control a. Nervous Systems Among Representative Phyla b. Cells of the nervous system: Neurons: Sensory / Interneurons / Motor. Glial cell Types: Schwann cells. Satellite cells. Microglial cells. Astroglial cells. c. The Synapse: Pre /Post Synaptic Functions. Neurotransmitters. Excitatory and Inhibitory d. Action Potentials: Resting. Thresholds. Depolarization. Hyperpolarization. Refractory Periods. e. The Human Nervous System CNS Anatomy : The Brain and Spinal Cord. Forebrain/Midbrain/Hindbrain functions PNS Divisions: SNS and ANS: Parasympat f. The Meninges and the Brain Blood Barrier. 7/26/2010 7
  8. 8. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study C6—Evidence of Fourth Nine Weeks Curricular Requirement: the integration of the Plants: Structure and Life Processes (3 weeks) general topics of Chapters 31-36; Lab #9 Transpiration biology through the eight major themes The student will: as specified in the • describe the different processes by which plant reproduction occurs AP Biology Course Description; Science as • discuss the structure and functions of various plant parts Process; Evolution; • describe the structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of plants Energy Transfer; Continuity and Essential Questions Change; Relationship of • How are plants different from animals? • What are the structures in plants that allow for growth, reproduction, and responses to the environment? • How are plant structures related to function? Vocabulary as noted in chapters VI. Fundamentals of Taxonomy and Botany A. Nonvascular plants 1. Anatomy and Physiology 2. Representative Division: Bryophyta. Hepatophyta. Anthoceraphyta 3. Life cycles and Alternation of Generations. B. Vascular plants 1. Anatomy and Physiology a. Plant Tissues and cellular functions / each. b. Nutrient and water translocation / transport. 2. Representative Divisions a. Pteridophyta: The ferns b. The Gymnosperms: Coniferophyta. Ginkophyta. c. Angiospermophyta: The Flowering plants. Class Dicotyledoneae: The Dicots. Class Monocotyledoneae. The Monocots 3. Life cycles and Reproduction. 4. Regulators and Hormones. 5. Tropisms and Photoperiods C6—Evidence of Curricular Requirement: the integration of the general topics of biology through the eight major themes as specified in the AP Biology C3—Evidence of Course Description; Science as Ecology (4 weeks) Curricular Process; Evolution; Chapters 51-55; Lab #12 Science Careers (after AP test) Requirement: Energy Transfer; Organisms and Continuity and Change; Populations Relationship of Structure The student will: to Function; • describe the factors that affect ecosystems Regulation; Interdependence in 7/26/2010 8
  9. 9. Northwestern Local Schools Science Course of Study • explain how humans impact the environment • discuss how growth can impact a population • predict how a population will be affected by changes that occur Essential Questions • How is an ecosystem affected by a variety of factors? Vocabulary as noted in chapters VII. Fundamentals of Ecology A. Ecosystems 1. Ecosystem types. Biotic and Abiotic factors. a. Energy flow: Food chains webs. Autotrophs and heterotrophs b. Species interactions: Bioproductivity C7—Evidence of 2. Populations: Growth characteristics. Carrying capacities, Limiting factors Curricular Requirement: 3. Geochemical cycles applications of biological knowledge and critical thinking to 4. The role of humans in altering the environment: The Good and The Bad. VIII. Exam Reviews Final Exam National AP Exam 7/26/2010 9

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