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 (2) Exam: 3 times Problem types: -Multiple choice 80 ...

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  • Figure 1.1a
  • Figure 1.1a
  • Figure 1.2
  • Figure 1.4
  • Figure 1.5a
  • Figure 1.6
  • Figure 1.7a
  • Figure 1.8

 (2) Exam: 3 times Problem types: -Multiple choice 80 ... (2) Exam: 3 times Problem types: -Multiple choice 80 ... Presentation Transcript

  • (2) Exam: 3 times  Problem types: -Multiple choice 80% + Short answer 20%  Posting of score & expected GPA: on the board at room SB148, New Science Building ( 과학원 ) (1) How to get lecture slides
    • www.ykjanglab.pe.kr/korean/ 자료실 / 강의자료
    • File name: Chapter00_lecture_Genetics_20070000
    Announcement (3) Assignment (homework):
    • Please read your textbook
    • Please submit your own handwritten summary (1 page per I hour lecture) before the lecture get started ( No acceptable for late submission)
    • Solve the problems at the end of each chapter being notified after finishing the every chapter. Some of them will be presented as problems in the exam.
  • (5) Participating in this Genetics Course
    • Thanks everyone for your interest on this class
    • As announced in the syllabus, one requirement for attending this class is your completion of General Biology (I and II)
    • Without the knowledge about Biology I & II, you may have difficulties in getting the standard score required for passing this course.
    • If you do not meet this requirement, please drop this Genetic Course ASAP. You may have chance next year.
    • Thank you again for your cooperation
    Announcement (continued) (4) Grading:  Ist exam (30%) + 2 nd exam (30%) + 3 rd exam (30%) + attendance & homework (10%)
  • Genetics: From Genes to Genomes Second Edition ● Hartwell ● Hood ● Goldberg ● Reynolds ● Silver ● Veres  TEXTBOOK Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required to reproduce or display The leading Author
  • Leland Hartwell , born 1939. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. S. cerevisiae S. pombe Arbacia (Sea urchin) 2001 Nobel Prize Laureates: cell cycle control and cancer biology Sir Paul Nurse , born 1949. Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, UK. Tim Hunt , born 1943. Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, UK.
  • Brief Contents in This Course
    • Introduction part : Genetics? (Ch. 1)
    • Part I : Basic principles of heredity : How traits are transmitted (Ch. 2-5)
    • Part II : What genes are and what they do (Ch.7)
    • Part III : What are genomes & how to dissect (Ch.9-11)
    • Part IV : How genes travel in cells (Ch. 12 & 13)
  • Chapter 2 Mendel’s Breakthrough: Everything about Hheredity Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Fig. 2.2  Part I : Basic principles: How traits are transmitted
  • Chapter 3 Extensions or Exceptions to Mendel : Complexities in Genotype to phenotype Fig. 3.19 Siamese cats: melanin production depending on body temperature  Part I : Basic principles: How traits are transmitted
  • Chapter 4 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: The Physical Basis of Mendelian Iinheritance Fig. 4.22 Red-green colorblindness: X-linked recessive trait in human  Part I : Basic principles: How traits are transmitted
  • Chapter 5 Linkage, recombination, and the mapping of genes on chromosomes A genetic map pf part of the human X chromosome Fig. 5.28  Part I : Basic principles: How traits are transmitted
  • Chapter 7 Anatomy and function of a Gene: Dissection via Mutation Sickle-cell anemia with mutated hemoglobin gene Fig. 7.22 a  Part II : What genes are and what they do
  • Chapter 9 Deconstructing the Genome: Identifying & Analyzing DNA at High Resolution Automated DNA Fig. 9.18 b  Part III : What are genomes & how to dissect
  • Chapter 10 Reconstructing the Genome via Genetic and Molecular Analysis Human Genome Project Fig. 10.1  Part III : What are genomes & how to dissect
  • Chapter 11 The Direct detection of Genotype Distinguishes Individual Genomes: You May Have Several Applications in Human Life DNA fingerprint: can be used for identification of criminal suspect Fig. 11.15  Part III : What are genomes & how to dissect
  • Chapter 12 The Eukaryotic Chromosome: The Basis of Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression as An Organelle for Packaging and Managing DNA  Part IV : How genes travel in cells
  • Chapter 13 Chromosomal Rearrangements and Changes in Chromosome Number Reshape Eukaryotic Genome Fig. 13.20 Barbara McClintock: Discoverer of transposable elements in corn  Part IV : How genes travel in cells
  • Last 동글이 (male hedgehog)
  • 슬이 (female)
  • What is Genetics: The Study of Biological Information Chapter 1 The Science of heredity( 형질유전 ): explains the biological structures and mechanisms about what is inherited and how
  • Chapter Outline
    • DNA molecules encode the biological information fundamental to all life forms (organisms)
    • Proteins are the primary unit of biological function
    • Regulatory networks (DNA-protein, protein-protein) specify the behavior of genes
    • All living things are closely related (evolutionarily conserved)
    • Genomes are modular, allowing rapid evolution
    • Genetic techniques allow us to dissect biological complexity
  • Information in DNA molecules generates diversity in species: The key features are summarized
    • Four bases – G (guanine), A (adenine), T (thymine), and C (cytosine) are the nucleotide building block of DNA
    • DNA is a double stranded helix composed of A-T and G-C complementary bases
    • Order of nucleotide sequences determine which proteins are synthesized, as well as when and where the synthesis occurs.
    Fig. 1.1a
  • Information in DNA generates diversity (continued)
    • All organisms use the same basic genetic language (genetic code)
    • The differences:
    •  are contents, amount of information, and time, places of gene expression
    Fig. 1.1a
  • Genes are sequences of DNA that encode proteins
    • Antiparallel structure of DNA strands means that the two complementary strands are oriented in opposite direction
    Fig. 1.2 Exon Intron Most of eukaryotic genes are defined as specific combinations of exons
  • DNA resides in within cells packaged as units called chromosomes
    • The entire collection of chromosomes in each cell of an organism is called a genome
    • Humans have 46 chromosomes
    • The human genome has about 3 x 10 9 (3 billion) base pairs and 40,000 – 60,000 genes
    Fig. 1.4
  • Biological function emerges primarily from proteins: enable to reproduce, move and adapt to environments Figure 1.5a
  • What is protein’s properties?
    • Proteins are polymers of amino acids
    • Proteins have three dimensional structures
    • Information in DNA dictates the sequence of its amino acids
    • There are 20 different amino acids
    • The order of amino acids determines the type of protein and its structure
  • Proteins interact with DNA and proteins
    • Biological systems function as complex interactive networks of proteins and DNA that interact with one another
    • You have to analyze the complex network to understand how learning and memory can be
    Fig. 1.6  Human brain: 10 11 neurons with 10 18 synapses
  • Evidence (1) for the common origin of all living things
    • DNA sequences use the same arbitrary genetic code: various triplet groupings of 4 letters (A, T, G, C) encode the 20 letters of amino-acid alphabet
    • RNA is composed of four bases: guanine (g), adenine (a), cytosine (c), and uracil (u)
    Fig. 1.7b  Central dogma: DNA  RNA  Protein
    • Comparisons of many genes with same functions: show striking similarity among all organisms
    • Human cell-cycle genes replace the normal function of yeast homologs (related genes)
    Fig. 1.8 Evidence (2) for the common origin of all living things Comparisons of the cytochrome C protein in six species: electron donors/acceptors during cellular respiration
  • Genetic study using model organisms is important for the study of human genes
    • Studies of genetics in model organisms help us understand how genes work in humans
    • Some model organisms include bacteria, yeast , roundworms , fruitflies , and mice.
    • Model organisms may have simpler biological networks and can be manipulated experimentally.
  • Genetic techniques permit the dissection of complexity
    • Dissection of genomes gene-by-gene unravels the complexity of biological systems ( Genome sequencing projects )
    • The challenge for modern biology: shift from the analysis of single units to the analysis of complex system
    •  By now “Systems Biology” is emerging as one of main biology fields
    • Genetics provides unique tools to solve this challenge
    Fig.1.12: Five model organisms: their genomes are sequenced
  • Genetics is a leading scientific field for Predictive and Preventative Medicine
    • Discovery of genes with variations that cause or predispose disease will continue at a rapid pace.
      • Gene therapy
      • Diagnostics
      • Therapeutic drugs to block or reverse effects of mutant genes (Gleevec)
      • Detection of disease and treatment before onset may increase life span significantly